Ntervals. Cells were cultivated for at least 2 passages before seeding onto

Ntervals. Cells were cultivated for at least 2 passages before seeding onto transwell filter supports to stabilize the cell phenotype 12].Validation of Transwell System using FITC-Insulin and Sulforhodamine B TransportUse of transwell system in determining transport of active molecules Docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide site across Caco-2 monolayer was validated by using two fluorescent molecules, FITC-insulin and sulforhodamine-B, which would delineate the efficacy of system for both macromolecular and small molecular weight pharmaceutical moieties. Briefly, cells were pre-conditioned with basal seeding medium for 30 minutes before starting the experiment at 37uC. FITC-insulin andProtein Permeation across Caco-2 Monolayerssulforhodamine-B were loaded onto the individual Caco-2 monolayer filter supports at various concentrations (0.05, 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/well) dissolved in 500 ml of basal seeding medium. The basolateral chamber consisted 1400 ml of the same growth medium as per manufacturer’s protocol. The plates were incubated for 23727046 5 hrs at room temperature with gentle shaking (5 rocks/minute on a rocker, so as to mimic intestinal peristaltic movement). TEER measurements were performed at predetermined time intervals (0. 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 5 hrs). At the same time-points, 100 ml samples were withdrawn from the basolateral chamber to quantify the total amount of FITC-ins/sulforhodamine-B transported across the monolayer. The withdrawn sample was immediately replaced with equivalent amount of the experimental medium. Withdrawn samples were A196 site analyzed using a Tecan SaffireTM fluorescent microplate reader (Tecan Group Ltd, Mannedorf, Switzerland) at respective wavelengths for FITCinsulin (Ex 488 nm; Em 525 nm) and sulforhodamine-B (Ex 560 nm and Em 590 nm).way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by appropriate post hoc analysis. Values showing p,0.05 were considered significantly different.Results Dose-dependent Transport of FITC-insulin and Sulforhodamine-B across Caco-2 MonolayersBefore testing the transport of therapeutic peptides, the 3-day Caco-2 monolayers were validated by studying the permeation of fluorescein isothiocynate conjugated bovine insulin (FITC-insulin) and sulforhodamine-B. Only small quantities of the FITC-insulin permeated from the apical chamber to the basolateral chamber (Fig. 1). Transport of FITC-insulin was dose-dependent (r2 = 0.99) in flux as well as cumulative transport. The transported amounts were: 0.00260.0004 mg (0.05 mg loading), 0.00660.001 mg (0.15 mg loading), 0.0260.002 mg (0.3 mg loading), and 0.0460.006 mg (0.6 mg loading) after 5 hours (Fig. 1a). The apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) calculated from cumulative permeability 18204824 data ranged from 8.261.861026 cm/s to 10.561.861026 cm/s for the loading studied here (Table 1). Cumulative transport of FITC-insulin at the end of 5 hours for FITC-insulin ranged from 4.161.1 (0.15 mg loading) to 5.961.0 (0.6 mg loading) (Fig. 1b; Table 1). Transport of sulforhodamine-B also exhibited similar trends as FITC-insulin. Once again, a low percentage of applied sulforhodamine-B permeated through Caco-2 monolayer. The cumulative apical-to-basolateral transport of 0.00260.0008 mg, 0.00460.0007 mg, 0.00960.001 mg, and 0.0160.002 mg was observed at apical loadings of 0.05, 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/well at the end of 5 hours (r2 = 0.977; Fig. 2a). The cumulative transport ranged between 2.260.4 (0.6 mg loading) to 2.960.4 (0.3 mg loading) (Fig. 2b). At the same time, a consistent Papp was also ob.Ntervals. Cells were cultivated for at least 2 passages before seeding onto transwell filter supports to stabilize the cell phenotype 12].Validation of Transwell System using FITC-Insulin and Sulforhodamine B TransportUse of transwell system in determining transport of active molecules across Caco-2 monolayer was validated by using two fluorescent molecules, FITC-insulin and sulforhodamine-B, which would delineate the efficacy of system for both macromolecular and small molecular weight pharmaceutical moieties. Briefly, cells were pre-conditioned with basal seeding medium for 30 minutes before starting the experiment at 37uC. FITC-insulin andProtein Permeation across Caco-2 Monolayerssulforhodamine-B were loaded onto the individual Caco-2 monolayer filter supports at various concentrations (0.05, 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/well) dissolved in 500 ml of basal seeding medium. The basolateral chamber consisted 1400 ml of the same growth medium as per manufacturer’s protocol. The plates were incubated for 23727046 5 hrs at room temperature with gentle shaking (5 rocks/minute on a rocker, so as to mimic intestinal peristaltic movement). TEER measurements were performed at predetermined time intervals (0. 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 5 hrs). At the same time-points, 100 ml samples were withdrawn from the basolateral chamber to quantify the total amount of FITC-ins/sulforhodamine-B transported across the monolayer. The withdrawn sample was immediately replaced with equivalent amount of the experimental medium. Withdrawn samples were analyzed using a Tecan SaffireTM fluorescent microplate reader (Tecan Group Ltd, Mannedorf, Switzerland) at respective wavelengths for FITCinsulin (Ex 488 nm; Em 525 nm) and sulforhodamine-B (Ex 560 nm and Em 590 nm).way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by appropriate post hoc analysis. Values showing p,0.05 were considered significantly different.Results Dose-dependent Transport of FITC-insulin and Sulforhodamine-B across Caco-2 MonolayersBefore testing the transport of therapeutic peptides, the 3-day Caco-2 monolayers were validated by studying the permeation of fluorescein isothiocynate conjugated bovine insulin (FITC-insulin) and sulforhodamine-B. Only small quantities of the FITC-insulin permeated from the apical chamber to the basolateral chamber (Fig. 1). Transport of FITC-insulin was dose-dependent (r2 = 0.99) in flux as well as cumulative transport. The transported amounts were: 0.00260.0004 mg (0.05 mg loading), 0.00660.001 mg (0.15 mg loading), 0.0260.002 mg (0.3 mg loading), and 0.0460.006 mg (0.6 mg loading) after 5 hours (Fig. 1a). The apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) calculated from cumulative permeability 18204824 data ranged from 8.261.861026 cm/s to 10.561.861026 cm/s for the loading studied here (Table 1). Cumulative transport of FITC-insulin at the end of 5 hours for FITC-insulin ranged from 4.161.1 (0.15 mg loading) to 5.961.0 (0.6 mg loading) (Fig. 1b; Table 1). Transport of sulforhodamine-B also exhibited similar trends as FITC-insulin. Once again, a low percentage of applied sulforhodamine-B permeated through Caco-2 monolayer. The cumulative apical-to-basolateral transport of 0.00260.0008 mg, 0.00460.0007 mg, 0.00960.001 mg, and 0.0160.002 mg was observed at apical loadings of 0.05, 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/well at the end of 5 hours (r2 = 0.977; Fig. 2a). The cumulative transport ranged between 2.260.4 (0.6 mg loading) to 2.960.4 (0.3 mg loading) (Fig. 2b). At the same time, a consistent Papp was also ob.

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