Ication scores ranged from 0 to 8) between depressed patients and clinically improvedOlfactory

Ication scores ranged from 0 to 8) between depressed patients and clinically improvedOlfactory Markers of Major DepressionTable 2. Hedonic classification of odors by three groups.DP Odorant Isovaleric acid Butyric acid 1-Octen-3-ol Eugenol (E)-Cinnamaldehyde Vanillin Benzaldehyde (-)-Indolactam V 2-Phenylethanol Ranks 2.6 2.6 3.9 4.1 5.4 5.4 5.7 6.3 Groups A A A A B B B B B BCIP Odorant Isovaleric acid Butyric acid 1-Octen-3-ol Eugenol (E)-Cinnamaldehyde 2-Phenylethanol Vanillin Benzaldehyde Ranks 1.8 3.1 3.4 4.1 4.8 6.1 6.1 6.7 Groups A A A A B B B B C C D C D C D DHC Odorant Isovaleric acid Butyric acid 1-Octen-3-ol Eugenol (E)-Cinnamaldehyde Benzaldehyde 2-Phenylethanol Vanillin Ranks 1.7 2.5 3.3 3.5 5.8 6.0 6.4 6.7 Groups A A B B B C C C CMean ranks of each odorant and odorants ranking obtained by depressed patients [DP] (n = 18), clinically improved patients [CIP] (n = 18) and healthy controls [HC] (n = 54). For each group of the subjects, values with the same letter are not significantly different at a = 5 according to Nemenyi procedure. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046938.tConcerning the unpleasant odorants, only butyric acid was perceived as significantly more unpleasant by depressed subjects than controls. Regarding the neutral odorants, no significant difference was found between the three groups for 1-octen-3-ol and eugenol (Tables 3A). There was no significant difference between the groups concerning their evaluation of the familiarity of all odorants (for each odorant p.0.05), except for vanillin. Vanillin was evaluatedas less familiar by depressed and clinically improved patients 3687-18-1 manufacturer compared to controls (Tables 3B). Regarding the subjects’ odor identification performances, there was no significant difference between the three groups, considering all odorants (K = 1.60, p = 0.45) or each odorant independently (x2 = 2.57, p = 1.0).Table 3. Hedonic and familiarity responses of odors by three groups.A. Odor hedonic response Odorant Vanillin 2-Phenylethanol (E)-Cinnamaldehyde Benzaldehyde Eugenol 1-Octen-3-ol Isovaleric acid Butyric acid DP 4.9 (2.9) 6.2 (2.5) 4.2 (3.5) 4.8 (2.5) 2.9 (2.8) 2.1 (2.1) 1.3 (1.7) 1.1 (1.3) CIP 5.3 (2.4) 6.5 (3.1) 4.4 (3.0) 6.5 (1.8) 3.5 (3.0) 2.3 (2.2) 0.8 (0.8) 1.9 (2.4) p1 0.5 0.4 1.0 0.01 0.4 0.5 0.9 0.2 DP 4.9 (2.9) 6.2 (2.5) 4.2 (3.5) 4.8 (2.5) 2.9 (2.8) 2.1 (2.1) 1.3 (1.7) 1.1 (1.3) HC 7.8 (1.8) 7.7 (1.9) 7.1 (2.4) 7.1 (2.3) 3.6 (2.3) 3.2 (2.4) 1.2 (1.2) 2.4 (1.7) p1 ,0.001 0.03 0.005 0.0006 0.1 0.051 0.8 0.003 CIP 5.3 (2.4) 6.5 (3.1) 4.4 (3.0) 6.5 (1.8) 3.5 (3.0) 2.3 (2.2) 0.8 (0.8) 1.9 (2.4) HC 7.8 (1.8) 7.7 (1.9) 7.1 (2.4) 7.1 (2.3) 3.6 (2.3) 3.2 (2.4) 1.2 (1.2) 2.4 (1.7) p2 ,0.001 0.3 0.0006 0.1 0.6 0.09 0.6 0.B. Odor familiarity response Odorant Vanillin 2-Phenylethanol (E)-Cinnamaldehyde Benzaldehyde Eugenol 1-Octen-3-ol Isovaleric acid Butyric acid1DP 5.6 (3.4) 5.1 (2.7) 3.9 (3.5) 6.7 (2.7) 5.2 (3.3) 3.5 (3.3) 2.0 (2.1) 2.2 (2.5)CIP 5.4 (2.7) 4.9 (3.3) 4.7 (3.0) 6.8 (2.6) 5.9 (3.0) 3.9 (3.0) 2.2 (3.2) 2.7 (3.1)p1 0.9 0.9 0.4 0.8 0.5 0.2 0.8 0.DP 5.6 (3.4) 5.1 (2.7) 3.9 (3.5) 6.7 (2.7) 5.2 (3.3) 3.5 (3.3) 2.0 (2.1) 2.2 (2.5)HC 7.9 (1.9) 6.2 (2.6) 5.4 (2.7) 7.0 (2.3) 5.8 (3.0) 5.0 (2.8) 2.5 (2.6) 2.7 (2.7)p1 0.02 0.1 0.08 0.7 0.6 0.06 0.7 0.CIP 5.4 (2.7) 4.9 (3.3) 4.7 (3.0) 6.8 (2.6) 5.9 (3.0) 3.9 (3.0) 2.2 (3.2) 2.7 (3.1)HC 7.9 (1.9) 6.2 (2.6) 5.4 (2.7) 7.0 (2.3) 5.8 (3.0) 5.0 (2.8) 2.5 (2.6) 2.7 (2.7)P2 0.0002 0.1 0.4 0.8 0.9 0.1 0.4 0.Wilcoxon signed test; Mann-Withney