Nes were included in the final dataset. A log2 value equal

Nes were included in the final dataset. A log2 value equal to or lower than 21 was used to define the absence ofvalidation. (DOC)AcknowledgmentsWe thank Yue Ma from the State Food and Drug Administration for the provision of swine S. aureus strains and Fanrong Kong from Westmead Hospital of the University of Sydney for the provision of S. aureus strains. We also thank EnPapers for revision of the paper.GNF-7 biological activity Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: HW DZ RY. Performed the experiments: HL CZ HC FZ WH. Analyzed the data: HL CZ DZ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: XW QW. Wrote the paper: HL HW DZ.Comparative Genomics of Staphylococcus aureus
Huntington’s disease (HD) is an inherited, fatal, autosomal dominant disease characterised by movement disorder and psychiatric symptoms [1]. The disease results from a repeated polyglutamine expansion in the Ergocalciferol coding region of the HTT gene. There is no cure for HD and there are few effective treatments. A large number of transgenic mouse models of HD have been developed to study pathogenesis and investigate potential treatments; the most widely used of these is the R6/2 mouse model that typically carries a CAG repeat length of 110?50 [2]. This fragment mouse model shows a progressive phenotype that recapitulates a number of features of the human condition including motor disturbances, stereotypic movements, weight loss 26001275 and cognitive abnormalities [3?]. As in the human disease, CAG repeat lengths appear to be associated with disease onset and severity [6]. However, mice with extreme repeat lengths in this model present with a disease having a delayed phenotype. This delay in the onset and reduction in the severity of symptoms, in parallel with neurodegenerative changes, provides a model with the potential to elucidate more of the underlying pathogenesis [7]. In addition to the R6/2 model, a number of other models have been made that were aimed at recapitulating better the genetics of HD. These include full length knock-in models [8,9], a yeastartificial chromosome (YAC128) model [6], and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) model [10]. Historically, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for individual patients were diagnostic only in later stages of HD, for example where caudate atrophy contributed to the characteristically large ventricles seen [11]. More recently, analytical methodologies, such as tensor-based morphometry (TBM), have been used to show progressive structural changes in presymptomatic HD patients [12]. Neuroimaging studies based on voxel-based morphometry (VBM) are also used widely to investigate developing pathology in humans and assess prospective treatments [13?8]. These automated methods for characterising structural differences or changes in the living brain have also been used in mouse models to show that many pathological features are shared between the mouse models and humans with the disease [19?2]. Here we describe a large dataset of MR images of mice used in models of HD that includes transgenic R6/2 lines of various CAG expansion lengths, yeast artificial chromosome (YAC128) [23] and wildtype (WT) mice. In addition, we include the MRI data sets from a colony of complexin 1 knockout (Cplx1 KO) mice that showed subtle morphological abnormalities detectable with MRI [24] that reflect behavioural abnormalities seen in the mice [25].HD Mouse Models OnlineWe have recently published two studies using a small subset of these brains (n = 88), where we.Nes were included in the final dataset. A log2 value equal to or lower than 21 was used to define the absence ofvalidation. (DOC)AcknowledgmentsWe thank Yue Ma from the State Food and Drug Administration for the provision of swine S. aureus strains and Fanrong Kong from Westmead Hospital of the University of Sydney for the provision of S. aureus strains. We also thank EnPapers for revision of the paper.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: HW DZ RY. Performed the experiments: HL CZ HC FZ WH. Analyzed the data: HL CZ DZ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: XW QW. Wrote the paper: HL HW DZ.Comparative Genomics of Staphylococcus aureus
Huntington’s disease (HD) is an inherited, fatal, autosomal dominant disease characterised by movement disorder and psychiatric symptoms [1]. The disease results from a repeated polyglutamine expansion in the coding region of the HTT gene. There is no cure for HD and there are few effective treatments. A large number of transgenic mouse models of HD have been developed to study pathogenesis and investigate potential treatments; the most widely used of these is the R6/2 mouse model that typically carries a CAG repeat length of 110?50 [2]. This fragment mouse model shows a progressive phenotype that recapitulates a number of features of the human condition including motor disturbances, stereotypic movements, weight loss 26001275 and cognitive abnormalities [3?]. As in the human disease, CAG repeat lengths appear to be associated with disease onset and severity [6]. However, mice with extreme repeat lengths in this model present with a disease having a delayed phenotype. This delay in the onset and reduction in the severity of symptoms, in parallel with neurodegenerative changes, provides a model with the potential to elucidate more of the underlying pathogenesis [7]. In addition to the R6/2 model, a number of other models have been made that were aimed at recapitulating better the genetics of HD. These include full length knock-in models [8,9], a yeastartificial chromosome (YAC128) model [6], and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) model [10]. Historically, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for individual patients were diagnostic only in later stages of HD, for example where caudate atrophy contributed to the characteristically large ventricles seen [11]. More recently, analytical methodologies, such as tensor-based morphometry (TBM), have been used to show progressive structural changes in presymptomatic HD patients [12]. Neuroimaging studies based on voxel-based morphometry (VBM) are also used widely to investigate developing pathology in humans and assess prospective treatments [13?8]. These automated methods for characterising structural differences or changes in the living brain have also been used in mouse models to show that many pathological features are shared between the mouse models and humans with the disease [19?2]. Here we describe a large dataset of MR images of mice used in models of HD that includes transgenic R6/2 lines of various CAG expansion lengths, yeast artificial chromosome (YAC128) [23] and wildtype (WT) mice. In addition, we include the MRI data sets from a colony of complexin 1 knockout (Cplx1 KO) mice that showed subtle morphological abnormalities detectable with MRI [24] that reflect behavioural abnormalities seen in the mice [25].HD Mouse Models OnlineWe have recently published two studies using a small subset of these brains (n = 88), where we.

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