Nsidered susceptible, intermediate resistant, and resistant, respectively. Susceptibility assays on plates

Nsidered susceptible, intermediate resistant, and resistant, respectively. Susceptibility assays on plates were also used to compare differences in ampicillin resistance among S. oneidensis strains. In this case, ISC cultures were used to prepare a decimal dilution CASIN web series. Three ml of each dilution was placed onto LB plates supplemented withGrowth and pellicle formation of S. oneidensisPellicle formation of S. oneidensis was achieved essentially as described previously [23]. In brief, cultures grown to the lateexponential phase (,0.6 of OD600) were used as initiation seeding cultures (ISC) to prepare the starting cultures for various experiments. For growth measurement and pellicle formation, the starting cultures were prepared by a 1:100 dilution of ISC with fresh LB broth. Cultures were incubated at 30uC in an incubator shaker at 200 rpm. For pellicle formation, the diluted culturesExpression of blaA in S. oneidensisTable 3. Bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study.Strain or plasmid E. coli strains DH5a WMDescriptionReference or sourceHost for regular cloning Donor strain for conjugation; DdapALab stock W. Metcalf, UIUCS. oneidensis strains MR-1 HG0541 HG0837 HG0914 HG0999 HG1164 HG2388 HG2394 HG3054 HG3474 HGA0149 Wild type SO0541 in-frame mutant Pentagastrin web derived from MR-1; DSO0541 blaA in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DblaA SO0914 in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DSO0914 pbpG in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DpbpG dacB in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DdacB ampC in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DampC dacA in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DdacA SO3054 in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DSO3054 SO3474 in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DSO3474 SOA0149 in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DSOA0149 Lab stock This study This study This study This study This study This study This study This study This study This studyPlasmids pDS3.0 pHG101 pHG102 pTP327 pTP327-PblaA pTP327-PdacB Ampr, Gmr, derivative from suicide vector pCVD442 Promoterless broad host Kmr vector used for complementation pHG101 containing the arcA promoter Apr, Tetr, Broad host lacZ reporter vector pTP327 containing 400 bp upstream sequence of blaA pTP327 containing 400 bp upstream sequence of dacB Lab stock [29] [29] [30] This study This studydoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060460.tantibiotics at different concentrations. The plates were incubated for 18 hours at 30uC and then photographed. Liquid cultures were utilized to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The starting cultures were prepared by a 1:100 dilution of ISC with fresh LB medium supplemented with the antibiotics of interest. The cultures were incubated as described above. The MIC for a given agent was recorded as the lowest concentration that completely inhibited growth in 18 h.b-lactamase activity assayb-lactamase activity was determined using the iodometric method as described elsewhere [31,32]. Cells at the lateexponential phase (,0.6 of OD600) were harvested by centrifugation at 4uC washed with PBS (phosphate buffered saline). The optical density (OD620) of the reaction mix was recorded over time.Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysisQuantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was carried out with an ABI7300 96-well qRT-PCR system (Applied Biosystems) essentially as described previously [45]. The expression of each gene was determined from three replicas in a single real-time qRT-PCR experiment. The Cycle threshold (CT) values for each gene of interest were ave.Nsidered susceptible, intermediate resistant, and resistant, respectively. Susceptibility assays on plates were also used to compare differences in ampicillin resistance among S. oneidensis strains. In this case, ISC cultures were used to prepare a decimal dilution series. Three ml of each dilution was placed onto LB plates supplemented withGrowth and pellicle formation of S. oneidensisPellicle formation of S. oneidensis was achieved essentially as described previously [23]. In brief, cultures grown to the lateexponential phase (,0.6 of OD600) were used as initiation seeding cultures (ISC) to prepare the starting cultures for various experiments. For growth measurement and pellicle formation, the starting cultures were prepared by a 1:100 dilution of ISC with fresh LB broth. Cultures were incubated at 30uC in an incubator shaker at 200 rpm. For pellicle formation, the diluted culturesExpression of blaA in S. oneidensisTable 3. Bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study.Strain or plasmid E. coli strains DH5a WMDescriptionReference or sourceHost for regular cloning Donor strain for conjugation; DdapALab stock W. Metcalf, UIUCS. oneidensis strains MR-1 HG0541 HG0837 HG0914 HG0999 HG1164 HG2388 HG2394 HG3054 HG3474 HGA0149 Wild type SO0541 in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DSO0541 blaA in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DblaA SO0914 in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DSO0914 pbpG in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DpbpG dacB in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DdacB ampC in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DampC dacA in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DdacA SO3054 in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DSO3054 SO3474 in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DSO3474 SOA0149 in-frame mutant derived from MR-1; DSOA0149 Lab stock This study This study This study This study This study This study This study This study This study This studyPlasmids pDS3.0 pHG101 pHG102 pTP327 pTP327-PblaA pTP327-PdacB Ampr, Gmr, derivative from suicide vector pCVD442 Promoterless broad host Kmr vector used for complementation pHG101 containing the arcA promoter Apr, Tetr, Broad host lacZ reporter vector pTP327 containing 400 bp upstream sequence of blaA pTP327 containing 400 bp upstream sequence of dacB Lab stock [29] [29] [30] This study This studydoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060460.tantibiotics at different concentrations. The plates were incubated for 18 hours at 30uC and then photographed. Liquid cultures were utilized to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The starting cultures were prepared by a 1:100 dilution of ISC with fresh LB medium supplemented with the antibiotics of interest. The cultures were incubated as described above. The MIC for a given agent was recorded as the lowest concentration that completely inhibited growth in 18 h.b-lactamase activity assayb-lactamase activity was determined using the iodometric method as described elsewhere [31,32]. Cells at the lateexponential phase (,0.6 of OD600) were harvested by centrifugation at 4uC washed with PBS (phosphate buffered saline). The optical density (OD620) of the reaction mix was recorded over time.Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysisQuantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was carried out with an ABI7300 96-well qRT-PCR system (Applied Biosystems) essentially as described previously [45]. The expression of each gene was determined from three replicas in a single real-time qRT-PCR experiment. The Cycle threshold (CT) values for each gene of interest were ave.

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