test. Mean values (SD) of hedonic (A).Ication scores ranged from 0 to 8) between depressed patients and clinically improvedOlfactory Markers of Major DepressionTable 2. Hedonic classification of odors by three groups.DP Odorant Isovaleric acid Butyric acid 1-Octen-3-ol Eugenol (E)-Cinnamaldehyde Vanillin Benzaldehyde 2-Phenylethanol Ranks 2.6 2.6 3.9 4.1 5.4 5.4 5.7 6.3 Groups A A A A B B B B B BCIP Odorant Isovaleric acid Butyric acid 1-Octen-3-ol Eugenol (E)-Cinnamaldehyde 2-Phenylethanol Vanillin Benzaldehyde Ranks 1.8 3.1 3.4 4.1 4.8 6.1 6.1 6.7 Groups A A A A B B B B C C D C D C D DHC Odorant Isovaleric acid Butyric acid 1-Octen-3-ol Eugenol (E)-Cinnamaldehyde Benzaldehyde 2-Phenylethanol Vanillin Ranks 1.7 2.5 3.3 3.5 5.8 6.0 6.4 6.7 Groups A A B B B C C C CMean ranks of each odorant and odorants ranking obtained by depressed patients [DP] (n = 18), clinically improved patients [CIP] (n = 18) and healthy controls [HC] (n = 54). For each group of the subjects, values with the same letter are not significantly different at a = 5 according to Nemenyi procedure. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046938.tConcerning the unpleasant odorants, only butyric acid was perceived as significantly more unpleasant by depressed subjects than controls. Regarding the neutral odorants, no significant difference was found between the three groups for 1-octen-3-ol and eugenol (Tables 3A). There was no significant difference between the groups concerning their evaluation of the familiarity of all odorants (for each odorant p.0.05), except for vanillin. Vanillin was evaluatedas less familiar by depressed and clinically improved patients compared to controls (Tables 3B). Regarding the subjects’ odor identification performances, there was no significant difference between the three groups, considering all odorants (K = 1.60, p = 0.45) or each odorant independently (x2 = 2.57, p = 1.0).Table 3. Hedonic and familiarity responses of odors by three groups.A. Odor hedonic response Odorant Vanillin 2-Phenylethanol (E)-Cinnamaldehyde Benzaldehyde Eugenol 1-Octen-3-ol Isovaleric acid Butyric acid DP 4.9 (2.9) 6.2 (2.5) 4.2 (3.5) 4.8 (2.5) 2.9 (2.8) 2.1 (2.1) 1.3 (1.7) 1.1 (1.3) CIP 5.3 (2.4) 6.5 (3.1) 4.4 (3.0) 6.5 (1.8) 3.5 (3.0) 2.3 (2.2) 0.8 (0.8) 1.9 (2.4) p1 0.5 0.4 1.0 0.01 0.4 0.5 0.9 0.2 DP 4.9 (2.9) 6.2 (2.5) 4.2 (3.5) 4.8 (2.5) 2.9 (2.8) 2.1 (2.1) 1.3 (1.7) 1.1 (1.3) HC 7.8 (1.8) 7.7 (1.9) 7.1 (2.4) 7.1 (2.3) 3.6 (2.3) 3.2 (2.4) 1.2 (1.2) 2.4 (1.7) p1 ,0.001 0.03 0.005 0.0006 0.1 0.051 0.8 0.003 CIP 5.3 (2.4) 6.5 (3.1) 4.4 (3.0) 6.5 (1.8) 3.5 (3.0) 2.3 (2.2) 0.8 (0.8) 1.9 (2.4) HC 7.8 (1.8) 7.7 (1.9) 7.1 (2.4) 7.1 (2.3) 3.6 (2.3) 3.2 (2.4) 1.2 (1.2) 2.4 (1.7) p2 ,0.001 0.3 0.0006 0.1 0.6 0.09 0.6 0.B. Odor familiarity response Odorant Vanillin 2-Phenylethanol (E)-Cinnamaldehyde Benzaldehyde Eugenol 1-Octen-3-ol Isovaleric acid Butyric acid1DP 5.6 (3.4) 5.1 (2.7) 3.9 (3.5) 6.7 (2.7) 5.2 (3.3) 3.5 (3.3) 2.0 (2.1) 2.2 (2.5)CIP 5.4 (2.7) 4.9 (3.3) 4.7 (3.0) 6.8 (2.6) 5.9 (3.0) 3.9 (3.0) 2.2 (3.2) 2.7 (3.1)p1 0.9 0.9 0.4 0.8 0.5 0.2 0.8 0.DP 5.6 (3.4) 5.1 (2.7) 3.9 (3.5) 6.7 (2.7) 5.2 (3.3) 3.5 (3.3) 2.0 (2.1) 2.2 (2.5)HC 7.9 (1.9) 6.2 (2.6) 5.4 (2.7) 7.0 (2.3) 5.8 (3.0) 5.0 (2.8) 2.5 (2.6) 2.7 (2.7)p1 0.02 0.1 0.08 0.7 0.6 0.06 0.7 0.CIP 5.4 (2.7) 4.9 (3.3) 4.7 (3.0) 6.8 (2.6) 5.9 (3.0) 3.9 (3.0) 2.2 (3.2) 2.7 (3.1)HC 7.9 (1.9) 6.2 (2.6) 5.4 (2.7) 7.0 (2.3) 5.8 (3.0) 5.0 (2.8) 2.5 (2.6) 2.7 (2.7)P2 0.0002 0.1 0.4 0.8 0.9 0.1 0.4 0.Wilcoxon signed test; Mann-Withney test. Mean values (SD) of hedonic (A).

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