Effect of oral vaccination with A.C.NPs-legumain, we tested it

Effect of oral vaccination with A.C.NPs-legumain, we tested it in the mouse model of orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer. After being challenged with 56104 4T1 tumor cells, the mice were orally 13655-52-2 web vaccinated with the same amount of legumain DNA plasmid loaded in different delivery carriers or with the PBS control (Fig. 6A). The tumor size and tumor weight/ body weight ratio was significantly less in mice treated with A.C.NPs-legumain versus the PBS control, C.NPs, and empty A.C.NPs group (tumor size: 78.2631.6 vs 643.66136.7, 179.3673.5, 509.1630.7 mm3, respectively; tumor weight/body weight ratio: 4.360.7 vs 22.562.6, 15.467.2, 25.366.4 , respectively). There was no significant difference between the A.C.NPs-legumain and legumain DNA vaccine carried with S. typhi (Fig. 6B, C). The survival rate of tumor-bearing mice was significantly higher in the A.C.NPs-legumain group compared with C.NP-legumain group, empty A.C.NPs, legumain DNA vaccine carried with S. typhi and PBS (Fig. 6D). These results suggest that A.C.NPs improve the efficiency of oral legumain DNA vaccine against breast cancer in mice.Oral Vaccination with A.C.NPs-legumain Improves Immunological MedChemExpress MNS Reaction of T Cells Targeting LegumainWe further explored the mechanism underlying the protective effect of A.C.NPs-legumain against breast cancer. It has been reported that legumain translocates to the plasma membrane under hypoxic stimulation [29]. Hypoxia is common in tumor environment due to the rapid proliferation of tumor cells and an insufficient blood supply [30,31]. Immunofluorescence staining showed evidence of translocation of legumain expression in cultured 4T1 cells after CoCl2 treatment (Fig. 7A). Splenocytes isolated from A.C.NPs-legumain treated mice were co-cultured with CoCl2 treated or non-treated 4T1 cells. Flow cytometry results indicate that the ratio of CD8+CD25+ T cell increased significantly after co-culture with CoCl2 treated 4T1 cells (Fig. 7B, C). Splenocytes isolated from mice treated with A.C.NPs-legumain co-cultured with 4T1 cells treated with CoCl2 exhibited a 1.66-,Chitosan NPs Loaded with Legumain DNA Vaccineorthotopic 4T1 breast cancer model to evaluate effectiveness as an oral carrier. Our data demonstrate that legumain DNA vaccine carried with A.C.NPs exhibits a similar, if not better, effect on suppressing tumor growth and prolonging survival of tumorburdened animals compared with both attenuated S. typhi-based vaccine and vaccine carried by C.NPs. Luo et 1662274 al. have already 15755315 reported that legumain is specifically expressed by tumorassociated macrophages (TAMs) in the tumor microenvironment [6]. Autoimmunity established via vaccination with a legumain DNA vaccine destroys TAMs and remodels the immunosuppressive milieu that benefits tumor development. Recent studies reveal that legumain overexpression is detected in the tumor cells themselves in some tumor models. Given this, it may be the autoimmunity targeting legumain would have a dual effect. It may help remodel the microenviroment that supports tumor survival; while at the same time act to deplete tumor cell populations directly. Interestingly, oral vaccination with legumain DNA increases the amount of activated CTLs (CD8+CD25+) targeting legumain. Moreover, particles with alginic acid inhibit the activated regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+) aimed at legumain (Fig. S2). This might explain the longer survival time of mice vaccinated with A.C.NPs compared with those receiving a S. typhibased vaccine. In summary,.Effect of oral vaccination with A.C.NPs-legumain, we tested it in the mouse model of orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer. After being challenged with 56104 4T1 tumor cells, the mice were orally vaccinated with the same amount of legumain DNA plasmid loaded in different delivery carriers or with the PBS control (Fig. 6A). The tumor size and tumor weight/ body weight ratio was significantly less in mice treated with A.C.NPs-legumain versus the PBS control, C.NPs, and empty A.C.NPs group (tumor size: 78.2631.6 vs 643.66136.7, 179.3673.5, 509.1630.7 mm3, respectively; tumor weight/body weight ratio: 4.360.7 vs 22.562.6, 15.467.2, 25.366.4 , respectively). There was no significant difference between the A.C.NPs-legumain and legumain DNA vaccine carried with S. typhi (Fig. 6B, C). The survival rate of tumor-bearing mice was significantly higher in the A.C.NPs-legumain group compared with C.NP-legumain group, empty A.C.NPs, legumain DNA vaccine carried with S. typhi and PBS (Fig. 6D). These results suggest that A.C.NPs improve the efficiency of oral legumain DNA vaccine against breast cancer in mice.Oral Vaccination with A.C.NPs-legumain Improves Immunological Reaction of T Cells Targeting LegumainWe further explored the mechanism underlying the protective effect of A.C.NPs-legumain against breast cancer. It has been reported that legumain translocates to the plasma membrane under hypoxic stimulation [29]. Hypoxia is common in tumor environment due to the rapid proliferation of tumor cells and an insufficient blood supply [30,31]. Immunofluorescence staining showed evidence of translocation of legumain expression in cultured 4T1 cells after CoCl2 treatment (Fig. 7A). Splenocytes isolated from A.C.NPs-legumain treated mice were co-cultured with CoCl2 treated or non-treated 4T1 cells. Flow cytometry results indicate that the ratio of CD8+CD25+ T cell increased significantly after co-culture with CoCl2 treated 4T1 cells (Fig. 7B, C). Splenocytes isolated from mice treated with A.C.NPs-legumain co-cultured with 4T1 cells treated with CoCl2 exhibited a 1.66-,Chitosan NPs Loaded with Legumain DNA Vaccineorthotopic 4T1 breast cancer model to evaluate effectiveness as an oral carrier. Our data demonstrate that legumain DNA vaccine carried with A.C.NPs exhibits a similar, if not better, effect on suppressing tumor growth and prolonging survival of tumorburdened animals compared with both attenuated S. typhi-based vaccine and vaccine carried by C.NPs. Luo et 1662274 al. have already 15755315 reported that legumain is specifically expressed by tumorassociated macrophages (TAMs) in the tumor microenvironment [6]. Autoimmunity established via vaccination with a legumain DNA vaccine destroys TAMs and remodels the immunosuppressive milieu that benefits tumor development. Recent studies reveal that legumain overexpression is detected in the tumor cells themselves in some tumor models. Given this, it may be the autoimmunity targeting legumain would have a dual effect. It may help remodel the microenviroment that supports tumor survival; while at the same time act to deplete tumor cell populations directly. Interestingly, oral vaccination with legumain DNA increases the amount of activated CTLs (CD8+CD25+) targeting legumain. Moreover, particles with alginic acid inhibit the activated regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+) aimed at legumain (Fig. S2). This might explain the longer survival time of mice vaccinated with A.C.NPs compared with those receiving a S. typhibased vaccine. In summary,.

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