Ct of Author Contributions Conceived and designed the experiments: VEC. Performed

Ct of Author Contributions Conceived and designed the experiments: VEC. Performed the experiments: RJH. Analyzed the data: RJH VEC. Contributed reagents/ materials/analysis tools: VEC. Wrote the paper: RJH VEC. References 1. Troell M, Anderson RJ, Bolton JJ, Maneveldt G, Halling C, et al. Abalone farming in South 4 IBP web Africa: An overview with perspectives on kelp resources, abalone feed, potential for on-farm seaweed production and socioeconomic importance. Aquaculture 257: 266281. 2. Gomez-gil B, Roque A, Turnbull JF The use and selection of probiotic bacteria for use in the culture of larval aquatic organisms. Aquaculture 191: 259270. 3. Macey BM, Coyne VE Improved growth rate and disease resistance in farmed Haliotis midae through probiotic treatment. Aquaculture 245: 249261. 4. Macey BM, Coyne VE Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of the farmed South African abalone Haliotis midae by the probionts Vibrio midae SY9, Cryptococcus sp. SS1, and Debaryomyces hansenii AY1. Marine Biotechnology 8: 246259. 5. Verschuere L, Rombaut G, Sorgeloos P, Verstraete W Probiotic bacteria as biological control agents in aquaculture. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 64: 655671. 6. Balcazar JL, Blas I de, Ruiz-Zarzuela I, Cunningham D, Vendrell D, et al. The role of probiotics in aquaculture. Veterinary Microbiology 114: 173 186. 7. ten Doeschate KI, Coyne VE Improved growth rate in farmed Haliotis midae through probiotic treatment. Aquaculture 284: 174179. 8. Iehata S, Inagaki T, Okunishi S, Nakano M, Tanaka R, et al. Improved gut environment of abalone Haliotis gigantea through Pediococcus sp. Ab1 treatment. Aquaculture 305: 5965. 9. Sawabe T, Oda Y, Shiomi Y, Ezura Y Alginate 1317923 degradation by bacteria isolated from the gut of sea urchins and abalones. Microbial Ecology 30: 193 202. 10. Tanaka R, Sugimura I, Sawabe T, Yoshimizu M, Ezura Y Gut microflora of abalone Haliotis discus hannai in culture changes coincident with a change in diet. Fisheries Science 69: 951958. 11. Tanaka R, Ootsubo M, Sawabe T, Ezura Y, Tajima K Biodiversity and in situ abundance of gut microflora of abalone determined by culture-independent techniques. Aquaculture 241: 453463. 12. Moter A, Gobel UB Fluorescence in situ hybridization for direct visualization of microorganisms. Journal of Microbiological Methods 41: 85 112. 13. Asfie M, Yoshijima T, Sugita H Characterization of the goldfish fecal microflora by the fluorescent in situ hybridization method. Fisheries Science 69: 2126. 14. Hj L, Bourne DG, Hall MR Localization, abundance and community structure of bacteria associated with Artemia: Effects of nauplii enrichment and antimicrobial treatment. Aquaculture 293: 278285. 15. Arg8-vasopressin site Holben W, Williams P, Saarinen M, Sarkilahti L, Apajalahti J Phylogenetic analysis of intestinal microflora indicates a novel Mycoplasma phylotype in farmed and wild salmon. Microbial Ecology 44: 175185. 16. Antonio DB, Andree KB, Moore JD, Friedman CS, Hedrick RP Detection of Rickettsiales-like prokaryotes by in situ hybridization in black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, with withering syndrome. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 75: 180182. 17. Rengpipat S, Wongtangprasert N, Palaga T The use of green fluorescent protein as a marker for monitoring a probiotic Bacillus S11 in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture Nutrition 15: 297305. 18. Erasmus JH, Cook PA, Coyne VE The role of bacteria in the digestion of seaweed by the abalone Haliotis midae. Aquaculture 155: 377386. 19. Eg.Ct of Author Contributions Conceived and designed the experiments: VEC. Performed the experiments: RJH. Analyzed the data: RJH VEC. Contributed reagents/ materials/analysis tools: VEC. Wrote the paper: RJH VEC. References 1. Troell M, Anderson RJ, Bolton JJ, Maneveldt G, Halling C, et al. Abalone farming in South Africa: An overview with perspectives on kelp resources, abalone feed, potential for on-farm seaweed production and socioeconomic importance. Aquaculture 257: 266281. 2. Gomez-gil B, Roque A, Turnbull JF The use and selection of probiotic bacteria for use in the culture of larval aquatic organisms. Aquaculture 191: 259270. 3. Macey BM, Coyne VE Improved growth rate and disease resistance in farmed Haliotis midae through probiotic treatment. Aquaculture 245: 249261. 4. Macey BM, Coyne VE Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of the farmed South African abalone Haliotis midae by the probionts Vibrio midae SY9, Cryptococcus sp. SS1, and Debaryomyces hansenii AY1. Marine Biotechnology 8: 246259. 5. Verschuere L, Rombaut G, Sorgeloos P, Verstraete W Probiotic bacteria as biological control agents in aquaculture. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 64: 655671. 6. Balcazar JL, Blas I de, Ruiz-Zarzuela I, Cunningham D, Vendrell D, et al. The role of probiotics in aquaculture. Veterinary Microbiology 114: 173 186. 7. ten Doeschate KI, Coyne VE Improved growth rate in farmed Haliotis midae through probiotic treatment. Aquaculture 284: 174179. 8. Iehata S, Inagaki T, Okunishi S, Nakano M, Tanaka R, et al. Improved gut environment of abalone Haliotis gigantea through Pediococcus sp. Ab1 treatment. Aquaculture 305: 5965. 9. Sawabe T, Oda Y, Shiomi Y, Ezura Y Alginate 1317923 degradation by bacteria isolated from the gut of sea urchins and abalones. Microbial Ecology 30: 193 202. 10. Tanaka R, Sugimura I, Sawabe T, Yoshimizu M, Ezura Y Gut microflora of abalone Haliotis discus hannai in culture changes coincident with a change in diet. Fisheries Science 69: 951958. 11. Tanaka R, Ootsubo M, Sawabe T, Ezura Y, Tajima K Biodiversity and in situ abundance of gut microflora of abalone determined by culture-independent techniques. Aquaculture 241: 453463. 12. Moter A, Gobel UB Fluorescence in situ hybridization for direct visualization of microorganisms. Journal of Microbiological Methods 41: 85 112. 13. Asfie M, Yoshijima T, Sugita H Characterization of the goldfish fecal microflora by the fluorescent in situ hybridization method. Fisheries Science 69: 2126. 14. Hj L, Bourne DG, Hall MR Localization, abundance and community structure of bacteria associated with Artemia: Effects of nauplii enrichment and antimicrobial treatment. Aquaculture 293: 278285. 15. Holben W, Williams P, Saarinen M, Sarkilahti L, Apajalahti J Phylogenetic analysis of intestinal microflora indicates a novel Mycoplasma phylotype in farmed and wild salmon. Microbial Ecology 44: 175185. 16. Antonio DB, Andree KB, Moore JD, Friedman CS, Hedrick RP Detection of Rickettsiales-like prokaryotes by in situ hybridization in black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, with withering syndrome. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 75: 180182. 17. Rengpipat S, Wongtangprasert N, Palaga T The use of green fluorescent protein as a marker for monitoring a probiotic Bacillus S11 in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture Nutrition 15: 297305. 18. Erasmus JH, Cook PA, Coyne VE The role of bacteria in the digestion of seaweed by the abalone Haliotis midae. Aquaculture 155: 377386. 19. Eg.

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