Fixed in 4 (w/v) buffered formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin. The sections

Fixed in 4 (w/v) buffered formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin. The sections were deparaffinized with xylene rehydrated, and transferred to water. Samples were preheated inT. gondii ESA Induced Tregs Dysfunctioncitrate buffer (10 mmol/L, pH 6.0) for antigen retrieval and then Title Loaded From File treated with Protein Blocking Agent to reduce the nonspecific binding of antibodies. After washing, sections were incubated with purified anti-Foxp3 antibody (Abcam, Cambridge, MA) for 1 h, washed in PBS, and incubated with an Alkaline Phosphatase –Title Loaded From File labeled Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG as secondary antibody (Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology, Jiangsu, China). Visualization of the antigen ntibody complex was achieved by incubating sections in BCIP/NBT Alkaline Phosphatase Color Development Kit (Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology) for 10 – 30 min, until a satisfactory colour developed. All steps were performed at room temperature. Negative controls were samples in which the primary antibody was replaced with 10 bovine serum albumin. All sections were analyzed under light microscopy by two observers. The average number of Foxp3+ cells in four random high-power fields was determined for each sample.In vitro Proliferation AssayMitomycin C-treated, T-depleted splenocytes (26105) were used as APCs. CD4+CD252 T cells (16105) purified from control mice were stimulated with 1 mg/ml anti-CD3 mAb (145 2c11, BD Pharmingen) in the presence of CD4+CD25+ T cells (16105) isolated from control or ESA-injected pregnant mice and cultured for 72 h. Cultures were performed in roundbottom 96 well plate (Corning, Costar) in complete medium: RPMI1640 (Gibco BRL, Gaithersburg, USA) supplemented with 10 heat-inactivated FCS (Sigma, St Louis, USA) and 1315463 100 U/ml penicillin-streptomycin. 1 mCi of [3H] TdR (Amersham Bioscience) was added to the well in the last 16 h of culture. [3H]TdR incorporation was measured with a Matrix 96 Direct Beta Counter (Packard).Cytokine AssaysAt the indicated time, blood was collected from pregnant mice injected with T. gondii ESA. Serum levels of IFN-c and IL-4 were measured by using a Mouse Th1/Th2 ELISA Ready-SET-Go kit according to the manufacturer’s instructions (eBioscience).Statistical AnalysisPrism software (GraphPad) was used to determine the statistical significance of differences in the means of experimental groups. Differences in abortion rates were determined by using the nonparametric Mann hitney U-test. Data of two groups were analyzed for statistical significance with Student’s t-test. Multiple comparisons were made by using one-way ANOVA.Figure 1. The abortion rate of pregnant mice after T. gondii ESA injection. (A) Representative pictures of uteri from mice with T. gondii ESA or PBS injection at gestational day 5(G5), day 10(G10) and day 15(G15), respectively. All the animals were sacrificed at G18. (B)The abortion rates calculated as the ratio of abortion sites to the total numbers of implantation sites after the injection of T. gondii ESA at G5, G10, and G15. Statistical differences between groups are shown as follows: ** p,0.01; *** p,0.001; # p.0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069012.gResults Injection of T. gondii ESA at Different Stages of Pregnancy Leads to Different Pregnancy Outcomes of MiceT. gondii ESA or PBS was injected intraperitoneally (ip) into pregnant mice at G5, G10 and G15, respectively. The animals were sacrificed at G18. All fetuses and placentas became necrotic and haemorrhagic, and were resorbed after the administration of T. gon.Fixed in 4 (w/v) buffered formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin. The sections were deparaffinized with xylene rehydrated, and transferred to water. Samples were preheated inT. gondii ESA Induced Tregs Dysfunctioncitrate buffer (10 mmol/L, pH 6.0) for antigen retrieval and then treated with Protein Blocking Agent to reduce the nonspecific binding of antibodies. After washing, sections were incubated with purified anti-Foxp3 antibody (Abcam, Cambridge, MA) for 1 h, washed in PBS, and incubated with an Alkaline Phosphatase -labeled Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG as secondary antibody (Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology, Jiangsu, China). Visualization of the antigen ntibody complex was achieved by incubating sections in BCIP/NBT Alkaline Phosphatase Color Development Kit (Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology) for 10 – 30 min, until a satisfactory colour developed. All steps were performed at room temperature. Negative controls were samples in which the primary antibody was replaced with 10 bovine serum albumin. All sections were analyzed under light microscopy by two observers. The average number of Foxp3+ cells in four random high-power fields was determined for each sample.In vitro Proliferation AssayMitomycin C-treated, T-depleted splenocytes (26105) were used as APCs. CD4+CD252 T cells (16105) purified from control mice were stimulated with 1 mg/ml anti-CD3 mAb (145 2c11, BD Pharmingen) in the presence of CD4+CD25+ T cells (16105) isolated from control or ESA-injected pregnant mice and cultured for 72 h. Cultures were performed in roundbottom 96 well plate (Corning, Costar) in complete medium: RPMI1640 (Gibco BRL, Gaithersburg, USA) supplemented with 10 heat-inactivated FCS (Sigma, St Louis, USA) and 1315463 100 U/ml penicillin-streptomycin. 1 mCi of [3H] TdR (Amersham Bioscience) was added to the well in the last 16 h of culture. [3H]TdR incorporation was measured with a Matrix 96 Direct Beta Counter (Packard).Cytokine AssaysAt the indicated time, blood was collected from pregnant mice injected with T. gondii ESA. Serum levels of IFN-c and IL-4 were measured by using a Mouse Th1/Th2 ELISA Ready-SET-Go kit according to the manufacturer’s instructions (eBioscience).Statistical AnalysisPrism software (GraphPad) was used to determine the statistical significance of differences in the means of experimental groups. Differences in abortion rates were determined by using the nonparametric Mann hitney U-test. Data of two groups were analyzed for statistical significance with Student’s t-test. Multiple comparisons were made by using one-way ANOVA.Figure 1. The abortion rate of pregnant mice after T. gondii ESA injection. (A) Representative pictures of uteri from mice with T. gondii ESA or PBS injection at gestational day 5(G5), day 10(G10) and day 15(G15), respectively. All the animals were sacrificed at G18. (B)The abortion rates calculated as the ratio of abortion sites to the total numbers of implantation sites after the injection of T. gondii ESA at G5, G10, and G15. Statistical differences between groups are shown as follows: ** p,0.01; *** p,0.001; # p.0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069012.gResults Injection of T. gondii ESA at Different Stages of Pregnancy Leads to Different Pregnancy Outcomes of MiceT. gondii ESA or PBS was injected intraperitoneally (ip) into pregnant mice at G5, G10 and G15, respectively. The animals were sacrificed at G18. All fetuses and placentas became necrotic and haemorrhagic, and were resorbed after the administration of T. gon.

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