Fferent molecular modes of these neurotoxins, they all inhibitedTransgenic Zebrafish for

Fferent molecular modes of these neurotoxins, they all inhibitedTransgenic Zebrafish for Neurotoxin TestTransgenic Zebrafish for Neurotoxin TestFigure 5. Body length, CNS length and axon length of Tg(nkx2.2a:mEGFP) fry in the presence of variable chemicals. (A ) Examples of measurements of body length (A), CNS length (B) and axon length (C). The measured lengths are indicated by double arrow lines. Scale bars: 1000 mm in (A.B) and 100 mm in (C). (D) Histograms of body length, CNS length and axon length. Chemical names and concentrations are indicated on the left. Statistical significance: **P,0.01; *P,0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055474.gaxon growth in zebrafish but their inhibitory mechanisms remain unclear and will require further studies in the future. It will also be interesting to carry out chemical withdraw experiments to examine the reversibility of axon growth for further understanding of the mechanisms of these neurotoxins. For the five neurotoxins, many studies have been conducted in experimental animals and their toxicity in the nervous system has been documented. Acetaminophen has also been previously tested in zebrafish and its general effect on embryonic development, nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity have been reported [27,40,41] but its neurotoxicity has not been studied. Its direct neurotoxic action has been recently established by both in vitro and in vivo studies in rats and neuronal apoptosis has been observed at MedChemExpress LED 209 concentration of 1? mM (150?00 mg/L) [28] Apparently the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive to acetaminophen as significant embryonic developmental defects were observed at concentration of 10 mg/L while significant shortening of axon length occurred at concentration as low as 2 mg/L. Atenolol may cause an allosteric inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels and blockade of neural nitric oxide release, as reported from a study in rabbit [29].Another study in mice shows that atenolol disrupt the positive feedback to the central nervous system and results in a decreased locomotor activity and background contextual fear [42]. Atrazine has been tested in zebrafish for developmental neurotoxicity and it increases cell death in brain and causes disorganized motor neuron axon growth [30]. Consistent with this, a mouse study has also indicated that early exposure to low doses of atrazine affects the mice behavior related to neurodevelopmental disorder [32]. Alcohol abuse and its neurotoxic effect in human have been and alcohol also causes progressive neuroinflammation and neurological disorder [43]. In zebrafish, it has been reported that ethanol causes abnormal development of motor neurons and muscle fibers [25]. The neurotoxic effect of lindane has also been well documented [26,44] and chronic exposure of low dose lindane causes neurobehavioral, neurochemical, and electrophysiologrcal efects in rat brain [45]. Our observations in the present study are consistent with the general mode of the action of these six chemicals. All of the five neurotoxins, acetaminophen, atenolol, atrazine, ethanol and lindane, showed sensitive inhibition of axon growth. In contrast, mefenamic acid has a significant neuroprotective effect by inhibition of glutamate-induced cell toxicity in vitro and reduces ischemic stroke in vivo in rats [33]. Our observation is also consistent with its neural protectant role as the toxic concentrations (10 and 50 mg/L) of 1407003 mefenamic acid, which caused statistically very significant edema, light pig.

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