Complex. The genes occur in multiple copies including numerous and variously

Complex. The genes occur in multiple copies including numerous and variously fragmented forms, suggesting a genome that is highly recombinatorial [18,19]. For one of the K. veneficum mitochondrial genes, cox3, no intact gene remains on this genome. Despite this, complete transcripts of cox3 have been detected as oligoadenylated cDNAs, implying that the cox3 gene exons are transcribed and trans-spliced together to generate a complete mRNA [17]. Consistent with this, transcriptome data additionally reveal an oligoadenylated but truncated transcript encoding the first 85 (nucleotides 1?31) of this gene, corresponding to the largest cox3 gene fragment found in the genome. The remainder of cox3 occurs as a separate gene fragment (nucleotides 737?58), and a transcript of this fragment was presumed to complete the mRNA [17,18]. Two features of this trans-splicing case are unusual: 1) no genomic sequence around the splice sites could be identified that could participate in a known splicing reaction such as group I/II intron fragments, or bulgehelix-bulge formation; and 2) five, non-encoded adenosine nucleotides bridge the gap in cox3 transcripts between the two gene exons (nts 1?31, 737?58), presumably donated from the oligoadenosine tail of the 731-nucleotide transcript [17]. In this report we describe an unusual partial conservation of this splicing reaction seen across diverse dinoflagellates that provides insight into the novelty of this splicing mechanism.KVcox3H7rev and KVcox3H7for (AATCTTATGGTTATTTATCTTTC); Symbiodinium sp. and A. catenella cox3H7: SspAcatcox3H7rev and SspAcatcox3H7for (AATTTCTATTGGCATTTTCTTG) or Kvcox3H7for (for A. catenella only); K. veneficum, Symbiodinium sp. cox3H1-6: KVcox3H1-6rev and KVcox3H1-6for (TTTCTTTCATCTTGTCGTTGG); A. catenella coxH1-6: Acatcox3H1-6rev and KVcox3H1-6for; A. carterae cox3H1-6: Acarcox3H1-6rev and Acarcox3H1-6for (TTTCTTTCACCTTATTGTTGG); A. carterae cox3H7: Acarcox3H7rev and Acarcox3H1-6for (TTTATTGGCATTTTGTTGAGG). As primers to cox3 precursors also bound to full-length cox3 transcripts, gels of cRT-PCR products contained larger bands corresponding to head-to-tail ligated full-length cox3 23727046 molecules, with sequence spanning the splice site. For A. catenella and A. carterae these larger bands were cloned, whereas cDNAs for K. veneficum cox3 (strain CCMP415) were available from a previously constructed cDNA library [20]. PCR products were ligated into the pGEM T-easy vector (Promega), cloned, and fully sequenced.Northern Blot AnalysisHybridization probe templates for K. veneficum cox3H1-6 and cox3H7 were generated using PCR from a full-length cDNA BTZ043 cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector (cox3H1-6 primers: KvH16ProbeF (AGTATTCATCAGGAAGTTGC) and KvH1-6ProbeR (TTAGAAGAAGAAGACCAACGAC); cox3H7 primers: KvH7ProbeF (TTGGTTTTTAAATTTAAGAG) and KvH7ProbeR (ATAACGAGTAAAGGAATAGAAAG). PCR fragments were purified from gels and random hexamer-based probes were constructed using the Prime-a-gene labeling system (Promega) and 32 P-labeled dATP, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Total RNA (5mg per lane) was separated on a 4 polyacrylamide/ urea gel (per 5 mL of gel solution: 0.5 mL 10X Tris/Borate/ EDTA buffer, 3.5 mL 10M urea, 0.5 mL 40 19:1 Acrylamide/ Bis solution, 50 mL 10 Pentagastrin web ammonium persulphate, 450 mL water, 5 mL TEMED) at 150V in 1X TBE running buffer (MiniProteanH 3 Cell, Biorad). Separated RNA was transferred to Hybond N+ membrane (GE Healthcare) via electroblotting with 0.5X