Ndicated concentrations of dithiothreitol (DTT). Plates were incubated at 37uC for

Ndicated concentrations of dithiothreitol (DTT). Plates were incubated at 37uC for three days, after which the mycelial biomass that was adhered to the plate surface was stained with methylene blue and photographed. B: Equal numbers of conidia were inoculated onto solid AMM media containing either the vehicle control (DMSO) or 100 mg/ml tunicamycin (TM) and incubated for three days at 37uC. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066741.gMaterials and Methods Culture ConditionsStrains used in this study are listed in Table 1. Conidia were harvested from strains grown on OSM plates [29] (AspergillusFigure 8. Sensitivity of DsrgA to brefeldin A. Equal numbers of conidia were inoculated onto solid AMM media containing the indicated concentrations of brefeldin A (BFA) and incubated for three days at 37uC. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066741.gsec4 Homolog in A. fumigatusTable 1. Strains used in this study.Name wt (AfS28) DsrgA-1 and DsrgA-2 CBS144.89 GFP-SrgADescription DakuA::ptrA (AfS28), DakuA::ptrA, DsrgA::ble Wild type (CBS144.89), gfpsrgA/bleSource S. Krappmann This study R. Cramer This studydoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066741.tFigure 9. Analysis of DsrgA virulence in an insect model of A. fumigatus infection. Groups of 12 G. mellonella larvae were infected with conidia from the indicated strains. Larvae were incubated at 37uC and mortality was monitored over a five day period. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were compared using a log-rank test, followed by a pairwise multiple comparison test (Holm-Sidak). The DsrgA isolate C survival curve is statistically different from wt, but isolates A and B were 23148522 indistinguishable from wt. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066741.gDeletion of A. fumigatus srgAThe gene encoding A. fumigatus SrgA (AFUA_4G04810) was replaced with the phleomycin resistance gene using the splitmarker method [40]. The first two-thirds of the phleomycin resistance cassette were amplified from pAN7-1 using primers 398 and 408, creating PCR product #1. The second two-thirds of phleomycin were then amplified with primers 409 and 410, creating PCR Product #2. The left arm of the srgA gene was amplified from wt DNA using primers 694 and 695, and the right arm was amplified with primers 696 and 697, generating PCR products #3 and #4, respectively. PCR products #1 and #3 were then combined in an overlap PCR reaction with primers 398 and 695 to generate PCR product #5 and PCR products #2 and #4 were combined in an overlap reaction with primers 696 and 410 to generate PCR product #6. PCR products #5 and #6 were then cloned into pCR-Blunt II-TOPO (Invitrogen) to create plasmids p599 and p600, respectively. The p599 and p600 plasmids were linearized with XhoI/BamHI and EcoRI, respectively, and transformed into AfS28 (referred to here as wt) A. fumigatus protoplasts as previously described [39]. For each transformation, phleomycin-resistant colonies were plucked from the original selection plate and transferred to secondary plates containing phleomycin. Monoconidial strains were Fruquintinib obtained after two passages, in which conidia were spread on selection-free media and individual colonies were isolated. Conidia from monoconidial colonies were then used to create the final 10 glycerol stocks.minimal media (AMM) containing 10 mM get BIBS39 ammonium tartrate and osmotically stabilized with 1.2 M sorbitol). Unless otherwise noted, all experiments were conducted at 37uC. For analysis of dithiothreitol (DTT) susceptibility, 5,000 conidia were inoculated into each well of a 24-well pla.Ndicated concentrations of dithiothreitol (DTT). Plates were incubated at 37uC for three days, after which the mycelial biomass that was adhered to the plate surface was stained with methylene blue and photographed. B: Equal numbers of conidia were inoculated onto solid AMM media containing either the vehicle control (DMSO) or 100 mg/ml tunicamycin (TM) and incubated for three days at 37uC. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066741.gMaterials and Methods Culture ConditionsStrains used in this study are listed in Table 1. Conidia were harvested from strains grown on OSM plates [29] (AspergillusFigure 8. Sensitivity of DsrgA to brefeldin A. Equal numbers of conidia were inoculated onto solid AMM media containing the indicated concentrations of brefeldin A (BFA) and incubated for three days at 37uC. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066741.gsec4 Homolog in A. fumigatusTable 1. Strains used in this study.Name wt (AfS28) DsrgA-1 and DsrgA-2 CBS144.89 GFP-SrgADescription DakuA::ptrA (AfS28), DakuA::ptrA, DsrgA::ble Wild type (CBS144.89), gfpsrgA/bleSource S. Krappmann This study R. Cramer This studydoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066741.tFigure 9. Analysis of DsrgA virulence in an insect model of A. fumigatus infection. Groups of 12 G. mellonella larvae were infected with conidia from the indicated strains. Larvae were incubated at 37uC and mortality was monitored over a five day period. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were compared using a log-rank test, followed by a pairwise multiple comparison test (Holm-Sidak). The DsrgA isolate C survival curve is statistically different from wt, but isolates A and B were 23148522 indistinguishable from wt. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066741.gDeletion of A. fumigatus srgAThe gene encoding A. fumigatus SrgA (AFUA_4G04810) was replaced with the phleomycin resistance gene using the splitmarker method [40]. The first two-thirds of the phleomycin resistance cassette were amplified from pAN7-1 using primers 398 and 408, creating PCR product #1. The second two-thirds of phleomycin were then amplified with primers 409 and 410, creating PCR Product #2. The left arm of the srgA gene was amplified from wt DNA using primers 694 and 695, and the right arm was amplified with primers 696 and 697, generating PCR products #3 and #4, respectively. PCR products #1 and #3 were then combined in an overlap PCR reaction with primers 398 and 695 to generate PCR product #5 and PCR products #2 and #4 were combined in an overlap reaction with primers 696 and 410 to generate PCR product #6. PCR products #5 and #6 were then cloned into pCR-Blunt II-TOPO (Invitrogen) to create plasmids p599 and p600, respectively. The p599 and p600 plasmids were linearized with XhoI/BamHI and EcoRI, respectively, and transformed into AfS28 (referred to here as wt) A. fumigatus protoplasts as previously described [39]. For each transformation, phleomycin-resistant colonies were plucked from the original selection plate and transferred to secondary plates containing phleomycin. Monoconidial strains were obtained after two passages, in which conidia were spread on selection-free media and individual colonies were isolated. Conidia from monoconidial colonies were then used to create the final 10 glycerol stocks.minimal media (AMM) containing 10 mM ammonium tartrate and osmotically stabilized with 1.2 M sorbitol). Unless otherwise noted, all experiments were conducted at 37uC. For analysis of dithiothreitol (DTT) susceptibility, 5,000 conidia were inoculated into each well of a 24-well pla.

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