R, this data suggests that Mtap may be acting in a

R, this data suggests that Mtap may be acting in a haploinsufficient manner. To develop evidence that germline heterozygosity for Mtap can have phenotypic consequences, we performed microarray experiments examining gene expression profiles in the livers of young age and sex matched Mtap+/+ and MtaplacZ/+ animals. Based on the skewed distribution of P-values of the probes, we estimate that as many as 2048/16716 probes examined (14.4 ) may be differentially expressed. Confining ourselves to probes that show at least a 50 difference in expression levels, we identified at least 363 probes representing 251 unique genes. These genes include many genes involved in pathways implicated in cancer development and progression. Because these experiments were done using RNA derived from liver, it is unclear if the genes and pathways identified as being affected by Mtap are directly relevant for the accelerated lymphoma development in these animals. Nonetheless, these experiments clearly show that loss of a single Mtap allele can have significant biological effects. Previous studies have shown a relationship between loss of Mtap and an up-regulation of ODC, a key enzyme affecting polyamine metabolism [3,20,26]. In the studies described here, we found thatthe tumors in Em-myc MtaplacZ/+ mice tended to have higher levels of ODC expression 16985061 than tumors found in Mtap+/+ animals. In addition, we found Mtap-dependent differences in the liver mRNA levels of two polyamine metabolic genes (Sat1 and Srm1). Taken together, these observations provide additional support that Mtap-loss affects polyamine metabolism. A possible mechanism by which elevated ODC may contribute to lymphomagenesis may be via its influence on apoptosis. In hematopoietic cell lines, high levels of ODC have been shown to suppress apoptosis by reducing intracellular ROS species [44,45]. However, it should be noted that loss of Mtap might also promote lymphomagenesis by other means as well. In unpublished studies, our lab has found that expression of Mtap in an Mtap deleted osteosarcoma cell line can suppress several tumor related phenotypes without any effect on ODC levels (W.K., unpublished data). Thus, it seems possible that there may be multiple mechanisms by which Mtap-loss Title Loaded From File promotes tumor formation. In summary, we have shown here, for the first time, that germline mutations Mtap can cooperate genetically with at least two other cancer causing mutations, Em-myc and Pten+/2, to reduce survival and, in the case of Em-myc, accelerate tumorigenesis. This acceleration does not appear to require the loss of the wild-type Mtap allele, suggesting that loss of a single copy of Mtap may have protumorigenic affects. Consistent with this view is the observation that heterozygosity for Mtap results in large alterations in the liver gene expression Title Loaded From File profile. Our findings support the view that Mtaploss is of biological importance in tumorigenesis.Supporting InformationTable S1 Mtap differentially expressed genes.(XLSX)Table S2 Gene Ontology Pathways affected by Mtap.(XLSX)Table S3 Kegg Pathways affected by Mtap.(XLSX)Table S4 Cancer genes identified by IPA analysis.(XLSX)Table S5 Analysis of Polyamine Pathway genes.(XLSB)AcknowledgmentsWe acknowledge the contribution of the FCCC Genomics, Laboratory Animal, FACS, and Experimental Histopathology Facilities, and A. Kowalczyk, A. Formica, Yue-Sheng Li for technical assistance. We also thank Dr. John Cleveland for providing E-myc mice, Dr. Antonio Di Cristofa.R, this data suggests that Mtap may be acting in a haploinsufficient manner. To develop evidence that germline heterozygosity for Mtap can have phenotypic consequences, we performed microarray experiments examining gene expression profiles in the livers of young age and sex matched Mtap+/+ and MtaplacZ/+ animals. Based on the skewed distribution of P-values of the probes, we estimate that as many as 2048/16716 probes examined (14.4 ) may be differentially expressed. Confining ourselves to probes that show at least a 50 difference in expression levels, we identified at least 363 probes representing 251 unique genes. These genes include many genes involved in pathways implicated in cancer development and progression. Because these experiments were done using RNA derived from liver, it is unclear if the genes and pathways identified as being affected by Mtap are directly relevant for the accelerated lymphoma development in these animals. Nonetheless, these experiments clearly show that loss of a single Mtap allele can have significant biological effects. Previous studies have shown a relationship between loss of Mtap and an up-regulation of ODC, a key enzyme affecting polyamine metabolism [3,20,26]. In the studies described here, we found thatthe tumors in Em-myc MtaplacZ/+ mice tended to have higher levels of ODC expression 16985061 than tumors found in Mtap+/+ animals. In addition, we found Mtap-dependent differences in the liver mRNA levels of two polyamine metabolic genes (Sat1 and Srm1). Taken together, these observations provide additional support that Mtap-loss affects polyamine metabolism. A possible mechanism by which elevated ODC may contribute to lymphomagenesis may be via its influence on apoptosis. In hematopoietic cell lines, high levels of ODC have been shown to suppress apoptosis by reducing intracellular ROS species [44,45]. However, it should be noted that loss of Mtap might also promote lymphomagenesis by other means as well. In unpublished studies, our lab has found that expression of Mtap in an Mtap deleted osteosarcoma cell line can suppress several tumor related phenotypes without any effect on ODC levels (W.K., unpublished data). Thus, it seems possible that there may be multiple mechanisms by which Mtap-loss promotes tumor formation. In summary, we have shown here, for the first time, that germline mutations Mtap can cooperate genetically with at least two other cancer causing mutations, Em-myc and Pten+/2, to reduce survival and, in the case of Em-myc, accelerate tumorigenesis. This acceleration does not appear to require the loss of the wild-type Mtap allele, suggesting that loss of a single copy of Mtap may have protumorigenic affects. Consistent with this view is the observation that heterozygosity for Mtap results in large alterations in the liver gene expression profile. Our findings support the view that Mtaploss is of biological importance in tumorigenesis.Supporting InformationTable S1 Mtap differentially expressed genes.(XLSX)Table S2 Gene Ontology Pathways affected by Mtap.(XLSX)Table S3 Kegg Pathways affected by Mtap.(XLSX)Table S4 Cancer genes identified by IPA analysis.(XLSX)Table S5 Analysis of Polyamine Pathway genes.(XLSB)AcknowledgmentsWe acknowledge the contribution of the FCCC Genomics, Laboratory Animal, FACS, and Experimental Histopathology Facilities, and A. Kowalczyk, A. Formica, Yue-Sheng Li for technical assistance. We also thank Dr. John Cleveland for providing E-myc mice, Dr. Antonio Di Cristofa.

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