Islocation, EDL muscles were carefully

Islocation, EDL muscles were carefully 1516647 isolated from tendon to tendon under microscopic observation and digested in 2 collagenase type I (Sigma)/DMEM at 35uC for 70 minutes. Muscle fibres could then be easily separated under a stereo microscope by using heat-polished, pulled glass Pasteur pipettes. Fibres were serially washed to eliminate debris and other muscle components and only intact, clean myofibres were carefully selected. Some fibres were carefully transferred in a plate in DMEM and kept at 37uC for less than an hour before 4 ml of DMEM containing one fibre were Calcitonin (salmon) site grafted into the middle part of each host muscle by means of fine glass needle. In the experiments where satellite cells, rather than isolated fibres, were grafted, an aliquot of the fibre preparation was triturated to release satellite cells [7,38,39] and approximately 4 ml of DMEM-containing 400 of these cells was grafted into TA muscles of host mice by means of fine glass needle [7,40]. Host mice were grafted 3 days after muscle injury and muscles were removed for analysis 4 weeks after grafting.Results Single Donor Myofibres Grafted into BaCl2-treated Host Muscles do not Contribute to Muscle Regeneration, but do Cause Muscle HypertrophyAs pre-modulation of host muscle is needed to promote donor satellite cell engraftment [45], and a single donor myofibre grafted in pre-irradiated host muscles generated donor-derived muscle [6], we wished to test if a different muscle modulation – BaCl2 that induces muscle degeneration and regeneration – could promote donor myofibre-mediated engraftment to the same extent. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of mdx nude recipient mice were injected as detailed in the experimental plan in Figure 1A. Donor-derived fibres were found in muscles pre-treated by either BaCl2 or irradiation and grafted with an isolated fibre. However, whilst donor-derived muscle fibres (ranging from 2 to 88) were found in 50 of the irradiated muscles, only 4 donor-derived fibres were found in 1 out of 10 host muscles that had been pre-treated withHypertrophic Effect of Grafted Donor MyofibreFigure 2. Injection of BaCl2 does not cause muscle hypertrophy. Mdx nude mice (n = 4) had their right TA injected with BaCl2 and the left TA with PBS. Laminin-stained transverse sections showed no difference in size between muscles treated in these ways (A). Weights of the muscles were comparable (B) as was the CSA (C). The number of fibres was not SC-66 site significantly different (D) and the distribution of the fibre size was similar (E) (Chisquared test, p = 0.2261). Size bar = 100 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054599.gBaCl2 (Figure 1B, C, D). The hematoxilin and eosin (H E) histological analyses revealed that, despite the negligible contribution to donor-derived muscle formation, the cross-sectional area (CSA) of muscles grafted following BaCl2 with one isolated fibre was larger than the CSA of muscles grafted after irradiation with an isolated fibre (Figure 1E, F, G). This is due to the progressive loss of host myofibres following irradiation (Figure 1H) [46]. Furthermore, the BaCl2-injected and grafted muscles weresignificantly greater in weight than the non-injured DMEMinjected muscles (Figure 1G). We found no obvious differences in the extent of fibrosis or adipogenesis in mouse muscles treated in the different ways. As we did not find a difference in the number of fibres between BaCl2-injured muscles injected with a myofibre in DMEM and non-injured muscles injected with DMEM a.Islocation, EDL muscles were carefully 1516647 isolated from tendon to tendon under microscopic observation and digested in 2 collagenase type I (Sigma)/DMEM at 35uC for 70 minutes. Muscle fibres could then be easily separated under a stereo microscope by using heat-polished, pulled glass Pasteur pipettes. Fibres were serially washed to eliminate debris and other muscle components and only intact, clean myofibres were carefully selected. Some fibres were carefully transferred in a plate in DMEM and kept at 37uC for less than an hour before 4 ml of DMEM containing one fibre were grafted into the middle part of each host muscle by means of fine glass needle. In the experiments where satellite cells, rather than isolated fibres, were grafted, an aliquot of the fibre preparation was triturated to release satellite cells [7,38,39] and approximately 4 ml of DMEM-containing 400 of these cells was grafted into TA muscles of host mice by means of fine glass needle [7,40]. Host mice were grafted 3 days after muscle injury and muscles were removed for analysis 4 weeks after grafting.Results Single Donor Myofibres Grafted into BaCl2-treated Host Muscles do not Contribute to Muscle Regeneration, but do Cause Muscle HypertrophyAs pre-modulation of host muscle is needed to promote donor satellite cell engraftment [45], and a single donor myofibre grafted in pre-irradiated host muscles generated donor-derived muscle [6], we wished to test if a different muscle modulation – BaCl2 that induces muscle degeneration and regeneration – could promote donor myofibre-mediated engraftment to the same extent. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of mdx nude recipient mice were injected as detailed in the experimental plan in Figure 1A. Donor-derived fibres were found in muscles pre-treated by either BaCl2 or irradiation and grafted with an isolated fibre. However, whilst donor-derived muscle fibres (ranging from 2 to 88) were found in 50 of the irradiated muscles, only 4 donor-derived fibres were found in 1 out of 10 host muscles that had been pre-treated withHypertrophic Effect of Grafted Donor MyofibreFigure 2. Injection of BaCl2 does not cause muscle hypertrophy. Mdx nude mice (n = 4) had their right TA injected with BaCl2 and the left TA with PBS. Laminin-stained transverse sections showed no difference in size between muscles treated in these ways (A). Weights of the muscles were comparable (B) as was the CSA (C). The number of fibres was not significantly different (D) and the distribution of the fibre size was similar (E) (Chisquared test, p = 0.2261). Size bar = 100 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054599.gBaCl2 (Figure 1B, C, D). The hematoxilin and eosin (H E) histological analyses revealed that, despite the negligible contribution to donor-derived muscle formation, the cross-sectional area (CSA) of muscles grafted following BaCl2 with one isolated fibre was larger than the CSA of muscles grafted after irradiation with an isolated fibre (Figure 1E, F, G). This is due to the progressive loss of host myofibres following irradiation (Figure 1H) [46]. Furthermore, the BaCl2-injected and grafted muscles weresignificantly greater in weight than the non-injured DMEMinjected muscles (Figure 1G). We found no obvious differences in the extent of fibrosis or adipogenesis in mouse muscles treated in the different ways. As we did not find a difference in the number of fibres between BaCl2-injured muscles injected with a myofibre in DMEM and non-injured muscles injected with DMEM a.

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