Ing on the molecular weight of the protein. After electrophoresis proteins

Ing on the molecular weight of the protein. After electrophoresis proteins were transferred to polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) membranes (BioRad) and transfer efficiency was determined by Ponceau red dyeing. Filters were then blocked with Tris-buffered saline (TBS) containing 5 (w/v) non-fat dried milk and 370-86-5 chemical information incubated with the appropriate primary antibody; caspase-3 (Cell Signalling), caspase6 (Medical Biological Laboratories), caspase-8 (Neomarkers), Bcl-2 (Thermo Scientific), Hsp-70(Stressgen Bioreagents), iNOS (BD Biosciences), COX-2 (Cell Signalling). Membranes were subsequently washed and incubated with 1531364 the corresponding secondary antibody conjugated with peroxidase (1:2000; Pierce, Rockford, IL, USA). 23115181 Bound peroxidase activity was visualized by chemiluminescence and quantified by densitometry using BioRad Molecular Imager ChemiDoc XRS System. All blots were rehybridized with b-tubulin (Sigma-Aldrich) to normalize each sample for gel-loading variability. All data are normalized to control values on each gel.Haemodynamic Parameters in the Perfused HeartsBefore I/R coronary in the perfused rats, coronary perfusion pressure, maximal dP/dt and heart rate were similar in the rats from control or overfed groups, but left developed intraventricular pressure was significantly lower in the hearts of the rats from the reduced litters (P,0.01,Table 2). Ischemia-reperfusion induced a significant decrease in left ventricular developed pressure and dP/dt in hearts from control rats (P,0.01) but not in hearts from overfed rats.Coronary Vasoconstriction to Angiotensin IIInjection of angiotensin II into the coronary circulation in the perfused hearts induced concentration-dependent increases of the coronary perfusion pressure (Figure 2). The vasoconstriction to angiotensin II was similar in the hearts from control and overfed rats before ischemia reperfusion. However, after I/R, the vasoconstriction to angiotensin II was reduced in both experiTable 1. Body weight, epidydimal fat weight, subcutaneous fat weight, leptin and angiotensin II serum levels in rats raised in litters of 12 pups/mother (L12) and rats raised in litters of 3 pups/mother (L3).RNA Preparation and Purification and Quantitative Realtime PCRTotal RNA was extracted from the myocardium according to the Tri-Reagent protocol [26]. cDNA was then synthesized from 1 mg of total RNA using a high capacity cDNA reverse Fexinidazole transcription kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA).CONTROLOVERFED 60.760.9*** (n = 23) 154.468.8*** (n = 23) 710636*** (n = 23) 6.760.6*** (n = 12) 3.9860.02 (n = 12)Quantitative Real-time PCRAngiotensinogen, angiotensin II receptor 1a (AGTRa), angiotensin II receptor 2 (AGTR2) and pro-renin receptor (ATP6AP2) mRNAs were assessed in heart samples by quantitative real-time PCR. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed by using assayon-demand kits (Applied Biosystems) for each gene: Angiotensinogen (Rn00593114m1), AGTRa (Rn02758772s1), AGTR2 (Rn00560677s1) and ATP6AP2 (Rn01430718m1). TaqMan Universal PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems) was used forBody weight (g) Epididymal fat (mg) Subcutaneous fat (mg) Leptin (ng/ml) Angiotensin II(ng/ml)45.761 (n = 34) 65.363.5 (n = 34) 289614 (n = 34) 2.460.2 (n = 12) 3.9860.05 (n = 12)Data are represented as mean 6 SEM. ***P,0.001 vs L12. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054984.tEffects of Ischemia in Early OvernutritionTable 2. Hemodynamic values in perfused hearts from control (L12) or overfed (L3) rats before and after 30 min of ische.Ing on the molecular weight of the protein. After electrophoresis proteins were transferred to polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) membranes (BioRad) and transfer efficiency was determined by Ponceau red dyeing. Filters were then blocked with Tris-buffered saline (TBS) containing 5 (w/v) non-fat dried milk and incubated with the appropriate primary antibody; caspase-3 (Cell Signalling), caspase6 (Medical Biological Laboratories), caspase-8 (Neomarkers), Bcl-2 (Thermo Scientific), Hsp-70(Stressgen Bioreagents), iNOS (BD Biosciences), COX-2 (Cell Signalling). Membranes were subsequently washed and incubated with 1531364 the corresponding secondary antibody conjugated with peroxidase (1:2000; Pierce, Rockford, IL, USA). 23115181 Bound peroxidase activity was visualized by chemiluminescence and quantified by densitometry using BioRad Molecular Imager ChemiDoc XRS System. All blots were rehybridized with b-tubulin (Sigma-Aldrich) to normalize each sample for gel-loading variability. All data are normalized to control values on each gel.Haemodynamic Parameters in the Perfused HeartsBefore I/R coronary in the perfused rats, coronary perfusion pressure, maximal dP/dt and heart rate were similar in the rats from control or overfed groups, but left developed intraventricular pressure was significantly lower in the hearts of the rats from the reduced litters (P,0.01,Table 2). Ischemia-reperfusion induced a significant decrease in left ventricular developed pressure and dP/dt in hearts from control rats (P,0.01) but not in hearts from overfed rats.Coronary Vasoconstriction to Angiotensin IIInjection of angiotensin II into the coronary circulation in the perfused hearts induced concentration-dependent increases of the coronary perfusion pressure (Figure 2). The vasoconstriction to angiotensin II was similar in the hearts from control and overfed rats before ischemia reperfusion. However, after I/R, the vasoconstriction to angiotensin II was reduced in both experiTable 1. Body weight, epidydimal fat weight, subcutaneous fat weight, leptin and angiotensin II serum levels in rats raised in litters of 12 pups/mother (L12) and rats raised in litters of 3 pups/mother (L3).RNA Preparation and Purification and Quantitative Realtime PCRTotal RNA was extracted from the myocardium according to the Tri-Reagent protocol [26]. cDNA was then synthesized from 1 mg of total RNA using a high capacity cDNA reverse transcription kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA).CONTROLOVERFED 60.760.9*** (n = 23) 154.468.8*** (n = 23) 710636*** (n = 23) 6.760.6*** (n = 12) 3.9860.02 (n = 12)Quantitative Real-time PCRAngiotensinogen, angiotensin II receptor 1a (AGTRa), angiotensin II receptor 2 (AGTR2) and pro-renin receptor (ATP6AP2) mRNAs were assessed in heart samples by quantitative real-time PCR. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed by using assayon-demand kits (Applied Biosystems) for each gene: Angiotensinogen (Rn00593114m1), AGTRa (Rn02758772s1), AGTR2 (Rn00560677s1) and ATP6AP2 (Rn01430718m1). TaqMan Universal PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems) was used forBody weight (g) Epididymal fat (mg) Subcutaneous fat (mg) Leptin (ng/ml) Angiotensin II(ng/ml)45.761 (n = 34) 65.363.5 (n = 34) 289614 (n = 34) 2.460.2 (n = 12) 3.9860.05 (n = 12)Data are represented as mean 6 SEM. ***P,0.001 vs L12. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054984.tEffects of Ischemia in Early OvernutritionTable 2. Hemodynamic values in perfused hearts from control (L12) or overfed (L3) rats before and after 30 min of ische.

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