Ated statistic is the odds ratio (instead of fold-change). Matching 95 CIs

Ated statistic is the odds ratio (instead of fold-change). Matching 95 CIs were calculated as described [38]. f p-values were calculated using the Fisher’s exact test. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046424.tb cheparin VacutainersH (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ), separated plasma by centrifugation (2500 buy HIF-2��-IN-1 rpm610 min) within 4?6 hours of the blood draw, and immediately Homatropine (methylbromide) stored aliquots at 280uC until use.Measurement of cytokine levelsPlasma samples were thawed at ambient temperature and centrifuged (14,000 rpm610 min) at 4uC. Using polystyrene bead-based multiplex assay kits (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, CA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions, we quantified the levels of IL-6, IL-10, sTNFRII, MCP-1, IL-8, TNFa, IP-10, IFNc, GM-CSF and IL-1b. We tested samples at a 1:3 dilution. We read the plates using a Luminex LX100 instrument (Luminex Corp., Austin, TX) and interpolated the results from five-parameter-fit standard curves generated by Xponent 3.1 software (Luminex Corp.). We changed all cytokine or chemokine values = “0.0” to half the next largest value. We replaced IP-10 values = “.380” with the median of all the rest greater than 380 (median = 560), and changed all cytokine values “,X” to “X/2”.colored complex specifically with iron in the presence of UA. The colorimetric reaction was read at 590 nm using a plate reader (Perkin Elmer, Waltham, MA). The method has a linear detection range between 0.22?0 mg/dl (13?0 mM) UA. We used the mean of triplicate values for UA levels in subsequent analyses.Measurement of creatinine levelsPlasma creatinine levels were determined using the Enzymatic Creatinine FlexH Reagent cartridge (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Inc., Newark, DE). In this method, hydrogen peroxide and chromogens (4-aminophenazone and 2,4,6-triiodo-3-hydroxybenzoic acid) form an amount of colored end product that is proportional to the amount of creatinine in the sample. The colored 15755315 end product was measured at 540 and 700 nm using the Dimension VistaH System (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Inc.). The analytical measurement range of this method in plasma is 0.14?0 mg/dl.Statistical analysisWe compared the values for continuous variables (age, parasite density, hemoglobin level, creatinine level, UA level and cytokine level) between groups of children with uncomplicated and cerebral or non-cerebral severe malaria using the Mann-Whitney test with the associated fold-change confidenceMeasurement of uric acid levelsWe tested plasma samples in triplicate using QuantiChromTM Uric Acid Assay Kit (Bioassay Systems, Hayward, CA). This method utilizes 2,4,6-tripyridyl-s-triazine which forms a blue-Uric Acid and Malaria PathogenesisFigure 1. Uric acid (UA) elevations in Malian children with uncomplicated and severe falciparum malaria. a, Plasma UA levels were measured in Malian children who presented with uncomplicated (UM), non-cerebral severe (NCSM) and cerebral malaria (CM). We show traditional boxplots (i.e., middle line is median, box is interquartile range) with points randomly jittered according to their density similar to violin plots [36][37]. b, Plasma UA levels were measured in a cohort of 39 healthy aparasitemic Malian children in May 2008 (prior to the malaria season) and again at their first episode of UM during the 2008 malaria season. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046424.gintervals calculated using the Hodges-Lehmann method on the log-transformed values. The geometric mean titers of UA and creatinine in paire.Ated statistic is the odds ratio (instead of fold-change). Matching 95 CIs were calculated as described [38]. f p-values were calculated using the Fisher’s exact test. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046424.tb cheparin VacutainersH (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ), separated plasma by centrifugation (2500 rpm610 min) within 4?6 hours of the blood draw, and immediately stored aliquots at 280uC until use.Measurement of cytokine levelsPlasma samples were thawed at ambient temperature and centrifuged (14,000 rpm610 min) at 4uC. Using polystyrene bead-based multiplex assay kits (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, CA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions, we quantified the levels of IL-6, IL-10, sTNFRII, MCP-1, IL-8, TNFa, IP-10, IFNc, GM-CSF and IL-1b. We tested samples at a 1:3 dilution. We read the plates using a Luminex LX100 instrument (Luminex Corp., Austin, TX) and interpolated the results from five-parameter-fit standard curves generated by Xponent 3.1 software (Luminex Corp.). We changed all cytokine or chemokine values = “0.0” to half the next largest value. We replaced IP-10 values = “.380” with the median of all the rest greater than 380 (median = 560), and changed all cytokine values “,X” to “X/2”.colored complex specifically with iron in the presence of UA. The colorimetric reaction was read at 590 nm using a plate reader (Perkin Elmer, Waltham, MA). The method has a linear detection range between 0.22?0 mg/dl (13?0 mM) UA. We used the mean of triplicate values for UA levels in subsequent analyses.Measurement of creatinine levelsPlasma creatinine levels were determined using the Enzymatic Creatinine FlexH Reagent cartridge (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Inc., Newark, DE). In this method, hydrogen peroxide and chromogens (4-aminophenazone and 2,4,6-triiodo-3-hydroxybenzoic acid) form an amount of colored end product that is proportional to the amount of creatinine in the sample. The colored 15755315 end product was measured at 540 and 700 nm using the Dimension VistaH System (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Inc.). The analytical measurement range of this method in plasma is 0.14?0 mg/dl.Statistical analysisWe compared the values for continuous variables (age, parasite density, hemoglobin level, creatinine level, UA level and cytokine level) between groups of children with uncomplicated and cerebral or non-cerebral severe malaria using the Mann-Whitney test with the associated fold-change confidenceMeasurement of uric acid levelsWe tested plasma samples in triplicate using QuantiChromTM Uric Acid Assay Kit (Bioassay Systems, Hayward, CA). This method utilizes 2,4,6-tripyridyl-s-triazine which forms a blue-Uric Acid and Malaria PathogenesisFigure 1. Uric acid (UA) elevations in Malian children with uncomplicated and severe falciparum malaria. a, Plasma UA levels were measured in Malian children who presented with uncomplicated (UM), non-cerebral severe (NCSM) and cerebral malaria (CM). We show traditional boxplots (i.e., middle line is median, box is interquartile range) with points randomly jittered according to their density similar to violin plots [36][37]. b, Plasma UA levels were measured in a cohort of 39 healthy aparasitemic Malian children in May 2008 (prior to the malaria season) and again at their first episode of UM during the 2008 malaria season. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046424.gintervals calculated using the Hodges-Lehmann method on the log-transformed values. The geometric mean titers of UA and creatinine in paire.

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