Her optimization of AAV2 vectors by targeting surface-exposed amino acid residues

Her optimization of AAV2 vectors by targeting surface-exposed amino acid residues involved in capsid phosphorylation is feasible. The various combinations of surface tyrosine, serine, and threonine modifications clearly showed that there is an optimal combination to achieve maximal augmentation. These studies also highlighted the requirement for specific residue types in AAV interactions during infection and for enhancing transduction. It is possible that the individual mutations, which did not show a significant increase in the transduction efficiency as single changes, can form superior vectors when combined in a single capsid. However, considering the large Mirin supplier number of possible mutation combinations that would have to be produced and evaluated, it is not possible to identify such combinations empirically. Also, the transduction efficiency of novel capsid-modified vectors can be variable for different cell types, and depends on the expression profile and the levels of activity of the kinases involved in AAV capsid phosphorylation [12]. Another possibility for further capsid improvement is to target tyrosine, serine, and threonine residues which are not surface-exposed on the capsid but can be accessible for phosphorylation by kinases during various steps of intracellular trafficking of the virus since the capsid is expected to undergo conformational changes during this process. These KDM5A-IN-1 price possibilities require additional studies. The studies have resulted in the development of a novel optimized quadruple-mutant (Y444+500+730F+T491V) AAVvector which is capable of mediating high-efficiency transduction of hepatocytes. This mutant holds promise as a potential vector for liver-directed gene therapy. Furthermore, most of the threonine residues mutated are 1531364 conserved in other clinically relevant AAV serotypes, thus their modification would significantly add to the current repertoire of optimized AAV vectors for potential use in human gene therapy.Supporting InformationTable S1 Mutations of surface-exposed tyrosine (Y), serine (S), and threonine (T) residues on the AAV2 capsid. (DOCX)AcknowledgmentsWe thank Drs. R. Jude Samulski and Xiao Xiao for their kind gifts of recombinant AAV plasmids. We also thank Drs. Kenneth I. Berns and Nicholas Muzyczka for a critical review of this manuscript.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: GA AR MT MM AS. Performed the experiments: GA AR LO LS CL LG. Analyzed the data: GA AR KVV MT MM AS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: GA AR MM AS. Wrote the paper: GA MT MM AS.
The majority of individuals living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa are women, most of whom are of reproductive age. [1] 18204824 In South Africa, where one-sixth of all HIV-infected individuals in the world live, HIV is particularly common among young women and most especially young pregnant women [2,3] among whom prevalence was estimated at nearly 30 nationally in 2008 [4]. Pregnancy is an indication for HAART initiation [5], and in addition pregnancy is common after HAART initiation [6,7,8,9,10]. We estimated previously that of women ages 18?5 initiating HAART, 44 would have an incident pregnancy within four years [11], while a recent study by Myer et al. estimated that use of HAART was associated with a 70 higher rate of pregnancy (adjusted hazard ratio 1.7, 95 confidence limits 1.2, 2.5) [8]. While numerous studies have examined optimal methods for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV and subsequent response.Her optimization of AAV2 vectors by targeting surface-exposed amino acid residues involved in capsid phosphorylation is feasible. The various combinations of surface tyrosine, serine, and threonine modifications clearly showed that there is an optimal combination to achieve maximal augmentation. These studies also highlighted the requirement for specific residue types in AAV interactions during infection and for enhancing transduction. It is possible that the individual mutations, which did not show a significant increase in the transduction efficiency as single changes, can form superior vectors when combined in a single capsid. However, considering the large number of possible mutation combinations that would have to be produced and evaluated, it is not possible to identify such combinations empirically. Also, the transduction efficiency of novel capsid-modified vectors can be variable for different cell types, and depends on the expression profile and the levels of activity of the kinases involved in AAV capsid phosphorylation [12]. Another possibility for further capsid improvement is to target tyrosine, serine, and threonine residues which are not surface-exposed on the capsid but can be accessible for phosphorylation by kinases during various steps of intracellular trafficking of the virus since the capsid is expected to undergo conformational changes during this process. These possibilities require additional studies. The studies have resulted in the development of a novel optimized quadruple-mutant (Y444+500+730F+T491V) AAVvector which is capable of mediating high-efficiency transduction of hepatocytes. This mutant holds promise as a potential vector for liver-directed gene therapy. Furthermore, most of the threonine residues mutated are 1531364 conserved in other clinically relevant AAV serotypes, thus their modification would significantly add to the current repertoire of optimized AAV vectors for potential use in human gene therapy.Supporting InformationTable S1 Mutations of surface-exposed tyrosine (Y), serine (S), and threonine (T) residues on the AAV2 capsid. (DOCX)AcknowledgmentsWe thank Drs. R. Jude Samulski and Xiao Xiao for their kind gifts of recombinant AAV plasmids. We also thank Drs. Kenneth I. Berns and Nicholas Muzyczka for a critical review of this manuscript.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: GA AR MT MM AS. Performed the experiments: GA AR LO LS CL LG. Analyzed the data: GA AR KVV MT MM AS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: GA AR MM AS. Wrote the paper: GA MT MM AS.
The majority of individuals living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa are women, most of whom are of reproductive age. [1] 18204824 In South Africa, where one-sixth of all HIV-infected individuals in the world live, HIV is particularly common among young women and most especially young pregnant women [2,3] among whom prevalence was estimated at nearly 30 nationally in 2008 [4]. Pregnancy is an indication for HAART initiation [5], and in addition pregnancy is common after HAART initiation [6,7,8,9,10]. We estimated previously that of women ages 18?5 initiating HAART, 44 would have an incident pregnancy within four years [11], while a recent study by Myer et al. estimated that use of HAART was associated with a 70 higher rate of pregnancy (adjusted hazard ratio 1.7, 95 confidence limits 1.2, 2.5) [8]. While numerous studies have examined optimal methods for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV and subsequent response.

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