G differed between EPHB6 wildytpe and mutant. It is possible that

G differed between EPHB6 wildytpe and mutant. It is possible that signaling differences exist between the wildtype and the mutant receptor. On the other hand, it might also be interesting to speculate that the mutant receptor might act dominant negative towards other inhibitory EPH receptors. This dominant negative activity might lead to the observation of potential gain of function potency. Clearly, future studies might reveal the underlying differences in signaling and the influence of other member of the EPH and EPH-receptor networks. Future studies might also reveal the functional effects of the non-del915-917 mutations. It is likely that these also inactivate EPHB6 but this needs to be confirmed in the future. Recently, we could demonstrate that EPHB6 is frequently silenced by epigenetic mechanisms in lung cancer [21], and others could show the same inactivation mechanism in breast cancer [14]. Our studies also indicated that loss of EPHB6 induces a highly metastatic phenotype. In line, EPHB6 is the receptor tyrosine kinase for which low expression was most closely related with poor prognosis in early stage non-small cell lung cancer [20]. EPHB6 might play an important role in lung cancer metastasis given that it is frequently epigenetically silenced and/or HDAC-IN-3 mutated in a significant fraction of patients. This makes it possible that EPHB6 is a relevant modifier of metastatic capacity in lung cancer. Taken together, mutations in EPHB6 occurring in non-small cell lung cancer might lead towards a pro-metastatic phenotype. Loss of EPHB6 function by decreased expression or mutational inactivation might therefore contribute to lung cancer metastasis.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful to Dr. Jianping Wu (University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada) for providing EPHB6 cDNA.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: EB JY CMT. Performed the experiments: EB JY AH SK RW UK BT AM LH KW WEB AS. Analyzed the data: EB JY AH UK CMT. Wrote the paper: EB JY AH UK CMT.
Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, with black tea accounting for 78 of the production. Consumption of tea has been associated with many health benefits including the prevention of cancer and heart disease [1?], a phenomenon mostly attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. Theaflavins including theaflavin (TF), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF3G), theaflavin-39-gallate (TF39G), and theaflavin-3,39-digallate (TFDG) (Figure 1) are the major bioactive polyphenols present in black tea. They are formed from co-oxidation of selected pairs of catechins in tea leaves during fermentation [4]. Recently, theaflavins have received extensive attention due to their antioxidative, 478-01-3 price anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities [5,6]. However, it has been reported that theaflavins have poor systemic bioavailability. Very limited amounts of TFDG(,1 nmol/g tissue) were detected in tissue samples collected from mice treated with decaffeinated black tea (50 mg/g diet) for two weeks [7]. The Cmax of theaflavin in human plasma and urine was only 1 ng/mL and 4.2 ng/mL, respectively, following consumption of 700 mg of a pure mixture of theaflavins; which is equivalent to about 30 cups of black tea [8]. Neither theaflavin mono- nor di-gallates were detectable in this study. It has become clear that the bioavailability of theaflavins generally is far too low to explain direct 23115181 bioactivities. In general, large molecular weight polyphenols (eg, M.W. .500) are thought to be poorl.G differed between EPHB6 wildytpe and mutant. It is possible that signaling differences exist between the wildtype and the mutant receptor. On the other hand, it might also be interesting to speculate that the mutant receptor might act dominant negative towards other inhibitory EPH receptors. This dominant negative activity might lead to the observation of potential gain of function potency. Clearly, future studies might reveal the underlying differences in signaling and the influence of other member of the EPH and EPH-receptor networks. Future studies might also reveal the functional effects of the non-del915-917 mutations. It is likely that these also inactivate EPHB6 but this needs to be confirmed in the future. Recently, we could demonstrate that EPHB6 is frequently silenced by epigenetic mechanisms in lung cancer [21], and others could show the same inactivation mechanism in breast cancer [14]. Our studies also indicated that loss of EPHB6 induces a highly metastatic phenotype. In line, EPHB6 is the receptor tyrosine kinase for which low expression was most closely related with poor prognosis in early stage non-small cell lung cancer [20]. EPHB6 might play an important role in lung cancer metastasis given that it is frequently epigenetically silenced and/or mutated in a significant fraction of patients. This makes it possible that EPHB6 is a relevant modifier of metastatic capacity in lung cancer. Taken together, mutations in EPHB6 occurring in non-small cell lung cancer might lead towards a pro-metastatic phenotype. Loss of EPHB6 function by decreased expression or mutational inactivation might therefore contribute to lung cancer metastasis.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful to Dr. Jianping Wu (University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada) for providing EPHB6 cDNA.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: EB JY CMT. Performed the experiments: EB JY AH SK RW UK BT AM LH KW WEB AS. Analyzed the data: EB JY AH UK CMT. Wrote the paper: EB JY AH UK CMT.
Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, with black tea accounting for 78 of the production. Consumption of tea has been associated with many health benefits including the prevention of cancer and heart disease [1?], a phenomenon mostly attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. Theaflavins including theaflavin (TF), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF3G), theaflavin-39-gallate (TF39G), and theaflavin-3,39-digallate (TFDG) (Figure 1) are the major bioactive polyphenols present in black tea. They are formed from co-oxidation of selected pairs of catechins in tea leaves during fermentation [4]. Recently, theaflavins have received extensive attention due to their antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities [5,6]. However, it has been reported that theaflavins have poor systemic bioavailability. Very limited amounts of TFDG(,1 nmol/g tissue) were detected in tissue samples collected from mice treated with decaffeinated black tea (50 mg/g diet) for two weeks [7]. The Cmax of theaflavin in human plasma and urine was only 1 ng/mL and 4.2 ng/mL, respectively, following consumption of 700 mg of a pure mixture of theaflavins; which is equivalent to about 30 cups of black tea [8]. Neither theaflavin mono- nor di-gallates were detectable in this study. It has become clear that the bioavailability of theaflavins generally is far too low to explain direct 23115181 bioactivities. In general, large molecular weight polyphenols (eg, M.W. .500) are thought to be poorl.

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