P = 0.040) and two months (p = 0.049) correlated with lower numbers of IL-

P = 0.040) and two months (p = 0.049) correlated with lower numbers of IL-4 producing cells at age two (Table 2).Argipressin price colonization with the bifidobacteria investigated did not associate with cytokine secreting cell numbersIn addition to colonization with lactobacilli, bifidobacteria have been associated with less allergy development [11] and are common colonizers of the newborn gut. However, neither colonization with B. adolescentis, B. bifidum and B. breve nor their relative amounts associated with cytokine-producing cell numbers at age two (not shown and Table 2).Early colonization with lactobacilli associates with fewer cytokine- secreting cells at two years of ageAs we have observed that lactobacilli are more frequently detected in the fecal microbiota of children remaining non-allergic later in life [12,14], we wanted to study how the early-life colonization pattern associates 23727046 with immune responses in childhood. We found that early-life colonization with L. casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus, referred to as lactobacilli, was inversely associated with cytokine-secreting cell numbers following in vitro PHA stimulation. Infants colonized with lactobacilli at two weeks of age tended to have fewer IL-42 (p = 0.059), IL-102(p = 0.085) and IFN-c (p = 0.067) producing cells at two years of age (Fig. 1A?Early S. aureus colonization associates with increased numbers of cytokine secreting cells at age twoIn contrast to the lactic acid bacteria, S. aureus colonization has been associated with development of various allergic manifestations [25]. Compared to the lactobacilli, early S. aureus colonization was associated with a reverse pattern of cytokine producing cells at age two after PHA stimulation. S. aureus colonization at two weeks of age associated with significantly increased numbers of IL42 (p = 0.022) and IL-10 (p = 0.016) producing cells (Fig. 2A ).Early Gut Bacteria and Cytokine Responses at TwoFigure 4. Lactobacilli and S. aureus co-colonization at 2 weeks of age in Calcitonin (salmon) relation to cytokine secreting cells, after in vitro PHA stimulation at age two. Infants colonized with only S. aureus (n = 12) or infants colonized with lactobacilli (+/2 S. aureus) (n = 9) with at 2 weeks of age in relation to (A) IL-42, (B) IL-102, and (C) IFN-c-producing cells after PHA stimulation. Boxes cover 25th to 75th percentile and the central square being the median value. Whiskers extend to non-outlier maximum and minimum and squares represents outliers. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049315.gSimilarly, colonization with S. aureus at one- (p = 0.047) and two months (p = 0.035) of age associated with significantly increased numbers of IL-10 secreting cells (not shown) whereas a tendency for increased numbers of IL-4 secreting cells was present among the infants colonized with S. aureus at two months of age (p = 0.09) (not shown). No associations between S. aureus colonization and IFN-c producing cell numbers were observed. Moreover, the relative amounts of S. aureus weakly associated with increased numbers of IL-10 secreting cells at two years of age (Table 2).with lactobacilli (S. aureus+ and lactobacilli2) and infants colonized with lactobacilli regardless of S.aureus colonization (lactobacilli+ and S.aureus +/2). The presence of S. aureus in the absence of lactobacilli associated with significantly more IL-42, IL-102 and IFN-c producing cells after PHA stimulation at two years of age (Fig. 4A ). Similar trends were observed when analyzing colonization at one and.P = 0.040) and two months (p = 0.049) correlated with lower numbers of IL-4 producing cells at age two (Table 2).Colonization with the bifidobacteria investigated did not associate with cytokine secreting cell numbersIn addition to colonization with lactobacilli, bifidobacteria have been associated with less allergy development [11] and are common colonizers of the newborn gut. However, neither colonization with B. adolescentis, B. bifidum and B. breve nor their relative amounts associated with cytokine-producing cell numbers at age two (not shown and Table 2).Early colonization with lactobacilli associates with fewer cytokine- secreting cells at two years of ageAs we have observed that lactobacilli are more frequently detected in the fecal microbiota of children remaining non-allergic later in life [12,14], we wanted to study how the early-life colonization pattern associates 23727046 with immune responses in childhood. We found that early-life colonization with L. casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus, referred to as lactobacilli, was inversely associated with cytokine-secreting cell numbers following in vitro PHA stimulation. Infants colonized with lactobacilli at two weeks of age tended to have fewer IL-42 (p = 0.059), IL-102(p = 0.085) and IFN-c (p = 0.067) producing cells at two years of age (Fig. 1A?Early S. aureus colonization associates with increased numbers of cytokine secreting cells at age twoIn contrast to the lactic acid bacteria, S. aureus colonization has been associated with development of various allergic manifestations [25]. Compared to the lactobacilli, early S. aureus colonization was associated with a reverse pattern of cytokine producing cells at age two after PHA stimulation. S. aureus colonization at two weeks of age associated with significantly increased numbers of IL42 (p = 0.022) and IL-10 (p = 0.016) producing cells (Fig. 2A ).Early Gut Bacteria and Cytokine Responses at TwoFigure 4. Lactobacilli and S. aureus co-colonization at 2 weeks of age in relation to cytokine secreting cells, after in vitro PHA stimulation at age two. Infants colonized with only S. aureus (n = 12) or infants colonized with lactobacilli (+/2 S. aureus) (n = 9) with at 2 weeks of age in relation to (A) IL-42, (B) IL-102, and (C) IFN-c-producing cells after PHA stimulation. Boxes cover 25th to 75th percentile and the central square being the median value. Whiskers extend to non-outlier maximum and minimum and squares represents outliers. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049315.gSimilarly, colonization with S. aureus at one- (p = 0.047) and two months (p = 0.035) of age associated with significantly increased numbers of IL-10 secreting cells (not shown) whereas a tendency for increased numbers of IL-4 secreting cells was present among the infants colonized with S. aureus at two months of age (p = 0.09) (not shown). No associations between S. aureus colonization and IFN-c producing cell numbers were observed. Moreover, the relative amounts of S. aureus weakly associated with increased numbers of IL-10 secreting cells at two years of age (Table 2).with lactobacilli (S. aureus+ and lactobacilli2) and infants colonized with lactobacilli regardless of S.aureus colonization (lactobacilli+ and S.aureus +/2). The presence of S. aureus in the absence of lactobacilli associated with significantly more IL-42, IL-102 and IFN-c producing cells after PHA stimulation at two years of age (Fig. 4A ). Similar trends were observed when analyzing colonization at one and.

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