TBE transfer buffer, at.Complex. The genes occur in multiple copies including numerous and variously fragmented forms, suggesting a genome that is highly recombinatorial [18,19]. For one of the K. veneficum mitochondrial genes, cox3, no intact gene remains on this genome. Despite this, complete transcripts of cox3 have been detected as oligoadenylated cDNAs, implying that the cox3 gene exons are transcribed and trans-spliced together to generate a complete mRNA [17]. Consistent with this, transcriptome data additionally reveal an oligoadenylated but truncated transcript encoding the first 85 (nucleotides 1?31) of this gene, corresponding to the largest cox3 gene fragment found in the genome. The remainder of cox3 occurs as a separate gene fragment (nucleotides 737?58), and a transcript of this fragment was presumed to complete the mRNA [17,18]. Two features of this trans-splicing case are unusual: 1) no genomic sequence around the splice sites could be identified that could participate in a known splicing reaction such as group I/II intron fragments, or bulgehelix-bulge formation; and 2) five, non-encoded adenosine nucleotides bridge the gap in cox3 transcripts between the two gene exons (nts 1?31, 737?58), presumably donated from the oligoadenosine tail of the 731-nucleotide transcript [17]. In this report we describe an unusual partial conservation of this splicing reaction seen across diverse dinoflagellates that provides insight into the novelty of this splicing mechanism.KVcox3H7rev and KVcox3H7for (AATCTTATGGTTATTTATCTTTC); Symbiodinium sp. and A. catenella cox3H7: SspAcatcox3H7rev and SspAcatcox3H7for (AATTTCTATTGGCATTTTCTTG) or Kvcox3H7for (for A. catenella only); K. veneficum, Symbiodinium sp. cox3H1-6: KVcox3H1-6rev and KVcox3H1-6for (TTTCTTTCATCTTGTCGTTGG); A. catenella coxH1-6: Acatcox3H1-6rev and KVcox3H1-6for; A. carterae cox3H1-6: Acarcox3H1-6rev and Acarcox3H1-6for (TTTCTTTCACCTTATTGTTGG); A. carterae cox3H7: Acarcox3H7rev and Acarcox3H1-6for (TTTATTGGCATTTTGTTGAGG). As primers to cox3 precursors also bound to full-length cox3 transcripts, gels of cRT-PCR products contained larger bands corresponding to head-to-tail ligated full-length cox3 23727046 molecules, with sequence spanning the splice site. For A. catenella and A. carterae these larger bands were cloned, whereas cDNAs for K. veneficum cox3 (strain CCMP415) were available from a previously constructed cDNA library [20]. PCR products were ligated into the pGEM T-easy vector (Promega), cloned, and fully sequenced.Northern Blot AnalysisHybridization probe templates for K. veneficum cox3H1-6 and cox3H7 were generated using PCR from a full-length cDNA cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector (cox3H1-6 primers: KvH16ProbeF (AGTATTCATCAGGAAGTTGC) and KvH1-6ProbeR (TTAGAAGAAGAAGACCAACGAC); cox3H7 primers: KvH7ProbeF (TTGGTTTTTAAATTTAAGAG) and KvH7ProbeR (ATAACGAGTAAAGGAATAGAAAG). PCR fragments were purified from gels and random hexamer-based probes were constructed using the Prime-a-gene labeling system (Promega) and 32 P-labeled dATP, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Total RNA (5mg per lane) was separated on a 4 polyacrylamide/ urea gel (per 5 mL of gel solution: 0.5 mL 10X Tris/Borate/ EDTA buffer, 3.5 mL 10M urea, 0.5 mL 40 19:1 Acrylamide/ Bis solution, 50 mL 10 ammonium persulphate, 450 mL water, 5 mL TEMED) at 150V in 1X TBE running buffer (MiniProteanH 3 Cell, Biorad). Separated RNA was transferred to Hybond N+ membrane (GE Healthcare) via electroblotting with 0.5X TBE transfer buffer, at.

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