Urons in the CA1, CA3 and hilus area at 1 week after

Urons in the CA1, CA3 and hilus area at 1 week after seizure. Intraperitoneal injection of CQ provided no protective effects on hippocampal neuronal death. Scale bar = 250 mm. (B) Bar graph shows that the number of NeuN (+) neurons is not statistically different between vehicle and CQ treated rats. Data are means 6 SE, n = 6 from each group. *P,0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048543.gLouis, MO, 25 mg/kg i.p.) was administrated intraperitoneally (i.p.) in the morning. Pretreatment with scopolamine (SigmaAldrich Co., St. Louis, MO, 2 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min prior to pilocarpine injection was used to suppress peripheral cholinergic effects. Status epilepticus (SE) typically occurred within 20?0 min of the pilocarpine administration. Rats were placed in individual observation chambers in which seizure activity (stereotyped orofacial movements, salivation, eye-blinking, twitching of vibrissae, straub tail, stiffened hindlimbs and reduced responsiveness) were observed. Diazepam (Valium, Hoffman la Roche, Neuilly surSeine, France, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered two hours after onset of SE and repeated as needed for seizure termination. Blood glucose was measured with an ACCU CHECK glucose analyzer (ACCU CHECK GO, Co., Hoffman la Roche, Neuilly sur-Seine, France) before and after seizure. Animals were returned to their cages when fully awake and ambulatory.Zinc Chelators InjectionTo depress vesicular zinc levels or to chelate extracellular zinc, two zinc chelators, clioquinol and N,N,N0,N-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN) were used. Eight weeks old male rats were injected with clioquinol (CQ, Sigma, St. Louis, MO, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) and TPEN (5 mg/kg. s.c.) twice per day (9?0 AM and 17?8 PM) for 1 week after pilocarpine-induced seizure or without seizure. Clioquinol was dissolved with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 30 mg/100 mL, Sigma, St. Louis, MO) and then injected by intraperitoneally (i.p). In the seizure experienced rats, CQ injection was started immediately after 2 hours of epilepsy. Control rats were injected with the same volume of DMSO. The nonseizure group also had CQ/DMSO or DMSO vehicle only. TPEN (-)-Calyculin A solution was freshly prepared in 10 ethanol (10 ethyl alcohol in normal 223488-57-1 web physiological saline, Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) and administered under the nape skin of the animals. Rats were treated for seven successive days at doses of 5 mg/kg body weight. As a control, an equivalent volume of 10 ethanol was administered daily for 7 days.Zinc and Hippocampal Neurogenesis after SeizureFigure 3. Clioquinol reduced TSQ intensity after seizure. (A) TSQ fluorescence image in the dentate granule cell layer 1 week after shamoperated or seizure-experienced rats. Vesicular TSQ intensity is high in mossy fiber area of dentate granule cell layer in sham operated rats. However, 1 week after seizure the vesicular TSQ fluorescent intensity is decreased in the mossy fiber area. CQ treatment decreased TSQ intensity of mossy fiber area either in sham operated rats or in seizureexperienced rats. Scale bar = 200 mm. (B) A graph represents quantitated 16574785 intensity of TSQ fluorescent in the hilar area. CQ treated group shows significantly lower TSQ intensity than vehicle treated group in 1 week after seizure (n = 8). Data are means 6 SE. *P,0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048543.gFigure 4. Clioquinol reduced number of BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus. Bromodeoxyuridine binding cells emerged in the dentate gyrus of rats. (A) Brains were harvested at 1 w.Urons in the CA1, CA3 and hilus area at 1 week after seizure. Intraperitoneal injection of CQ provided no protective effects on hippocampal neuronal death. Scale bar = 250 mm. (B) Bar graph shows that the number of NeuN (+) neurons is not statistically different between vehicle and CQ treated rats. Data are means 6 SE, n = 6 from each group. *P,0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048543.gLouis, MO, 25 mg/kg i.p.) was administrated intraperitoneally (i.p.) in the morning. Pretreatment with scopolamine (SigmaAldrich Co., St. Louis, MO, 2 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min prior to pilocarpine injection was used to suppress peripheral cholinergic effects. Status epilepticus (SE) typically occurred within 20?0 min of the pilocarpine administration. Rats were placed in individual observation chambers in which seizure activity (stereotyped orofacial movements, salivation, eye-blinking, twitching of vibrissae, straub tail, stiffened hindlimbs and reduced responsiveness) were observed. Diazepam (Valium, Hoffman la Roche, Neuilly surSeine, France, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered two hours after onset of SE and repeated as needed for seizure termination. Blood glucose was measured with an ACCU CHECK glucose analyzer (ACCU CHECK GO, Co., Hoffman la Roche, Neuilly sur-Seine, France) before and after seizure. Animals were returned to their cages when fully awake and ambulatory.Zinc Chelators InjectionTo depress vesicular zinc levels or to chelate extracellular zinc, two zinc chelators, clioquinol and N,N,N0,N-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN) were used. Eight weeks old male rats were injected with clioquinol (CQ, Sigma, St. Louis, MO, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) and TPEN (5 mg/kg. s.c.) twice per day (9?0 AM and 17?8 PM) for 1 week after pilocarpine-induced seizure or without seizure. Clioquinol was dissolved with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 30 mg/100 mL, Sigma, St. Louis, MO) and then injected by intraperitoneally (i.p). In the seizure experienced rats, CQ injection was started immediately after 2 hours of epilepsy. Control rats were injected with the same volume of DMSO. The nonseizure group also had CQ/DMSO or DMSO vehicle only. TPEN solution was freshly prepared in 10 ethanol (10 ethyl alcohol in normal physiological saline, Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) and administered under the nape skin of the animals. Rats were treated for seven successive days at doses of 5 mg/kg body weight. As a control, an equivalent volume of 10 ethanol was administered daily for 7 days.Zinc and Hippocampal Neurogenesis after SeizureFigure 3. Clioquinol reduced TSQ intensity after seizure. (A) TSQ fluorescence image in the dentate granule cell layer 1 week after shamoperated or seizure-experienced rats. Vesicular TSQ intensity is high in mossy fiber area of dentate granule cell layer in sham operated rats. However, 1 week after seizure the vesicular TSQ fluorescent intensity is decreased in the mossy fiber area. CQ treatment decreased TSQ intensity of mossy fiber area either in sham operated rats or in seizureexperienced rats. Scale bar = 200 mm. (B) A graph represents quantitated 16574785 intensity of TSQ fluorescent in the hilar area. CQ treated group shows significantly lower TSQ intensity than vehicle treated group in 1 week after seizure (n = 8). Data are means 6 SE. *P,0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048543.gFigure 4. Clioquinol reduced number of BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus. Bromodeoxyuridine binding cells emerged in the dentate gyrus of rats. (A) Brains were harvested at 1 w.

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