Quasalis SOD3A (AqSOD3A) cDNA sequence consists of 646 bp, including

Quasalis SOD3A (AqSOD3A) cDNA sequence consists of 646 bp, including a 462 bp coding region, which encodes a 154 amino acid protein, as well as a 74 bp 59 and 110 bp 39 UTR (Figure S2A). The full-length A. aquasalis SOD3B cDNA (AqSOD3B) is 637 bp long including a 495 bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a 165 amino acids protein, plus 63 bp upstream and 79 bp downstream UTRs (Figure S2B). The deduced AqSOD3A and AqSOD3B proteins have conserved Cu2+ and Zn2+ binding domains typically found in CuZn-superoxide dismutases (Figures S2A, S2B and 2A), bearing 94 and 97 identity with putative SOD3A (XP_311594.2) and SOD3B (XP_001230820.1) orthologous genes from A. gambiae (Figure 2B and 2C).Catalase silencing and inhibitionThe T7 Megascript kit (Ambion) was used to construct double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) for Catalase (dsCat) and ?gal (ds?gal) from PCR-amplified fragments. Amplicons for ds?gal were produced using plasmid templates and for dsCatalase by RTPCR products, from sugar-fed female cDNA, giving rise to 544 bp and 466 bp fragments, respectively. Two rounds of PCR were necessary to amplify ?gal and Catalase. The first PCR round was performed with primers containing a short adaptor sequence at the 59 end (tggcgcccctagatg): ?galFwd 59 tggcgcccctagatgTGATGGCACCCTGATTGA 39 and ?purchase BTZ043 galRev 59 tggcgcccctagatgTCATTGCCCAGAGACCAGA 39, dsCatalaseFwd 59 tggcgcccctagatgCGTACAATCCGTTCGATCT 39 and dsCatalaseRev 59 tggcgcccctagatgACTGTTGCCTGCGAGAAGTT 39. The PCR cycles used were 95uC for 3 min, 35 cycles of 95uC for 30 sec, 57uC for 45 sec and 72uC for 45 sec followed by 72uC for 7 min. For the SPDP web second PCR reaction, two microliters of the first PCR product were used. The second round of PCR was utilized to insert the bacteriophage T7 DNA-dependent RNA polymerase promoters into the dsDNA templates. The cycle of the second round of PCR was the same utilized in the first reaction. The second round PCR primer used, which had the T7 and the adaptor sequences, was 59 ccgTAATACGACTCACTATAGGtggcgcccctagatg 39. Sixty nine nanoliters of dsRNA for ?gal and catalase diluted in water to a concentration of 3 mg/mL were introduced into the thorax of cold anesthetized 2? day old female mosquitoes by a nano-injector (Nanoject, Drummond) with glass capillary needles. The insects were maintained in an air incubator at 28uC and fed on sugar solution after the dsRNA injections. P. vivax infected blood was offered to the inoculated insects two to three days after the dsRNA injections. For catalase inhibition, 50 mL of 75 mM Aminotriazole or Phosphate buffer were added to 200 1516647 mL of P. vivax infected blood. Oocyst counting was performed three to five days after infection. At least 50 guts of each experimental condition were dissected, stained with 2 Mercurechrome and observed under light microscopy. Three replicates of each experiment were performed. Oocyst numbers in dsCat-injected insects were compared to ds?gal injected controls. The significance of gene silencing effect on oocyst loads between the experimental andCharacterization of Catalase and SOD transcription and activity in A. aquasalisGene expression analyzes using cDNAs from whole A. aquasalis sugar fed males and females demonstrated that catalase transcription levels were higher in male mosquitoes (Figure 3A). 23115181 To explore the putative involvement of this enzyme in malaria infection we performed a time course analysis of detoxification enzymes expression and activity in mosquitoes fed with P. vivax-infectedROS in Anoph.Quasalis SOD3A (AqSOD3A) cDNA sequence consists of 646 bp, including a 462 bp coding region, which encodes a 154 amino acid protein, as well as a 74 bp 59 and 110 bp 39 UTR (Figure S2A). The full-length A. aquasalis SOD3B cDNA (AqSOD3B) is 637 bp long including a 495 bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a 165 amino acids protein, plus 63 bp upstream and 79 bp downstream UTRs (Figure S2B). The deduced AqSOD3A and AqSOD3B proteins have conserved Cu2+ and Zn2+ binding domains typically found in CuZn-superoxide dismutases (Figures S2A, S2B and 2A), bearing 94 and 97 identity with putative SOD3A (XP_311594.2) and SOD3B (XP_001230820.1) orthologous genes from A. gambiae (Figure 2B and 2C).Catalase silencing and inhibitionThe T7 Megascript kit (Ambion) was used to construct double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) for Catalase (dsCat) and ?gal (ds?gal) from PCR-amplified fragments. Amplicons for ds?gal were produced using plasmid templates and for dsCatalase by RTPCR products, from sugar-fed female cDNA, giving rise to 544 bp and 466 bp fragments, respectively. Two rounds of PCR were necessary to amplify ?gal and Catalase. The first PCR round was performed with primers containing a short adaptor sequence at the 59 end (tggcgcccctagatg): ?galFwd 59 tggcgcccctagatgTGATGGCACCCTGATTGA 39 and ?galRev 59 tggcgcccctagatgTCATTGCCCAGAGACCAGA 39, dsCatalaseFwd 59 tggcgcccctagatgCGTACAATCCGTTCGATCT 39 and dsCatalaseRev 59 tggcgcccctagatgACTGTTGCCTGCGAGAAGTT 39. The PCR cycles used were 95uC for 3 min, 35 cycles of 95uC for 30 sec, 57uC for 45 sec and 72uC for 45 sec followed by 72uC for 7 min. For the second PCR reaction, two microliters of the first PCR product were used. The second round of PCR was utilized to insert the bacteriophage T7 DNA-dependent RNA polymerase promoters into the dsDNA templates. The cycle of the second round of PCR was the same utilized in the first reaction. The second round PCR primer used, which had the T7 and the adaptor sequences, was 59 ccgTAATACGACTCACTATAGGtggcgcccctagatg 39. Sixty nine nanoliters of dsRNA for ?gal and catalase diluted in water to a concentration of 3 mg/mL were introduced into the thorax of cold anesthetized 2? day old female mosquitoes by a nano-injector (Nanoject, Drummond) with glass capillary needles. The insects were maintained in an air incubator at 28uC and fed on sugar solution after the dsRNA injections. P. vivax infected blood was offered to the inoculated insects two to three days after the dsRNA injections. For catalase inhibition, 50 mL of 75 mM Aminotriazole or Phosphate buffer were added to 200 1516647 mL of P. vivax infected blood. Oocyst counting was performed three to five days after infection. At least 50 guts of each experimental condition were dissected, stained with 2 Mercurechrome and observed under light microscopy. Three replicates of each experiment were performed. Oocyst numbers in dsCat-injected insects were compared to ds?gal injected controls. The significance of gene silencing effect on oocyst loads between the experimental andCharacterization of Catalase and SOD transcription and activity in A. aquasalisGene expression analyzes using cDNAs from whole A. aquasalis sugar fed males and females demonstrated that catalase transcription levels were higher in male mosquitoes (Figure 3A). 23115181 To explore the putative involvement of this enzyme in malaria infection we performed a time course analysis of detoxification enzymes expression and activity in mosquitoes fed with P. vivax-infectedROS in Anoph.

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