Ese observations suggest that Nkx2.2-positive progenitors differentiate into all subtypes

Ese observations suggest that Nkx2.2-positive progenitors differentiate into all subtypes of motoneurons.DiscussionIn this study, we used genetically-defined lineage tracing analysis for Nkx2.2-expressing progenitors using a murine retrovirus [11]. Furthermore, we applied a new electroporation of CreloxP mediated lineage tracing MedChemExpress BIBS39 strategy and showed the relevance of this strategy. We used Cre at the concentration of end-point dilution, together with floxed lacZ plasmids. Initial LacZ-positive cells that were recombined by Nkx2.2-Cre were always positioned in the Nkx2.2-positive cell population, but not in Olig2+/Nkx2.2ventricular zone cells (Fig. 3). In addition, LacZ-positive cells were not observed when the Cre-driver plasmid was diluted to 0.1 ng/ ml (1/10 dilution of our labeling condition). Finally, the distribution of LacZ-positive cells was similar to that of retroviral labeling. These observations support the relevance of our Cre-loxP labeling strategy with limiting 223488-57-1 biological activity dilutions of the Cre plasmid. It has been reported that overexpression of Nkx2.2 repress the expression of Olig2 or HB9 [7], [22], [23], suggesting that Nkx2.2 has a negative effect on motoneuron lineage. However, whether there is a direct lineage relationship between Nkx2.2-positive progenitors and motoneurons remains to be resolved due to the lack of lineage tracing analysis from Nkx2.2-positive progenitors. We used the above mentioned methods for analyzing Nkx2.2lineage cells in the chick spinal cord. Our finding first shows that Nkx2.2-positive progenitor cells in chick spinal cords generate not only V3 interneurons but also Terni column cells (Fig. 4), the avianNkx2.2+ Progenitors Generate Somatic MotoneuronsFigure 3. LacZ-labeled cells by electroporation with pNkx2.2-Cre;cAct-xStopx-nLacZ strongly express Nkx2.2 in the ventricular zone. pNkx2.2-Cre and cAct-xStopx-nLacZ were electroporated at HH 1531364 14 in the chick neural tube and an embryo was grown to be HH 21 (E3.5; A ) or HH 32 (E7; G ). A, LacZ-staining followed by immunohistochemistry using Nkx2.2 antibody. Sections were arranged in rostral (left) to caudal (right) order. B-F, Triple immunostaining with anti-Nkx2.2, anti-Olig2, and anti-LacZ antibodies. Arrowheads indicate recombined cells. G, LacZstaining followed by immunohistochemistry using Nkx2.2 antibody. Sections were arranged in rostral (left) to caudal (right) order. Insets show higher magnification pictures of LacZ-positive cells in the Nkx2.2-positive ventricular zone. H-M, Sections at HH 32 were double-immunolabeled using antiLacZ and anti-Nkx2.2 (H-J), or anti-LacZ and anti-Olig2 (K-M), respectively. Arrowheads indicate recombined cells. N, LacZ-positive cells with Islet1/2 immunoreactivity. O, LacZ-positive cells with HB9 immunoreactivity. Scale bars in A, G, M, O = 100 mm; in F = 50 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051581.gvisceral preganglionic motoneurons located near the central canal. In the mouse hindbrain, Nkx2.2 has been reported to be expressed in progenitor cells that give rise to both visceral motoneurons andserotonergic neurons [9], which supports our observation that Nkx2.2-positive progenitors contributed to different classes of neurons in the chick spinal cord. Surprisingly, we found thatNkx2.2+ Progenitors Generate Somatic MotoneuronsFigure 4. Distribution of Nkx2.2 lineage motoneurons in the spinal cord. pNkx2.2-Cre and cAct-xStopx-nLacZ were electroporated at HH 14 in the chick neural tube. A and B, LacZ-positive cells of one chick.Ese observations suggest that Nkx2.2-positive progenitors differentiate into all subtypes of motoneurons.DiscussionIn this study, we used genetically-defined lineage tracing analysis for Nkx2.2-expressing progenitors using a murine retrovirus [11]. Furthermore, we applied a new electroporation of CreloxP mediated lineage tracing strategy and showed the relevance of this strategy. We used Cre at the concentration of end-point dilution, together with floxed lacZ plasmids. Initial LacZ-positive cells that were recombined by Nkx2.2-Cre were always positioned in the Nkx2.2-positive cell population, but not in Olig2+/Nkx2.2ventricular zone cells (Fig. 3). In addition, LacZ-positive cells were not observed when the Cre-driver plasmid was diluted to 0.1 ng/ ml (1/10 dilution of our labeling condition). Finally, the distribution of LacZ-positive cells was similar to that of retroviral labeling. These observations support the relevance of our Cre-loxP labeling strategy with limiting dilutions of the Cre plasmid. It has been reported that overexpression of Nkx2.2 repress the expression of Olig2 or HB9 [7], [22], [23], suggesting that Nkx2.2 has a negative effect on motoneuron lineage. However, whether there is a direct lineage relationship between Nkx2.2-positive progenitors and motoneurons remains to be resolved due to the lack of lineage tracing analysis from Nkx2.2-positive progenitors. We used the above mentioned methods for analyzing Nkx2.2lineage cells in the chick spinal cord. Our finding first shows that Nkx2.2-positive progenitor cells in chick spinal cords generate not only V3 interneurons but also Terni column cells (Fig. 4), the avianNkx2.2+ Progenitors Generate Somatic MotoneuronsFigure 3. LacZ-labeled cells by electroporation with pNkx2.2-Cre;cAct-xStopx-nLacZ strongly express Nkx2.2 in the ventricular zone. pNkx2.2-Cre and cAct-xStopx-nLacZ were electroporated at HH 1531364 14 in the chick neural tube and an embryo was grown to be HH 21 (E3.5; A ) or HH 32 (E7; G ). A, LacZ-staining followed by immunohistochemistry using Nkx2.2 antibody. Sections were arranged in rostral (left) to caudal (right) order. B-F, Triple immunostaining with anti-Nkx2.2, anti-Olig2, and anti-LacZ antibodies. Arrowheads indicate recombined cells. G, LacZstaining followed by immunohistochemistry using Nkx2.2 antibody. Sections were arranged in rostral (left) to caudal (right) order. Insets show higher magnification pictures of LacZ-positive cells in the Nkx2.2-positive ventricular zone. H-M, Sections at HH 32 were double-immunolabeled using antiLacZ and anti-Nkx2.2 (H-J), or anti-LacZ and anti-Olig2 (K-M), respectively. Arrowheads indicate recombined cells. N, LacZ-positive cells with Islet1/2 immunoreactivity. O, LacZ-positive cells with HB9 immunoreactivity. Scale bars in A, G, M, O = 100 mm; in F = 50 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051581.gvisceral preganglionic motoneurons located near the central canal. In the mouse hindbrain, Nkx2.2 has been reported to be expressed in progenitor cells that give rise to both visceral motoneurons andserotonergic neurons [9], which supports our observation that Nkx2.2-positive progenitors contributed to different classes of neurons in the chick spinal cord. Surprisingly, we found thatNkx2.2+ Progenitors Generate Somatic MotoneuronsFigure 4. Distribution of Nkx2.2 lineage motoneurons in the spinal cord. pNkx2.2-Cre and cAct-xStopx-nLacZ were electroporated at HH 14 in the chick neural tube. A and B, LacZ-positive cells of one chick.

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