Ing Residence Administrative Committees (RACs) of approximately 1,000 persons (all ages). By

Ing Residence Administrative Committees (RACs) of approximately 1,000 persons (all ages). By using 2000 (-)-Indolactam V census information, the residents of RAC that had total populations larger than 1,500 were subdivided, and the residents of RAC smaller than 500 were grouped in defining clusters for sampling. Forty-two clusters were defined for random sampling. With an estimated 18.9 of the Beixinjing Blocks population aged60 years or older, the typical cluster was 18325633 estimated to contain approximately 190 study participants. The required sample size was calculated based on estimating with 95 confidence the prevalence of ERM in the Handan Eye Study (3.4 ) [25]. The required sample size with simple random sampling can be calculated as n1662274 residents. Near the end of this study, the eligible residents who had not participated in the field examination on the previously scheduled day were notified by phone about another examination date. The research group included one lead ophthalmic doctor who had prior ��-Sitosterol ��-D-glucoside web experience organizing large-scale epidemiologic studies, four trained ophthalmologists from Shanghai First People’s Hospital, affiliated Shanghai Jiaotong University, and two trained physicians from Bingxinjing Community Hospital. Before formal investigation, the members of the research group had trained for two weeks to understand the purpose of the study, methods, and detailed steps for each variable (such as familiar with correct filling sheets, standard operating procedures of inspection equipment, and diagnosis, classification and grading criteria of iERM). Written informed consent was first obtained from all study participants. A detailed interview was conducted to collect information regarding demographics (including age, gender, employment status, years of formal education after kindergarten, height, and weight), histories of diagnosis and treatment relating to systemic comorbidities (such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiocerebrovascular diseases) and ocular diseases (such as DR, cataract, and glaucoma). After that, all eligible participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Visual acuity of each eye was measured using the log of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart at a distance of 4 m, with illumination 300 lux. In participants who were wearing glasses in their daily lives, visual acuity was measured with their spectacles. Both types of visual acuity mentioned above are known as the presenting visual acuity [36]. In addition, pinhole-corrected visual acuity was measured in participants with a presenting visual acuity worse than 0.7 in either eye. Anterior segment examinations with a slit-l.Ing Residence Administrative Committees (RACs) of approximately 1,000 persons (all ages). By using 2000 census information, the residents of RAC that had total populations larger than 1,500 were subdivided, and the residents of RAC smaller than 500 were grouped in defining clusters for sampling. Forty-two clusters were defined for random sampling. With an estimated 18.9 of the Beixinjing Blocks population aged60 years or older, the typical cluster was 18325633 estimated to contain approximately 190 study participants. The required sample size was calculated based on estimating with 95 confidence the prevalence of ERM in the Handan Eye Study (3.4 ) [25]. The required sample size with simple random sampling can be calculated as n1662274 residents. Near the end of this study, the eligible residents who had not participated in the field examination on the previously scheduled day were notified by phone about another examination date. The research group included one lead ophthalmic doctor who had prior experience organizing large-scale epidemiologic studies, four trained ophthalmologists from Shanghai First People’s Hospital, affiliated Shanghai Jiaotong University, and two trained physicians from Bingxinjing Community Hospital. Before formal investigation, the members of the research group had trained for two weeks to understand the purpose of the study, methods, and detailed steps for each variable (such as familiar with correct filling sheets, standard operating procedures of inspection equipment, and diagnosis, classification and grading criteria of iERM). Written informed consent was first obtained from all study participants. A detailed interview was conducted to collect information regarding demographics (including age, gender, employment status, years of formal education after kindergarten, height, and weight), histories of diagnosis and treatment relating to systemic comorbidities (such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiocerebrovascular diseases) and ocular diseases (such as DR, cataract, and glaucoma). After that, all eligible participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Visual acuity of each eye was measured using the log of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart at a distance of 4 m, with illumination 300 lux. In participants who were wearing glasses in their daily lives, visual acuity was measured with their spectacles. Both types of visual acuity mentioned above are known as the presenting visual acuity [36]. In addition, pinhole-corrected visual acuity was measured in participants with a presenting visual acuity worse than 0.7 in either eye. Anterior segment examinations with a slit-l.

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