Nd (A)TLR1 (4)rsAA AG GG trend (G)TGFBR1 (9)rsAA AG

Nd (A)TLR1 (4)rsAA AG GG trend (G)TGFBR1 (9)rsAA AG GG trend (G)TLR6 (4)rsGG GA AA trend (A)TLR6 (4)rsGG GA AA trend (A)TLR1 (4)rsGG GT TT trend (T)OAS2 (12)rsGG GC CC trend (C) 0.70 (0.54, 0.92) 0.67 (0.43, 1.05) 0.77 (0.64, 0.94) 1 (Ref) 0.68 (0.51, 0.90) 0.77 (0.36, 1.62) 0.74 (0.58, 0.94) 1 (Ref) 0.64 (0.49, 0.85) 0.71 (0.48, 1.03) 0.79 (0.66, 0.95) 1 (Ref) 1.03 (0.80, 1.33) 3.27 (1.55, 7.55) 1.21 (0.97, 1.51) 0.012 0.080 0.010 ?0.007 0.496 0.013 ?0.002 0.074 0.014 ?0.808 0.003 0.1.22 (0.54, 2.74) 1.17 1676428 (0.05, 30.16) 1.18 (0.58, 2.44) 1 (Ref) 0.67 (0.33, 1.32) ?0.57 (0.3, 1.05) 1 (Ref) 0.39 (0.17, 0.86) 0.83 (0.35, 1.91) 0.97 (0.64, 1.47) 1 (Ref) 0.78 (0.44, 1.38) ?0.78 (0.44, 1.38)COX-2 (1)rsGG GA AA trend (A)OAS1 (12)rsCC CA AA trend (A)OAS2 (12)rsCC CA AA trend (A)Innate Immunity Inflammation in Prostate CancerTable 3. Cont.Gene (chromosome)SNPOverall OR (95 CI) P-value ?0.111 0.005 0.African Americans OR (95 CI) 1 (Ref) 0.75 (0.41, 1.38) 5.67 (1.36, 38.68) 1.23 (0.77, 1.99) P-value ?0.360 0.033 0.Caucasians OR (95 CI) 1 (Ref) 0.81 (0.59, 1.11) 3.48 (1.05, 15.66) 0.97 (0.73, 1.28) P-value ?0.190 0.061 0.TLR4 (9)rsTT TC CC trend (C)1 (Ref) 0.79 (0.60, 1.05) 4.13 (1.63, 12.6) 1.03 (0.81, 1.31)Odds ratios (OR), 95 confidence intervals (95 CI) and P-values obtained using the unconditional multivariate logistic model adjusted on age, institution, and genetic ancestry (first Principal Component) for SNPs that had at least one of the three tests (heterozygous, rare homozygous or trend) with a P-value below 0.01. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051680.tStratifying on ethnicity shows that most of the SNPs SPI 1005 site associated with the pathway, sub-pathways, and SNPs in the whole sample are also detected in Caucasians, which represents more than 80 of the sample, but not in African Americans (Tables 2, 3, and Table S2).(-)-Calyculin A site DiscussionIn this integrative analysis of the association of advanced prostate cancer risk with candidate genes involved in innate immunity and inflammation, we studied 320 SNPs and their joint effects across genes and sub-pathways. Taken as a whole, the overall innate immunity and inflammation pathway seems to be involved in advanced prostate cancer, but the individual elements of this association are not clear. Indeed, the whole set of 320 SNPs is significantly associated with advanced prostate cancer risk. However, none of the other evaluated associations with subpathways, genes, or individual SNPs were significant, when correcting for multiple testing by making permutation based estimates of the family-wise error rate. Nonetheless, our results suggest that the extracellular pattern recognition, the intracellular antiviral molecules, and the eicosanoid signaling (ie, COX-2) could be components that play a potential role in advanced prostate cancer risk. Within those subpathways, 5 genes (TLR1, TLR6, OAS1, OAS2, and COX-2) were nominally associated with advanced prostate cancer risk. Moreover, these genes harbor several SNPs nominally associated with advanced prostate cancer risk. TLR1 and TLR6 encode members of the toll-like receptor family. Their role is to recognize molecular patterns associated to infectious pathogens. Both are highly conserved from Drosophilia to humans and share structural and functional similarities. Moreover, TLR1 and TLR6 also share the ability to form a heterodimer with TLR2 to recognize peptidoglycan and lipoproteins on pathogens. TLR1 is specialized in the recognition of gram-positive