Dditional trypsin digests after detergent-permeabilization of mitochondria.BioinformaticsMITOPRED [41], Mitoprot II [42], Predotar

Dditional trypsin digests after detergent-permeabilization of mitochondria.BioinformaticsMITOPRED [41], Mitoprot II [42], Predotar [43], PSORT II [44], Subloc [45], and TargetP [46] were used to predict mitochondrial Pentagastrin targeting sequences. Prediction of MPP and MIP cleavage sites was done with PSORT II [44] and by visual inspection. The SCRATCH [47] protein structure and structural feature prediction server prediction server was used to obtain tertiary structure models.Results and Discussion The Presequence of 25033180 Dynamin B Serves as Mitochondrial Targeting SequenceD. discoideum dynamin B is produced as preprotein with a presequence of 136 amino acid presequence that is rich in Asn (25 ), Gln (8 ), Ile (10 ), Lys (12 ), and Tyr (8 ) and Ser (8 ) residues. Analysis using the SCRATCH protein structure and structural feature prediction server [47] suggests that the dynamin B 136 amino acid presequence folds into a small globular domain. It shares no apparent homology to any other protein and contains a central 24 residue segment with 21 asparagine residues (Fig. 1A). Analysis of dynamin B with various mitochondrial targeting prediction software tools gives low mitochondrial targeting probability but indicates a potential R-10 processing site at position 115 of the dynamin B presequence (Fig. 1A). Since dynamin B has no transmembrane region this rules out the possibility of membrane insertion. Fusion of the dynamin B Nterminal sequence to the amino-terminus of EYFP (NTS-EYFP) provides experimental evidence that the dynamin B presequence targets proteins efficiently to mitochondria (Fig. 1B) [39]. Further examination of confocal images showed that most of the NTSEYFP fluorescence signal is surrounded by the outer mitochondrial membrane marker porin, indicating that the dynamin B presequence targets EYFP to an inner mitochondrial compartment. This result is further supported by experiments performed in mammalian cells (see below). In agreement with our earlier work [39], full length dynamin B-EYFP appears to be associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane (Fig. 1B). Furthermore, immunoblots of mitochondria isolated from cells producing NTS-EYFP show that NTS-EYFP undergoes mitochondrial processing and most of the protein runs as processed 27 kDa band. Additionally, a weaker band corresponding to the unprocessed 42 kDa full length protein was observed (Fig. 1C). Our results show that NTS-EYFP is efficiently processed and translocated to the inner mitochondrial compartment. Since the NTS lacks a transmembrane region and contains potential MPP and MIP cleavage sites, our results suggest that the 15900046 dynamin B NTS targets EYFP to the mitochondrial matrix, where it is processed by matrix proteases.To identify the minimal region within the dynamin B presequence required for mitochondrial targeting, we generated deletion constructs in which different sub-regions of the presequence are fused to EYFP (Fig. 2). The different NTS constructs were transformed into D. discoideum and the distribution of YFP was analysed by fluorescence microscopy (Fig. 3). Deletion of residues 1?7 (NTS DN1), 113?36 (NTS DC) and the polyasparagine (NTS DI1) Peptide M web stretch do not affect mitochondrial targeting (Fig. 3C, 3F, 3G and Fig. S1), whereas residues 28?4 are essential and sufficient for mitochondrial targeting. NTS DI2 is the smallest construct that targets YFP efficiently to mitochondria (Fig. 3H and Fig. S2A), while NTS DI3 is found in the cytosol (Fig. 3I). These results show t.Dditional trypsin digests after detergent-permeabilization of mitochondria.BioinformaticsMITOPRED [41], Mitoprot II [42], Predotar [43], PSORT II [44], Subloc [45], and TargetP [46] were used to predict mitochondrial targeting sequences. Prediction of MPP and MIP cleavage sites was done with PSORT II [44] and by visual inspection. The SCRATCH [47] protein structure and structural feature prediction server prediction server was used to obtain tertiary structure models.Results and Discussion The Presequence of 25033180 Dynamin B Serves as Mitochondrial Targeting SequenceD. discoideum dynamin B is produced as preprotein with a presequence of 136 amino acid presequence that is rich in Asn (25 ), Gln (8 ), Ile (10 ), Lys (12 ), and Tyr (8 ) and Ser (8 ) residues. Analysis using the SCRATCH protein structure and structural feature prediction server [47] suggests that the dynamin B 136 amino acid presequence folds into a small globular domain. It shares no apparent homology to any other protein and contains a central 24 residue segment with 21 asparagine residues (Fig. 1A). Analysis of dynamin B with various mitochondrial targeting prediction software tools gives low mitochondrial targeting probability but indicates a potential R-10 processing site at position 115 of the dynamin B presequence (Fig. 1A). Since dynamin B has no transmembrane region this rules out the possibility of membrane insertion. Fusion of the dynamin B Nterminal sequence to the amino-terminus of EYFP (NTS-EYFP) provides experimental evidence that the dynamin B presequence targets proteins efficiently to mitochondria (Fig. 1B) [39]. Further examination of confocal images showed that most of the NTSEYFP fluorescence signal is surrounded by the outer mitochondrial membrane marker porin, indicating that the dynamin B presequence targets EYFP to an inner mitochondrial compartment. This result is further supported by experiments performed in mammalian cells (see below). In agreement with our earlier work [39], full length dynamin B-EYFP appears to be associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane (Fig. 1B). Furthermore, immunoblots of mitochondria isolated from cells producing NTS-EYFP show that NTS-EYFP undergoes mitochondrial processing and most of the protein runs as processed 27 kDa band. Additionally, a weaker band corresponding to the unprocessed 42 kDa full length protein was observed (Fig. 1C). Our results show that NTS-EYFP is efficiently processed and translocated to the inner mitochondrial compartment. Since the NTS lacks a transmembrane region and contains potential MPP and MIP cleavage sites, our results suggest that the 15900046 dynamin B NTS targets EYFP to the mitochondrial matrix, where it is processed by matrix proteases.To identify the minimal region within the dynamin B presequence required for mitochondrial targeting, we generated deletion constructs in which different sub-regions of the presequence are fused to EYFP (Fig. 2). The different NTS constructs were transformed into D. discoideum and the distribution of YFP was analysed by fluorescence microscopy (Fig. 3). Deletion of residues 1?7 (NTS DN1), 113?36 (NTS DC) and the polyasparagine (NTS DI1) stretch do not affect mitochondrial targeting (Fig. 3C, 3F, 3G and Fig. S1), whereas residues 28?4 are essential and sufficient for mitochondrial targeting. NTS DI2 is the smallest construct that targets YFP efficiently to mitochondria (Fig. 3H and Fig. S2A), while NTS DI3 is found in the cytosol (Fig. 3I). These results show t.

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