E site of transcription initiation but does shift the site where

E site of transcription initiation but does shift the site where the polymerase pauses [36]. Pho could form part of the tethering complex when it binds close to the TSS and interacts with Spt5. Polymerase pausing is not always associated with repression of gene expression; indeed the majority of NELF target genes show decreased expression after NELF RNAi [30]. Thus Pho and Spt5 may interact to promote pausing at genes where Pho maintains transcriptional activity [13], although we have no formal evidence of this. Pho/YY1 has also been shown to associate with the INO80 JW 74 cost nucleosome remodelling complex in Drosophila and mammalian cells [46,47]. The INO80 complex has been implicated in PcG repression of HOX genes in Drosophila [48]. Promoter proximal pausing of RNAP II is linked to a distinctive pattern of nucleosome arrangement around the TSS [25,49,50]. GAF has been shown to cooperate with NURF to remodel nucleosomes and increase DNA accessibility at the paused Hsp70 promoter [51]. However, GAF is not associated with all genes with paused RNAP II. Very little is known about which factors help to establish the nucleosome architecture at genes with paused RNAP II in general, so a role for the Pho/INO80 complex can not yet be excluded.manufacturer’s protocols. Approximately 6.4 million colonies of the Clontech Universal Drosophila (Normalized) Mate Plate Library were screened with the C-terminal 153 amino acids of Drosophila Spt5 cloned in frame into pGBKT7. Three independent clones expressing in frame sequences of pho were recovered from the screen. These clones did not activate expression of reporter genes in the yeast in the absence of Spt5.In Vitro Protein-Protein InteractionsGST pull-down experiments were performed as described previously [52]. pGADT7-pho was translated using the TNT T7 Quick Coupled Transcription/Translation System (Promega). Coimmunoprecipitations were performed essentially as described by [53]. S2R+ cells were grown in Scheider’s insect medium (Sigma) supplemented with 10 FCS and 1 Penicillin/Streptomycin, were transfected using Effectene (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Myc-tagged proteins were detected using anti-Myc Antibody (A-14): sc-789 rabbit polyclonal IgG from Santa Cruz and FLAG-tagged proteins using Monoclonal ANTI-FLAG(R) M2 antibody produced in mouse (Sigma). Western blots were visualized using the ECL plus kit (GE Healthcare) and Kodak(R) BioMax(TM) MR film.Drosophila StrainsThe phocv/ciD stock was a gift from Ana Busturia and PneoFRT82B cu1 sr1 NELF-AKG/TM3 flies [18] a gift from Peter Gergen. The Spt5W049 stock has been described previously [11]. y1 w1118; PlacWM64 PlacWG38 PlacWJ29 PEPwechEP813 PlacWK61 Spt5MGE23/SM1 were obtained from the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center. Spt5MGE23 was recombined on to FRT42B to clean up the chromosome and to facilitate clonal analysis. The 765-Gal4 driver line has been previously described in [54] and the 386Y-Gal4 and da-GAL4 driver lines were obtained from the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center. The UAS-RNAi-pho flies used in this study were w1118; PGD1509v39529 from the Vienna Drosophila RNAi Center (VDRC) [55]. Somatic clone induction, immunohistochemistry and germ-line clone analysis were carried out as described previously [56]. The UAS-RNAi-Spt5 flies used in 1676428 this study were PKK101304VIE-260B from the Vienna Drosophila RNAi Center (VDRC) [55].Materials and Methods CloningcDNA clones were obtained for Spt5 (Solvent Yellow 14 GH15287).E site of transcription initiation but does shift the site where the polymerase pauses [36]. Pho could form part of the tethering complex when it binds close to the TSS and interacts with Spt5. Polymerase pausing is not always associated with repression of gene expression; indeed the majority of NELF target genes show decreased expression after NELF RNAi [30]. Thus Pho and Spt5 may interact to promote pausing at genes where Pho maintains transcriptional activity [13], although we have no formal evidence of this. Pho/YY1 has also been shown to associate with the INO80 nucleosome remodelling complex in Drosophila and mammalian cells [46,47]. The INO80 complex has been implicated in PcG repression of HOX genes in Drosophila [48]. Promoter proximal pausing of RNAP II is linked to a distinctive pattern of nucleosome arrangement around the TSS [25,49,50]. GAF has been shown to cooperate with NURF to remodel nucleosomes and increase DNA accessibility at the paused Hsp70 promoter [51]. However, GAF is not associated with all genes with paused RNAP II. Very little is known about which factors help to establish the nucleosome architecture at genes with paused RNAP II in general, so a role for the Pho/INO80 complex can not yet be excluded.manufacturer’s protocols. Approximately 6.4 million colonies of the Clontech Universal Drosophila (Normalized) Mate Plate Library were screened with the C-terminal 153 amino acids of Drosophila Spt5 cloned in frame into pGBKT7. Three independent clones expressing in frame sequences of pho were recovered from the screen. These clones did not activate expression of reporter genes in the yeast in the absence of Spt5.In Vitro Protein-Protein InteractionsGST pull-down experiments were performed as described previously [52]. pGADT7-pho was translated using the TNT T7 Quick Coupled Transcription/Translation System (Promega). Coimmunoprecipitations were performed essentially as described by [53]. S2R+ cells were grown in Scheider’s insect medium (Sigma) supplemented with 10 FCS and 1 Penicillin/Streptomycin, were transfected using Effectene (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Myc-tagged proteins were detected using anti-Myc Antibody (A-14): sc-789 rabbit polyclonal IgG from Santa Cruz and FLAG-tagged proteins using Monoclonal ANTI-FLAG(R) M2 antibody produced in mouse (Sigma). Western blots were visualized using the ECL plus kit (GE Healthcare) and Kodak(R) BioMax(TM) MR film.Drosophila StrainsThe phocv/ciD stock was a gift from Ana Busturia and PneoFRT82B cu1 sr1 NELF-AKG/TM3 flies [18] a gift from Peter Gergen. The Spt5W049 stock has been described previously [11]. y1 w1118; PlacWM64 PlacWG38 PlacWJ29 PEPwechEP813 PlacWK61 Spt5MGE23/SM1 were obtained from the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center. Spt5MGE23 was recombined on to FRT42B to clean up the chromosome and to facilitate clonal analysis. The 765-Gal4 driver line has been previously described in [54] and the 386Y-Gal4 and da-GAL4 driver lines were obtained from the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center. The UAS-RNAi-pho flies used in this study were w1118; PGD1509v39529 from the Vienna Drosophila RNAi Center (VDRC) [55]. Somatic clone induction, immunohistochemistry and germ-line clone analysis were carried out as described previously [56]. The UAS-RNAi-Spt5 flies used in 1676428 this study were PKK101304VIE-260B from the Vienna Drosophila RNAi Center (VDRC) [55].Materials and Methods CloningcDNA clones were obtained for Spt5 (GH15287).

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