bacteria. Several.Nd (A)TLR1 (4)rsAA AG GG trend (G)TGFBR1 (9)rsAA AG GG trend (G)TLR6 (4)rsGG GA AA trend (A)TLR6 (4)rsGG GA AA trend (A)TLR1 (4)rsGG GT TT trend (T)OAS2 (12)rsGG GC CC trend (C) 0.70 (0.54, 0.92) 0.67 (0.43, 1.05) 0.77 (0.64, 0.94) 1 (Ref) 0.68 (0.51, 0.90) 0.77 (0.36, 1.62) 0.74 (0.58, 0.94) 1 (Ref) 0.64 (0.49, 0.85) 0.71 (0.48, 1.03) 0.79 (0.66, 0.95) 1 (Ref) 1.03 (0.80, 1.33) 3.27 (1.55, 7.55) 1.21 (0.97, 1.51) 0.012 0.080 0.010 ?0.007 0.496 0.013 ?0.002 0.074 0.014 ?0.808 0.003 0.1.22 (0.54, 2.74) 1.17 1676428 (0.05, 30.16) 1.18 (0.58, 2.44) 1 (Ref) 0.67 (0.33, 1.32) ?0.57 (0.3, 1.05) 1 (Ref) 0.39 (0.17, 0.86) 0.83 (0.35, 1.91) 0.97 (0.64, 1.47) 1 (Ref) 0.78 (0.44, 1.38) ?0.78 (0.44, 1.38)COX-2 (1)rsGG GA AA trend (A)OAS1 (12)rsCC CA AA trend (A)OAS2 (12)rsCC CA AA trend (A)Innate Immunity Inflammation in Prostate CancerTable 3. Cont.Gene (chromosome)SNPOverall OR (95 CI) P-value ?0.111 0.005 0.African Americans OR (95 CI) 1 (Ref) 0.75 (0.41, 1.38) 5.67 (1.36, 38.68) 1.23 (0.77, 1.99) P-value ?0.360 0.033 0.Caucasians OR (95 CI) 1 (Ref) 0.81 (0.59, 1.11) 3.48 (1.05, 15.66) 0.97 (0.73, 1.28) P-value ?0.190 0.061 0.TLR4 (9)rsTT TC CC trend (C)1 (Ref) 0.79 (0.60, 1.05) 4.13 (1.63, 12.6) 1.03 (0.81, 1.31)Odds ratios (OR), 95 confidence intervals (95 CI) and P-values obtained using the unconditional multivariate logistic model adjusted on age, institution, and genetic ancestry (first Principal Component) for SNPs that had at least one of the three tests (heterozygous, rare homozygous or trend) with a P-value below 0.01. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051680.tStratifying on ethnicity shows that most of the SNPs associated with the pathway, sub-pathways, and SNPs in the whole sample are also detected in Caucasians, which represents more than 80 of the sample, but not in African Americans (Tables 2, 3, and Table S2).DiscussionIn this integrative analysis of the association of advanced prostate cancer risk with candidate genes involved in innate immunity and inflammation, we studied 320 SNPs and their joint effects across genes and sub-pathways. Taken as a whole, the overall innate immunity and inflammation pathway seems to be involved in advanced prostate cancer, but the individual elements of this association are not clear. Indeed, the whole set of 320 SNPs is significantly associated with advanced prostate cancer risk. However, none of the other evaluated associations with subpathways, genes, or individual SNPs were significant, when correcting for multiple testing by making permutation based estimates of the family-wise error rate. Nonetheless, our results suggest that the extracellular pattern recognition, the intracellular antiviral molecules, and the eicosanoid signaling (ie, COX-2) could be components that play a potential role in advanced prostate cancer risk. Within those subpathways, 5 genes (TLR1, TLR6, OAS1, OAS2, and COX-2) were nominally associated with advanced prostate cancer risk. Moreover, these genes harbor several SNPs nominally associated with advanced prostate cancer risk. TLR1 and TLR6 encode members of the toll-like receptor family. Their role is to recognize molecular patterns associated to infectious pathogens. Both are highly conserved from Drosophilia to humans and share structural and functional similarities. Moreover, TLR1 and TLR6 also share the ability to form a heterodimer with TLR2 to recognize peptidoglycan and lipoproteins on pathogens. TLR1 is specialized in the recognition of gram-positive bacteria. Several.

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