Ment by modulating neurotrophic factor synthesis in muscle [14]. Microtubule associated protein-

Ment by modulating neurotrophic factor synthesis in muscle [14]. Microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP-2), which is very abundant in the mammalian nervous system, has been associated with the formation of neurites at early developmental stages and with the dendrite scaffold upon maturation [15]. MAP-2 has been used as a sensitive and specific marker for neurons [16]. Neurofilaments (NFs) are neuron-specific intermediate filaments. They are classed into three groups according to their molecular masses: neurofilament heavy, middle and light chains (NF-H, NFM and NF-L). They maintain and regulate neuronal cytoskeletal plasticity through the regulation of neurites outgrowth, axonal caliber and axonal transport [17]. NF-H plays an important role in healthy neurons [18]. Growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), an axonally localized neuronal protein, plays a major role in many aspects of neuronal function in vertebrates [19?0]. Z-360 chemical 520-26-3 information GAP-43 may express in all subpopulations of small and large dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons [21?2] and plays an important role in growth coneTarget SKM on Neuronal Migration from DRGformation and neurites outgrowth of cultured DRG neurons [23]. GAP-43 is an intracellular growth-associated protein that appears to assist neuronal pathfinding and branching during development and regeneration [24]. Increases of GAP-43 are a frequently used marker of nerve regeneration or active sprouting of axons after traumatic injury in vivo [25?9] and an indicator of neuronal survival in vitro [30?1]. The knowledge of mutual interactions between postsynaptic receptors and presynaptic partner neurons during development and differentiation is very limited [32]. New interpretations of prior knowledge between neurons and muscle cells have been promoted by the preparations of the neuromuscular cocultures of motor neurons and SKM cells [33]. The interdependence of sensory neurons and SKM cells during both embryonic development and the maintenance of the mature functional state had not been fully understood. We hypothesized that target SKM cells may promote neuronal outgrowth, migration and expression of neuronal proteins. In the present study, neuromuscular cocultures of organotypic DRG and SKM cells were established. Using this culture system, we investigated the contribution of target tissues to neuronal outgrowth, migration and expression of neurofilament 200 (NF-200) and GAP-43.peripheral area around the explants. These individual neurons were multipolar 15755315 or bipolar in configuration with central bodies up to 15 by 40 mm in size. The total number of neurons migrated from DRG explants in neuromuscular cocultures is 35.2961.65. The total number of migrating neurons in DRG explants culture alone is 16.6161.16. The presence of target SKM cells promoted neuronal migration form DRG explants in the neuromuscular cocultures (P,0.001) (Fig. 4,5).The percentage of NF-200-IR neurons and GAP-43-IR neuronsTo test the effects of SKM cells on NF-200 and GAP-43 expression in migrating DRG neurons from DRG explants, cultures of DRG explants were incubated for 6 days in the presence or absence of SKM cells and processed for double fluorescent labeling of MAP-2 and NF-200 or GAP-43, and then the percentage of DRG neurons containing NF-200 or GAP-43 was quantified. The percentage of NF-200-IR (54.78 63.89 ) migrating neurons from DRG explants in neuromuscular cocultures is higher than that in DRG explants culture alone (41.34 63.25 ) (P,0.05) (Fig. 6). The pe.Ment by modulating neurotrophic factor synthesis in muscle [14]. Microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP-2), which is very abundant in the mammalian nervous system, has been associated with the formation of neurites at early developmental stages and with the dendrite scaffold upon maturation [15]. MAP-2 has been used as a sensitive and specific marker for neurons [16]. Neurofilaments (NFs) are neuron-specific intermediate filaments. They are classed into three groups according to their molecular masses: neurofilament heavy, middle and light chains (NF-H, NFM and NF-L). They maintain and regulate neuronal cytoskeletal plasticity through the regulation of neurites outgrowth, axonal caliber and axonal transport [17]. NF-H plays an important role in healthy neurons [18]. Growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), an axonally localized neuronal protein, plays a major role in many aspects of neuronal function in vertebrates [19?0]. GAP-43 may express in all subpopulations of small and large dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons [21?2] and plays an important role in growth coneTarget SKM on Neuronal Migration from DRGformation and neurites outgrowth of cultured DRG neurons [23]. GAP-43 is an intracellular growth-associated protein that appears to assist neuronal pathfinding and branching during development and regeneration [24]. Increases of GAP-43 are a frequently used marker of nerve regeneration or active sprouting of axons after traumatic injury in vivo [25?9] and an indicator of neuronal survival in vitro [30?1]. The knowledge of mutual interactions between postsynaptic receptors and presynaptic partner neurons during development and differentiation is very limited [32]. New interpretations of prior knowledge between neurons and muscle cells have been promoted by the preparations of the neuromuscular cocultures of motor neurons and SKM cells [33]. The interdependence of sensory neurons and SKM cells during both embryonic development and the maintenance of the mature functional state had not been fully understood. We hypothesized that target SKM cells may promote neuronal outgrowth, migration and expression of neuronal proteins. In the present study, neuromuscular cocultures of organotypic DRG and SKM cells were established. Using this culture system, we investigated the contribution of target tissues to neuronal outgrowth, migration and expression of neurofilament 200 (NF-200) and GAP-43.peripheral area around the explants. These individual neurons were multipolar 15755315 or bipolar in configuration with central bodies up to 15 by 40 mm in size. The total number of neurons migrated from DRG explants in neuromuscular cocultures is 35.2961.65. The total number of migrating neurons in DRG explants culture alone is 16.6161.16. The presence of target SKM cells promoted neuronal migration form DRG explants in the neuromuscular cocultures (P,0.001) (Fig. 4,5).The percentage of NF-200-IR neurons and GAP-43-IR neuronsTo test the effects of SKM cells on NF-200 and GAP-43 expression in migrating DRG neurons from DRG explants, cultures of DRG explants were incubated for 6 days in the presence or absence of SKM cells and processed for double fluorescent labeling of MAP-2 and NF-200 or GAP-43, and then the percentage of DRG neurons containing NF-200 or GAP-43 was quantified. The percentage of NF-200-IR (54.78 63.89 ) migrating neurons from DRG explants in neuromuscular cocultures is higher than that in DRG explants culture alone (41.34 63.25 ) (P,0.05) (Fig. 6). The pe.

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