Lied Biosystems. RNA copy numbers were normalized to that of an

Lied Biosystems. RNA copy numbers were normalized to that of an internal 18 s rRNA. In the microarray analysis, we used the Genopal microarray system according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Mitsubishi Rayon). Biotin-labeled RNA was prepared with a MessageAmp II-Biotin Enhanced kit (Ambion).RNA InterferenceThe siRNA negative control, targeting TRAF3 and TRAF6 were purchased from Bonac Corporation. The target sequences were: (GCUCAUGGAUGCUGUGCAUdTdT) and (TBHQ chemical information GGAGAAACCUGUUGUGAUUdTdT) for TRAF3 and 6, respectively. Each siRNA was transfected with Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen) according 25033180 to the manufacturer’s instructions. At 48 h post-transfection, cells were harvested, and then subjected to Real Time PCR.FACSTo examine oligomerization of IPS-1 in cells, we performed bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays using a CoralHue Fluo-Chase kit (Amalgam). 293T cells expressing this construct were washed and harvested with PBS, then subjected to FACS analysis using FACSCanto II (BD Bioscience).Immunoblotting and AntibodiesThe polyclonal antibody used to detect human IRF-3 in native PAGE and anti-human IRF-3 polyclonal antibodies for immunostaining were described previously [35]. Other antibodies were obtained from the following sources: Anti-human NF-kB antibody (sc-109), anti-human TRAF6 (sc-8409), and anti-human MFN1 (sc-50330) from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, anti-HA-Tag (6E2) from Cell Signaling, and anti-human Actin (A-1978) from Sigma.Supporting InformationFigure S1 Microarray analysis of mRNAs induced by oligomerized IPS-1 CARD or IPS-1. HeLa cells stably expressing FK-IPS or FK-IPS CARD were stimulated with AP20187 for the indicated time. Total RNA extracted from these cells was subjected to analysis using a DNA microarray (Genopal, Mitsubishi Rayon) of interferon-stimulated genes and interferon genes. ML-281 site Relative mRNA levels using a control expression as 1.0 are shown. (PDF) Figure S2 FK-IPS DCARDDTM forms speckle like aggregates in the cytoplasm. HeLa cells stably expressing FK-IPS DCARDDTM were mock treated or treated withImmunofluorescence MicroscopyFor immunofluorescence analysis, cells were fixed with 4 paraformaldehyde for 10 min, permeabilized with acetone: methanol (1:1), and blocked with 5 mg/ml of BSA in PBST (0.04 Teen20 in PBS) for 1hour. Cells were incubated with relevant primary antibodies overnight at 4uC, then incubated with Alexa Fluor-conjugated 1326631 secondary antibodies (Invitrogen). To label mitochondria, cells were incubated for 30 min at 37uC with MitoTracker Red CMXRos according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Molecular Probes). Fluorescence images were obtained by Leica Microsystems AF6500 (Leica).Delimitation of Critical Domain in IPS-AP20187 for 3 h and stained with mitoTracker (mitochondria) and anti-HA antibody. Fluorescent microscopic images of FKIPSDCARDDTM and mitochondria are shown. (PDF)Figure S3 MFN1 is dispensable for signaling induced by forced oligomerization of IPS-1. MEFs of MFN12/2 or +/ + were transiently transfected with p-125Luc (reporter for IFN-b promoter activity) together with the indicated FK-IPS fusion constructs. Cells were treated with or without AP20187 for 6 h. Relative luciferase activities were determined as described in Materials and Methods. A representative result of at least two independent experiments is shown. Error bars indicate standard error of triplicate samples. (PDF) Figure S4 FK-IPS 400?08 can activate IRF-responsiveisolation of soluble and insoluble fractio.Lied Biosystems. RNA copy numbers were normalized to that of an internal 18 s rRNA. In the microarray analysis, we used the Genopal microarray system according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Mitsubishi Rayon). Biotin-labeled RNA was prepared with a MessageAmp II-Biotin Enhanced kit (Ambion).RNA InterferenceThe siRNA negative control, targeting TRAF3 and TRAF6 were purchased from Bonac Corporation. The target sequences were: (GCUCAUGGAUGCUGUGCAUdTdT) and (GGAGAAACCUGUUGUGAUUdTdT) for TRAF3 and 6, respectively. Each siRNA was transfected with Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen) according 25033180 to the manufacturer’s instructions. At 48 h post-transfection, cells were harvested, and then subjected to Real Time PCR.FACSTo examine oligomerization of IPS-1 in cells, we performed bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays using a CoralHue Fluo-Chase kit (Amalgam). 293T cells expressing this construct were washed and harvested with PBS, then subjected to FACS analysis using FACSCanto II (BD Bioscience).Immunoblotting and AntibodiesThe polyclonal antibody used to detect human IRF-3 in native PAGE and anti-human IRF-3 polyclonal antibodies for immunostaining were described previously [35]. Other antibodies were obtained from the following sources: Anti-human NF-kB antibody (sc-109), anti-human TRAF6 (sc-8409), and anti-human MFN1 (sc-50330) from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, anti-HA-Tag (6E2) from Cell Signaling, and anti-human Actin (A-1978) from Sigma.Supporting InformationFigure S1 Microarray analysis of mRNAs induced by oligomerized IPS-1 CARD or IPS-1. HeLa cells stably expressing FK-IPS or FK-IPS CARD were stimulated with AP20187 for the indicated time. Total RNA extracted from these cells was subjected to analysis using a DNA microarray (Genopal, Mitsubishi Rayon) of interferon-stimulated genes and interferon genes. Relative mRNA levels using a control expression as 1.0 are shown. (PDF) Figure S2 FK-IPS DCARDDTM forms speckle like aggregates in the cytoplasm. HeLa cells stably expressing FK-IPS DCARDDTM were mock treated or treated withImmunofluorescence MicroscopyFor immunofluorescence analysis, cells were fixed with 4 paraformaldehyde for 10 min, permeabilized with acetone: methanol (1:1), and blocked with 5 mg/ml of BSA in PBST (0.04 Teen20 in PBS) for 1hour. Cells were incubated with relevant primary antibodies overnight at 4uC, then incubated with Alexa Fluor-conjugated 1326631 secondary antibodies (Invitrogen). To label mitochondria, cells were incubated for 30 min at 37uC with MitoTracker Red CMXRos according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Molecular Probes). Fluorescence images were obtained by Leica Microsystems AF6500 (Leica).Delimitation of Critical Domain in IPS-AP20187 for 3 h and stained with mitoTracker (mitochondria) and anti-HA antibody. Fluorescent microscopic images of FKIPSDCARDDTM and mitochondria are shown. (PDF)Figure S3 MFN1 is dispensable for signaling induced by forced oligomerization of IPS-1. MEFs of MFN12/2 or +/ + were transiently transfected with p-125Luc (reporter for IFN-b promoter activity) together with the indicated FK-IPS fusion constructs. Cells were treated with or without AP20187 for 6 h. Relative luciferase activities were determined as described in Materials and Methods. A representative result of at least two independent experiments is shown. Error bars indicate standard error of triplicate samples. (PDF) Figure S4 FK-IPS 400?08 can activate IRF-responsiveisolation of soluble and insoluble fractio.

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