D activates Ste11p [11], which in turn activates the MAPKK Pbs

D activates Ste11p [11], which in turn activates the MAPKK Pbs2p [5,12]. Furthermore,the activation of Ste11p requires the scaffold protein Ste50p which forms a complex with Ste11p. Both the Cdc42-Ste20 and the Sho1-Pbs2 complexes are on the membrane [6,13,14,15]. The SLN1 branch contains a Eliglustat three-component signaling protein complex composed of Sln1p, Ypd1p, and Ssk1p [7,16,17,18,19,20]. This upstream branch is structurally and functionally similar to the two-component or three-component Acid Yellow 23 phosphorelay systems in certain bacteria and also in plants and other eukaryotes [19,21]. Sln1p is a sensor histidine kinase which has two TM domains and a cytoplasmic HK domain [8,21]. Sln1p is catalytically active under normal condition [21]. In an unstressed environment, the Sln1p autophosphorylates itself and this phosphate is then transferred to Asp1144 at the receiver domain of Sln1p [7,8,16,20]. Subsequently, the phosphate group is transferred to His64 on Ypd1p and further to Asp554 on Ssk1p [7,16,20]. Dephosphorylated Ssk1p activates the autophosphorylation and activation of MAPKKKs Ssk2p and Ssk22p [22]. Then the activated Ssk2p and Ssk22p activate the Pbs2p [5,23]. It has also been found that exposure of ssk1Dste11D mutants to severe osmolarity (0.5 or 1 M KCl) caused clear induction and repression of most osmoregulated genes [24], which indicated that another input into the MAPKKK Ste11p, Ssk2/Ssk22p or putative activation of Pbs2p may exist [24,25]. Moreover, previous research suggested that Ssk2p may activate the HOG pathway in the absence of Ssk1p after osmotic shock [26]. Here, our genetic analysis confirms this picture and further demonstrates thatAlternative Activation of Ssk2p in Osmotic StressMAPKKK Ssk2p in the SLN1 branch can be activated independent of Ssk1p under osmotic stress. We identified an important segment near the N-terminal of Ssk2p that is required for the activation independent of Ssk1p. It is possible that another regulator can bind to the N-terminal segment of Ssk2p and activate the Ssk2p to lead to the activation of the HOG pathway. However, the activation of Ssk22p totally depends on the Ssk1p. We also observed that Ssk2p plays an essential role in salt tolerance. Moreover, the alternative input into the Ssk2p is essential for the salt-resistance.Table 2. Plasmids used in this study.Plasmid pFA6-kanMX4 pFA6a-natMX6 pFA6a-His3MX6 YCplac111 pP111 pP111-SSK2 pP111-SSK2D(1?76) pP111-SSK2D(1?40)Description kanMX4 (G418/Geneticin) natMX4 (CloNat) HIS3 LEU2, CEN LEU2, CEN, (derivation from YCplac111) SSK2, LEU2, CEN SSK2D(1?76), LEU2, CEN SSK2D(1?40), LEU2, 1662274 CENSource [38] [38] [38] [39] This study This study This study This studyMaterials and Methods Yeast StrainsAll yeast mutants used in this work are derivatives of the BY4741 strain (Table 1) [27]. The single mutant strains were purchased from Invitrogen. The double and triple mutant strains were generated in our lab by a PCR-based gene deletion strategy [28,29].doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054867.tPlasmidsPlasmids are listed in Table 2. Deletion and missense mutants were constructed by PCR-based oligonucleotide mutagenesis, and were verified by nucleotide sequencing.ylation of Hog1p was detected with the anti-dually phosphorylated p38 antibody (Cell Signaling). Hog1p was examined with specific antibodies (Santa Cruz). Blot was visualized with ECL (34080 Thermo Scientific) after binding of secondary antibody conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. Stripping of the blots was.D activates Ste11p [11], which in turn activates the MAPKK Pbs2p [5,12]. Furthermore,the activation of Ste11p requires the scaffold protein Ste50p which forms a complex with Ste11p. Both the Cdc42-Ste20 and the Sho1-Pbs2 complexes are on the membrane [6,13,14,15]. The SLN1 branch contains a three-component signaling protein complex composed of Sln1p, Ypd1p, and Ssk1p [7,16,17,18,19,20]. This upstream branch is structurally and functionally similar to the two-component or three-component phosphorelay systems in certain bacteria and also in plants and other eukaryotes [19,21]. Sln1p is a sensor histidine kinase which has two TM domains and a cytoplasmic HK domain [8,21]. Sln1p is catalytically active under normal condition [21]. In an unstressed environment, the Sln1p autophosphorylates itself and this phosphate is then transferred to Asp1144 at the receiver domain of Sln1p [7,8,16,20]. Subsequently, the phosphate group is transferred to His64 on Ypd1p and further to Asp554 on Ssk1p [7,16,20]. Dephosphorylated Ssk1p activates the autophosphorylation and activation of MAPKKKs Ssk2p and Ssk22p [22]. Then the activated Ssk2p and Ssk22p activate the Pbs2p [5,23]. It has also been found that exposure of ssk1Dste11D mutants to severe osmolarity (0.5 or 1 M KCl) caused clear induction and repression of most osmoregulated genes [24], which indicated that another input into the MAPKKK Ste11p, Ssk2/Ssk22p or putative activation of Pbs2p may exist [24,25]. Moreover, previous research suggested that Ssk2p may activate the HOG pathway in the absence of Ssk1p after osmotic shock [26]. Here, our genetic analysis confirms this picture and further demonstrates thatAlternative Activation of Ssk2p in Osmotic StressMAPKKK Ssk2p in the SLN1 branch can be activated independent of Ssk1p under osmotic stress. We identified an important segment near the N-terminal of Ssk2p that is required for the activation independent of Ssk1p. It is possible that another regulator can bind to the N-terminal segment of Ssk2p and activate the Ssk2p to lead to the activation of the HOG pathway. However, the activation of Ssk22p totally depends on the Ssk1p. We also observed that Ssk2p plays an essential role in salt tolerance. Moreover, the alternative input into the Ssk2p is essential for the salt-resistance.Table 2. Plasmids used in this study.Plasmid pFA6-kanMX4 pFA6a-natMX6 pFA6a-His3MX6 YCplac111 pP111 pP111-SSK2 pP111-SSK2D(1?76) pP111-SSK2D(1?40)Description kanMX4 (G418/Geneticin) natMX4 (CloNat) HIS3 LEU2, CEN LEU2, CEN, (derivation from YCplac111) SSK2, LEU2, CEN SSK2D(1?76), LEU2, CEN SSK2D(1?40), LEU2, 1662274 CENSource [38] [38] [38] [39] This study This study This study This studyMaterials and Methods Yeast StrainsAll yeast mutants used in this work are derivatives of the BY4741 strain (Table 1) [27]. The single mutant strains were purchased from Invitrogen. The double and triple mutant strains were generated in our lab by a PCR-based gene deletion strategy [28,29].doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054867.tPlasmidsPlasmids are listed in Table 2. Deletion and missense mutants were constructed by PCR-based oligonucleotide mutagenesis, and were verified by nucleotide sequencing.ylation of Hog1p was detected with the anti-dually phosphorylated p38 antibody (Cell Signaling). Hog1p was examined with specific antibodies (Santa Cruz). Blot was visualized with ECL (34080 Thermo Scientific) after binding of secondary antibody conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. Stripping of the blots was.

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