Urine [7,8]. Compared to blood, urine is well suited forproteomic profiling as

Urine [7,8]. Compared to blood, urine is well suited forproteomic profiling as it contains less high abundant proteins that can hamper biomarker detection [9]. AZP-531 site Nevertheless, human sample collection for biomarker assessment is difficult, because the overall incidence of DILI is 10?5 cases in 100 000 patient years and the incidence for any particular drug can range from 1 case in 10.000 to 1.000.000 patient years [10]. Acetaminophen (APAP) is an interesting model compound for searching biomarkers related to acute DILI. APAP is metabolized to its reactive metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), which is detoxified by conjugation to GSH. With high dosages of APAP, the GSH pool is depleted allowing NAPQI to bind to cellular macromolecules. Binding of NAPQI to mitochondrial proteins initiates the formation of reactive oxygen species and peroxynitrite. It has been demonstrated that oxidative stress leads to lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, disruption of calcium homeostasis and eventually necrotic cell death [11,12]. Previous proteomics studies using rodent plasma and liver tissue showed marked changes in the expression levels of various proteins as a result of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity [13,14,15], includingUrinary Biomarkers of Acetaminophen HepatotoxicityTable 1. Demographics acute DILI patients.Parameter Sex N N Age Plasma ALT (U/L) Plasma creatinine (mmol/L) Use of alcohol N N Yes No Female MaleReference valueAPAP intoxicantsDILI 1 FemaleDILI 2 Female7 1 39 (617) ,35 60?20 19 (67) 54 (618) 66 217 64 No 1 7 Yes 3 5 Diazepam Ibuprofen Coffeine Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid Omeprazol Alprazolam Zoldipem Alendronic acid Co-trimoxazol Pantoprazol Lercanidipine Dipyridamol Acetylsalicylic acid Furosemide Metoprolol Yes 85 269 144 NoUse of other drugs N N Yes NoOther drugs usedMean values for the APAP intoxicants are represented as mean 6 SD. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049524.tproteins involved in lipid/fatty acid metabolism, energy metabolism, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis and inflammation. The goal of this study was to identify proteins in human urine related to acute DILI. To this end, we implemented a translational approach to identify urinary biomarkers for human DILI. By first identifying proteins related to liver injury in urine of mice 24272870 exposed to the drug of interest, and subsequently searching for the orthologous proteins in human urine, we aim to more efficiently use the limited availability of human urine samples for biomarker assessment. Here, we show carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA3), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and calmodulin (CaM) as potential urinary biomarkers for APAP-induced liver injury in both mouse and human.Animal experimentMale FVB mice (Charles River, Germany; 22?8 g bw) were housed under controlled conditions and randomly assigned to a single i.p. AZP-531 cost injection of vehicle (saline, n = 19)) or 100 (n = 6), 225 (n = 18), 275 (n = 33) or 350 (n = 6) mg/kg bw APAP (A500 SigmaAldrich Chemie B.V., Zwijndrecht, the Netherlands). As a negative control, mice (n = 6) were treated with 350 mg/kg bw 3-acetamidophenol (AMAP; A7205, Sigma-Aldrich). After injection, mice were placed individually in metabolic cages (Techniplast, Germany GmbH) to collect 24 h urine samples, with water and pulverized standard chow ad libitum. Protease 1662274 inhibitors (Complete Mini, Roche Diagnostics, Almere, the Netherlands) were added to the urine, which was then centrifuged at 30006 g for 10 min at 4uC. Subsequently, blood plasma wa.Urine [7,8]. Compared to blood, urine is well suited forproteomic profiling as it contains less high abundant proteins that can hamper biomarker detection [9]. Nevertheless, human sample collection for biomarker assessment is difficult, because the overall incidence of DILI is 10?5 cases in 100 000 patient years and the incidence for any particular drug can range from 1 case in 10.000 to 1.000.000 patient years [10]. Acetaminophen (APAP) is an interesting model compound for searching biomarkers related to acute DILI. APAP is metabolized to its reactive metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), which is detoxified by conjugation to GSH. With high dosages of APAP, the GSH pool is depleted allowing NAPQI to bind to cellular macromolecules. Binding of NAPQI to mitochondrial proteins initiates the formation of reactive oxygen species and peroxynitrite. It has been demonstrated that oxidative stress leads to lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, disruption of calcium homeostasis and eventually necrotic cell death [11,12]. Previous proteomics studies using rodent plasma and liver tissue showed marked changes in the expression levels of various proteins as a result of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity [13,14,15], includingUrinary Biomarkers of Acetaminophen HepatotoxicityTable 1. Demographics acute DILI patients.Parameter Sex N N Age Plasma ALT (U/L) Plasma creatinine (mmol/L) Use of alcohol N N Yes No Female MaleReference valueAPAP intoxicantsDILI 1 FemaleDILI 2 Female7 1 39 (617) ,35 60?20 19 (67) 54 (618) 66 217 64 No 1 7 Yes 3 5 Diazepam Ibuprofen Coffeine Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid Omeprazol Alprazolam Zoldipem Alendronic acid Co-trimoxazol Pantoprazol Lercanidipine Dipyridamol Acetylsalicylic acid Furosemide Metoprolol Yes 85 269 144 NoUse of other drugs N N Yes NoOther drugs usedMean values for the APAP intoxicants are represented as mean 6 SD. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049524.tproteins involved in lipid/fatty acid metabolism, energy metabolism, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis and inflammation. The goal of this study was to identify proteins in human urine related to acute DILI. To this end, we implemented a translational approach to identify urinary biomarkers for human DILI. By first identifying proteins related to liver injury in urine of mice 24272870 exposed to the drug of interest, and subsequently searching for the orthologous proteins in human urine, we aim to more efficiently use the limited availability of human urine samples for biomarker assessment. Here, we show carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA3), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and calmodulin (CaM) as potential urinary biomarkers for APAP-induced liver injury in both mouse and human.Animal experimentMale FVB mice (Charles River, Germany; 22?8 g bw) were housed under controlled conditions and randomly assigned to a single i.p. injection of vehicle (saline, n = 19)) or 100 (n = 6), 225 (n = 18), 275 (n = 33) or 350 (n = 6) mg/kg bw APAP (A500 SigmaAldrich Chemie B.V., Zwijndrecht, the Netherlands). As a negative control, mice (n = 6) were treated with 350 mg/kg bw 3-acetamidophenol (AMAP; A7205, Sigma-Aldrich). After injection, mice were placed individually in metabolic cages (Techniplast, Germany GmbH) to collect 24 h urine samples, with water and pulverized standard chow ad libitum. Protease 1662274 inhibitors (Complete Mini, Roche Diagnostics, Almere, the Netherlands) were added to the urine, which was then centrifuged at 30006 g for 10 min at 4uC. Subsequently, blood plasma wa.

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