E barriers to cellular therapy. Several recent studies on solid extra-cranial neoplasms have shown that strategic timing of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, taking advantage of innate response to chemotherapy-induced expression of stress-associated antigens on tumor cells and depletion of regulatory T cells in the local microenvironment, can achieve synergies that are significantly greater than either individual approach [36?2]. It is envisioned that novel approaches to combine either traditional or new chemo- and immunotherapies can potentially improve upon the conventional treatment modalities for GBM. Our DRI strategy presents an attractive avenue to effectively partner both immuno- and chemo- therapies by genetically engineering anti-cancer immune cells to confer anti-tumor immunity during aggressive dosing of chemotherapy. We recently showed that cultured leukemia cells can be eliminated by theDrug Resistant cd T Cell ImmunotherapyFigure 2. Genetic modification of expanded/activated cd T cells by HIV (a) and SIV-GFP (b) lentiviral vectors 6 days following transduction with an MOI of 15. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) is approximately the same for both vectors, but transduction efficiency and expression from the SIV-derived vector is higher when measured on day+6. Quadrant values are noted to the right of each plot. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051805.JW 74 web gFigure 3. Transduction of cd T cells with lentivirus vector was performed on day 6, 7 and 8 of expansion culture (see text) with increasing MOI. (a) On day +14 cells were incubated in media supplemented with 400 mM TMZ and viable cell counts were obtained for each MOI. Two separate experiments are shown. (b) Quantitative PCR analysis to measure P140KMGMT copy numbers of the bioengineered cd T cells in the presence of increasing 11967625 concentrations of TMZ, which are indicated in the figure. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051805.gcombined additions of chemotherapy and genetically engineered immune effector cells . We also showed that systemic administration of bioengineered chemotherapy-resistant hematopoietic cells has shown promise in animal models . However, in the context of GBM therapy, systemic cell therapy will likely be an ineffective DRI strategy for established tumors due to their highly immunosuppressive nature of the tumor and the difficulty of the immune cells to cross the blood-brain barrier. However, systemic therapies incorporating DRI may be useful when directed at microscopic post-resection GBM. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a DRI strategy to enhance GBM cell clearance by the combined additions of genetically engineered cd T cells with temozolomide to tumor cells that are refractory to high concentrations of the drug. Our choice to test a cd T cell mediated DRI strategy is based upon our previous finding that cd T cells, injected stereotactically either during intracranial transplantation or a few days after the transplantation of GBM cells in mice can extend the survival of the treated animals when compared to the survival of the tumor bearing animals that were not treated . The exploitation of a cd T cell based DRI strategy to target GBM is a practical approach since the tumor is partially shielded from the immune system, thereby preventing the elucidation of an immune response against locally infused cells. A cd T cell based DRI strategy against GBM cells can provide several benefits compared to chemotherapy alone, as cytotoxic drugs can p.