E) in the Oueme department ???` ` ??(6u349711E ?2u319358N) in Southern

E) in the Oueme department ???` ` ??(6u349711E ?2u319358N) in Southern Benin. The Anopheles funestus mosquitoes were collected in 3 villages in the district of Ouidah: Tokoli (6u26957.199N, 2u09936.699E), Lokohoue (6u24924.299N, 2u10932.199E) and Kindjitokpa ` (6u26957.199N, 2u09936.699E) where this species is known to be the main malaria vector [3]. The temperatures in these areas vary between 25uC and 30uC with an annual rainfall ranging from 900 mm to 1500 mm.Mosquito Collection and Sample ProcessingIndoor and outdoor mosquito collections were conducted in two sites per village using the human landing catch technique (HLC). Collectors were hourly rotated along collection sites and/or position (indoor/outdoor). At each position, all mosquitoes caught were kept in individual tubes and in hourly bags. The collection period took place at the night between 21:00 and 05:00 AM. Mosquitoes were also captured by using window traps placed in different houses in each village. The houses were selected according to the number of the people sleeping there. Traps were placed on the outside windows in each selected house from 6 PM up to 6 AM. Mosquitoes were then transferred in the cups, using a vacuum for the identification of anopheline species.Identification of Sibling Species and Infection RatesAll collected mosquitoes were first identified through morphological identification keys [20,21,22]. Female mosquitoes identified as An. 47931-85-1 gambiae sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae) and An.funestus group were taken to CREC laboratory and stored at 220uC in Eppendorf tubes with silica gel for subsequent analyses. Heads and thoraces of An. funestus and An. gambiae s.l. were processed for detection of P. order 58-49-1 falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) using ELISA technique as described [11,12]. Abdomen and legs were used for DNA extraction destined to molecular identification of sibling species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as described previously [23,24].Plasmodium Genomic DNA Samples, Plasmid Clones and DNA StandardsMosquito’s homogenates of the head-thorax obtained from the preparation meant for ELISA-CSP (100 Anopheles gambiae and 100 Anopheles funestus) and stored at 220uC was later used for DNA extraction. Genomic DNA was extracted from the homogenates using the DNeasyH Blood Tissue kit (Qiagen) as recommended by the 23727046 manufacturer. The DNA was eluted in 100 mL and stored at 220uC. Plasmodium genomic DNAs of P. vivax, P. malariae or P. ovale and plasmids containing insert of the 18S gene of each of those species were kindly provided by Dr Stephanie Yanow at the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. For P.falciparum the 18S gene was amplified from 3D7 gDNA (MR4) using outer primers of the Nested PCR established by Snounou et al. [14,25], and cloned into the pGEM-T vector (Promega). The insert quality was verified by sequencing. In plasmid-mixing experiments where 1.102, 1.105, and 1.107 copies of one plasmid were mixed with similar copy numbers of the second plasmid, or 1.102 copies of one plasmid were mixed withReal-Time PCR Detection of Plasmodium in Mosquito1.103, 1.104, and 1.105 copy numbers of the second plasmid and used as the template for the real-time PCR. Cycle threshold (CT) values were based on duplicate samples. Plasmid copy number quantification was performed by the spectrophotometric analysis. For normalization purpose, specific primers were selected and the mosquito RS7 (ribosomal protein S7) gene was amplified.E) in the Oueme department ???` ` ??(6u349711E ?2u319358N) in Southern Benin. The Anopheles funestus mosquitoes were collected in 3 villages in the district of Ouidah: Tokoli (6u26957.199N, 2u09936.699E), Lokohoue (6u24924.299N, 2u10932.199E) and Kindjitokpa ` (6u26957.199N, 2u09936.699E) where this species is known to be the main malaria vector [3]. The temperatures in these areas vary between 25uC and 30uC with an annual rainfall ranging from 900 mm to 1500 mm.Mosquito Collection and Sample ProcessingIndoor and outdoor mosquito collections were conducted in two sites per village using the human landing catch technique (HLC). Collectors were hourly rotated along collection sites and/or position (indoor/outdoor). At each position, all mosquitoes caught were kept in individual tubes and in hourly bags. The collection period took place at the night between 21:00 and 05:00 AM. Mosquitoes were also captured by using window traps placed in different houses in each village. The houses were selected according to the number of the people sleeping there. Traps were placed on the outside windows in each selected house from 6 PM up to 6 AM. Mosquitoes were then transferred in the cups, using a vacuum for the identification of anopheline species.Identification of Sibling Species and Infection RatesAll collected mosquitoes were first identified through morphological identification keys [20,21,22]. Female mosquitoes identified as An. gambiae sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae) and An.funestus group were taken to CREC laboratory and stored at 220uC in Eppendorf tubes with silica gel for subsequent analyses. Heads and thoraces of An. funestus and An. gambiae s.l. were processed for detection of P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) using ELISA technique as described [11,12]. Abdomen and legs were used for DNA extraction destined to molecular identification of sibling species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as described previously [23,24].Plasmodium Genomic DNA Samples, Plasmid Clones and DNA StandardsMosquito’s homogenates of the head-thorax obtained from the preparation meant for ELISA-CSP (100 Anopheles gambiae and 100 Anopheles funestus) and stored at 220uC was later used for DNA extraction. Genomic DNA was extracted from the homogenates using the DNeasyH Blood Tissue kit (Qiagen) as recommended by the 23727046 manufacturer. The DNA was eluted in 100 mL and stored at 220uC. Plasmodium genomic DNAs of P. vivax, P. malariae or P. ovale and plasmids containing insert of the 18S gene of each of those species were kindly provided by Dr Stephanie Yanow at the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. For P.falciparum the 18S gene was amplified from 3D7 gDNA (MR4) using outer primers of the Nested PCR established by Snounou et al. [14,25], and cloned into the pGEM-T vector (Promega). The insert quality was verified by sequencing. In plasmid-mixing experiments where 1.102, 1.105, and 1.107 copies of one plasmid were mixed with similar copy numbers of the second plasmid, or 1.102 copies of one plasmid were mixed withReal-Time PCR Detection of Plasmodium in Mosquito1.103, 1.104, and 1.105 copy numbers of the second plasmid and used as the template for the real-time PCR. Cycle threshold (CT) values were based on duplicate samples. Plasmid copy number quantification was performed by the spectrophotometric analysis. For normalization purpose, specific primers were selected and the mosquito RS7 (ribosomal protein S7) gene was amplified.

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