S approach, we needed to identify a suitable protease, determine its

S approach, we needed to identify a suitable protease, determine its cleavage rate over a broad INCB-039110 site temperature range, establish its specificity for the unfolded state and test it on a range of protein folds. We considered TL suitable due to several key features: (i) TL is thermostable up to 80uC [11]. (ii) TL preferentially cuts near exposed hydrophobic, bulky and aromatic amino acids, specifically Phe, Leu, Ala, Val and Ile [4,5]. The preference of TL for large hydrophobic and aromatic residues ensures specificity of FASTpp. Folded proteins bury most of these amino acids inside in their hydrophobic core. Only upon unfolding, these residues are exposed and digested by TL. (iii) TL is stable over a wide pH range from 5.5 to 9 [12], it remains active in the presence of high concentrations of chaotropic reagents such as 8 M urea [1] and in the presence of EDTA-free protease inhibitors cocktails. (iv) TL is instantly inhibited by addition of EDTA, which removes TL’ s essential Ca2+ ion [13]. As a first step we needed to validate the activity of TL under the conditions of the FASTpp experiment. We tested the temperature dependence of the proteolysis rate of TL using the unfolded peptide ABZ-Ala-Gly-Leu-Ala-NBA as established fluorogenic model substrate [1]. The fluorescence of this peptide increases upon cleavage by TL. We monitored the reaction from 20 to 80uC and for 3 to 6 nM and obtained the intrinsic rates by fitting the purchase PS 1145 resulting curves to pseudo first-order kinetics as outlined in the methods section (Fig. 2) [1]. The linearly extrapolated rates varied from 1.4 to 2 s21 at a TL concentration of 0.1 g/L, for instance 0.01 g/L TL digest 1.5 mM ABZ-Ala-Gly-Leu-Ala-NBA between 33uC and 80uC within 6 s. Remarkably, TL displayed nearly constant thermal activity 18055761 over this range, rendering it suitable for FASTpp without adjusting the protease concentration for each temperature. TL’s broad permissible temperature range 15755315 suffices to analyse unfolding of most folded domains.Figure 1. FASTpp combines automated temperature control and quantitatively characterised proteolysis to unveal protein interactions and stability. A, Protein stability can be probed by measuring the thermal unfolding transition in the presence of a protease. The folded state resists protease digestion while the unfolded state is readily digested on the same timescale. The thermal unfolding transition of a protein may be shifted to higher temperatures by addition of a ligand of the folded state. A shift to lower transition temperatures may occur upon destabilisation of the protein by, for instance, cancer mutations. B, Temperatures are controlled automatically using a standard gradient PCR setup. A mastermix of sample and protease is prepared on ice or in a cold room at 4uC and subsequently aliquoted to a PCR strip that is simultaneously heated up during the heating time th to a range of melting temperatures that are kept for a variable melting time tm. Subsequently simultaneous cooling (cooling time, tc ) brings all aliquots back to 4uC and the reaction is quenched by addition of EDTA. C, Scheme of all seven processing steps of the FASTpp assay. The representation of the termocycler indicates the automated steps of the FASTpp protocol, the gel indicates the final analysis by SDS-PAGE (T, temperature; DT, change of temperature; x?yuC, melting temperature gradient). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046147.gFASTpp reveals presence of the folded stateWe further tested to which extent TL spe.S approach, we needed to identify a suitable protease, determine its cleavage rate over a broad temperature range, establish its specificity for the unfolded state and test it on a range of protein folds. We considered TL suitable due to several key features: (i) TL is thermostable up to 80uC [11]. (ii) TL preferentially cuts near exposed hydrophobic, bulky and aromatic amino acids, specifically Phe, Leu, Ala, Val and Ile [4,5]. The preference of TL for large hydrophobic and aromatic residues ensures specificity of FASTpp. Folded proteins bury most of these amino acids inside in their hydrophobic core. Only upon unfolding, these residues are exposed and digested by TL. (iii) TL is stable over a wide pH range from 5.5 to 9 [12], it remains active in the presence of high concentrations of chaotropic reagents such as 8 M urea [1] and in the presence of EDTA-free protease inhibitors cocktails. (iv) TL is instantly inhibited by addition of EDTA, which removes TL’ s essential Ca2+ ion [13]. As a first step we needed to validate the activity of TL under the conditions of the FASTpp experiment. We tested the temperature dependence of the proteolysis rate of TL using the unfolded peptide ABZ-Ala-Gly-Leu-Ala-NBA as established fluorogenic model substrate [1]. The fluorescence of this peptide increases upon cleavage by TL. We monitored the reaction from 20 to 80uC and for 3 to 6 nM and obtained the intrinsic rates by fitting the resulting curves to pseudo first-order kinetics as outlined in the methods section (Fig. 2) [1]. The linearly extrapolated rates varied from 1.4 to 2 s21 at a TL concentration of 0.1 g/L, for instance 0.01 g/L TL digest 1.5 mM ABZ-Ala-Gly-Leu-Ala-NBA between 33uC and 80uC within 6 s. Remarkably, TL displayed nearly constant thermal activity 18055761 over this range, rendering it suitable for FASTpp without adjusting the protease concentration for each temperature. TL’s broad permissible temperature range 15755315 suffices to analyse unfolding of most folded domains.Figure 1. FASTpp combines automated temperature control and quantitatively characterised proteolysis to unveal protein interactions and stability. A, Protein stability can be probed by measuring the thermal unfolding transition in the presence of a protease. The folded state resists protease digestion while the unfolded state is readily digested on the same timescale. The thermal unfolding transition of a protein may be shifted to higher temperatures by addition of a ligand of the folded state. A shift to lower transition temperatures may occur upon destabilisation of the protein by, for instance, cancer mutations. B, Temperatures are controlled automatically using a standard gradient PCR setup. A mastermix of sample and protease is prepared on ice or in a cold room at 4uC and subsequently aliquoted to a PCR strip that is simultaneously heated up during the heating time th to a range of melting temperatures that are kept for a variable melting time tm. Subsequently simultaneous cooling (cooling time, tc ) brings all aliquots back to 4uC and the reaction is quenched by addition of EDTA. C, Scheme of all seven processing steps of the FASTpp assay. The representation of the termocycler indicates the automated steps of the FASTpp protocol, the gel indicates the final analysis by SDS-PAGE (T, temperature; DT, change of temperature; x?yuC, melting temperature gradient). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046147.gFASTpp reveals presence of the folded stateWe further tested to which extent TL spe.

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