He role played by MR on angiogenesis in CRC and in

He role played by MR on angiogenesis in CRC and in the light of the important role played by angiogenic factors directly produced by tumor cells in tumorigenesis, we set up an in vitro model by transfecting HCT116, a colon cancer cell line in which endogenous MR protein level was barely detectable (Fig. 3A, upper part), with an efficient MR gene expression system (pchMR plasmid) [25]. We showed that at least 50 of HCT116 cells in culture could be routinely transfected (see Material and Methods) and express MR protein at significant levels, as shown by comparing them to HEK293 cells, taken as a positive control (Fig. 3A, upper part). [31] In addition, using different approaches, we showed that in pchMR-transfected HCT116 cells MR is functionally activated by agonists. Indeed, after the supply of aldosterone, MR underwent specific post-translational modifications (Fig. 3A, lower panel), the transcription of a MR reporter plasmid containing luciferase gene was strongly enhanced (Fig. 3B), and MR was translocated into the cell nucleus with the expected kinetics (Fig. 3C). In particular, aldosterone given to the cells grown in medium supplied with either 0.1 or 10 charcoal stripped fetal calf serum significantly enhanced the levels of the luciferase activity (16 folds in aldosterone-treated pchMR-transfected cells vs -untreated controls). It should be noted that luciferase activity was also activated by growing cells in 10 fetal calf serum which naturally contains MR agonists, thus representing a more physiological condition (5 folds in pchMR-transfected versus pcDNA3-transfected cells)ImmunofluorescenceFor an extensive description, please see text S1 in online supplement. Fixed cells were incubated with anti-MR antibody (dilution 1:100) and with Alexa Fluor 448 goat anti-mouse IgG, (Invitrogen). Cell nuclei were counterstained with DAPI. Cells were imaged by the LSM confocal microscope (Zeiss).Statistical AnalysisSummary statistics for continuous variables with non-normal distribution (as evaluated by Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests) are presented as medians, while normally distributed variables are summarized as means 6 SEM. Group SMER 28 manufacturer differences were analyzed with Wilcoxon ann hitney, Student’s t-test or ANOVA followed by Bonferroni t-test as appropriate. The correlation between the expression of MR and CD34 was evaluated by applying Cohen’s Kappa and Kramer’s Phi tests. The KaplanMeier method and LogRank test were used to examine the effects of different variables on overall survival. No multivariate analysis was performed given the 1948-33-0 web limited sample size and the low ratio of events per variable. The statistical analysis has been performed using the open source statistical package R. All statistical tests were two-tailed and performed at p of 0.05.MR Activity Attenuates VEGF/KDR Pathways in CRCFigure 1. IHC pattern of CD34 and Mineralorticoid Receptor expression in normal colonic mucosa (A) and colonic adenocarcinoma (B) (A, left panel). Scattered vessels positive for CD34 in lamina propria. (x20) and (A right panel) Diffuse nuclear positivity for MR in crypts of colonic mucosa. (x40). (B) H E: Adenocarcinoma of the colon, moderately differentiated as shown by Haematoxylin-Eosin staining. CD34: Focal positivity for CD34 in vessels present in the tumor. MR: Diffuse nuclear and cytoplasmatic positivity for MR in tumor cells. Magnification: (a), x10; (b), x20; (c), x40. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059410.g(Fig. 3B). [32] Induction of luciferase activit.He role played by MR on angiogenesis in CRC and in the light of the important role played by angiogenic factors directly produced by tumor cells in tumorigenesis, we set up an in vitro model by transfecting HCT116, a colon cancer cell line in which endogenous MR protein level was barely detectable (Fig. 3A, upper part), with an efficient MR gene expression system (pchMR plasmid) [25]. We showed that at least 50 of HCT116 cells in culture could be routinely transfected (see Material and Methods) and express MR protein at significant levels, as shown by comparing them to HEK293 cells, taken as a positive control (Fig. 3A, upper part). [31] In addition, using different approaches, we showed that in pchMR-transfected HCT116 cells MR is functionally activated by agonists. Indeed, after the supply of aldosterone, MR underwent specific post-translational modifications (Fig. 3A, lower panel), the transcription of a MR reporter plasmid containing luciferase gene was strongly enhanced (Fig. 3B), and MR was translocated into the cell nucleus with the expected kinetics (Fig. 3C). In particular, aldosterone given to the cells grown in medium supplied with either 0.1 or 10 charcoal stripped fetal calf serum significantly enhanced the levels of the luciferase activity (16 folds in aldosterone-treated pchMR-transfected cells vs -untreated controls). It should be noted that luciferase activity was also activated by growing cells in 10 fetal calf serum which naturally contains MR agonists, thus representing a more physiological condition (5 folds in pchMR-transfected versus pcDNA3-transfected cells)ImmunofluorescenceFor an extensive description, please see text S1 in online supplement. Fixed cells were incubated with anti-MR antibody (dilution 1:100) and with Alexa Fluor 448 goat anti-mouse IgG, (Invitrogen). Cell nuclei were counterstained with DAPI. Cells were imaged by the LSM confocal microscope (Zeiss).Statistical AnalysisSummary statistics for continuous variables with non-normal distribution (as evaluated by Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests) are presented as medians, while normally distributed variables are summarized as means 6 SEM. Group differences were analyzed with Wilcoxon ann hitney, Student’s t-test or ANOVA followed by Bonferroni t-test as appropriate. The correlation between the expression of MR and CD34 was evaluated by applying Cohen’s Kappa and Kramer’s Phi tests. The KaplanMeier method and LogRank test were used to examine the effects of different variables on overall survival. No multivariate analysis was performed given the limited sample size and the low ratio of events per variable. The statistical analysis has been performed using the open source statistical package R. All statistical tests were two-tailed and performed at p of 0.05.MR Activity Attenuates VEGF/KDR Pathways in CRCFigure 1. IHC pattern of CD34 and Mineralorticoid Receptor expression in normal colonic mucosa (A) and colonic adenocarcinoma (B) (A, left panel). Scattered vessels positive for CD34 in lamina propria. (x20) and (A right panel) Diffuse nuclear positivity for MR in crypts of colonic mucosa. (x40). (B) H E: Adenocarcinoma of the colon, moderately differentiated as shown by Haematoxylin-Eosin staining. CD34: Focal positivity for CD34 in vessels present in the tumor. MR: Diffuse nuclear and cytoplasmatic positivity for MR in tumor cells. Magnification: (a), x10; (b), x20; (c), x40. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059410.g(Fig. 3B). [32] Induction of luciferase activit.

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