With 0.2 BSA (Life Technologies GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany) and then incubated in

With 0.2 BSA (Life Technologies GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany) and then incubated in serum free medium in the absence or presence of the treatment conditions for 48?72 h. Viability and cytotoxicity were measured by WST-1 assay (Roche, Mannheim, Germany) and by ToxiLightHBioAssay Sample Kit (Lonza Inc., Rockford, IL,USA) respectively, according to manufacturer’s instructions. Apoptosis in INS-1E cells was assessed by FITC-AnnexinV (An) and propidium iodide (PI) staining (BD, Heidelberg, Germany) and flow cytometric analysis (BD FACSCalibur). For each sample, 10,000 cells were counted. An-positive and double-stained An/PI positive cells were considered to be apoptotic. For detection of beta-cell apoptosis in human islets, 100 human islets were cultured in suspension dishes, treated for 72 h, and fixed with Bouins solution. Islet sections were prepared as described previously [29] and insulin and TUNEL staining was performed according to the manufacturer (In Situ Cell Death Detection Kit, TMR-red; Roche) [29].Materials and Methods Ethics StatementWe have received the human islets from the European Consortium for Islet Transplantation (ECIT), where six European-based centers for human islet transplantation have established collaboration with the aim establishing an integrated project to develop and expand clinical islet transplantation. Whenever islet isolation fails to be suitable for transplantation, centers provide them for islet research. Thus, these research projects apply to NIHEffects of Nampt and NMN on Insulin SecretionFigure 1. The adipocytokines leptin, adiponectin, Nampt and NMN have no direct effects on beta-cell MedChemExpress 113-79-1 survival in INS-1E cells. INS-1E cells were kept under serum-free conditions 24 h before and during the 48 h experiment. (A,B) INS-1E cells were exposed to cytokines (A: IL-1b, IFN-c or TNFa) or adipocytokines (B: adiponectin, leptin, Nampt, NMN) at the indicated concentrations for 48 h and cell viability was measured by WST-Effects of Nampt and NMN on Insulin Secretionassay. Data are shown as means 6SEM of 3 independent experiments performed in triplicates. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni’s Multiple Comparison Test as posthoc test. C,D: INS-1E cells were exposed to adipocytokines (adiponectin 167 ng/ml, leptin 200 ng/ml, Nampt 2.5 ng/ml, NMN 100 mM) or a cytokine combination (10 ng/ml IL-1b+10 ng/ml IFN-c) for 48 h. Cytotoxicity (C) was analyzed by measuring the release of adenylate kinase into the supernatant and (D) apoptosis was measured by FITC-annexinV (An) and propidium iodide (PI) staining and subsequent flow cytometric analysis of An-positive and double An/PI positive cells. Results were expressed relative to cells exposed to serum free 23977191 medium (con) and as means 6SEM of three independent experiments performed in triplicates. E,F: INS-1E cells were exposed to a cytokine combination (IL/IF; 10 ng/ml IL-1b+10 ng/ml IFN-c) (E) or 0.25 mM palmitate (pal) (F) for 48 h in the absence or presence of the adipocytokines (167 ng/ml adiponectin, 200 ng/ml leptin, 2.5 ng/ml Nampt) and induction of apoptosis was measured by An/PI staining and flow cytometric analysis. Data are shown as means 6SEM of hPTH (1-34) triplicates of three independent experiments. Statistical analyses were performed by students t-test. G: INS-1E cells were exposed to the adipocytokines adiponectin (167 ng/ml), leptin (200 ng/ml) or Nampt (2.5 ng/ml) or a combination of camptothecin (2 mM) and etoposide (85 mM; CE, upper and low.With 0.2 BSA (Life Technologies GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany) and then incubated in serum free medium in the absence or presence of the treatment conditions for 48?72 h. Viability and cytotoxicity were measured by WST-1 assay (Roche, Mannheim, Germany) and by ToxiLightHBioAssay Sample Kit (Lonza Inc., Rockford, IL,USA) respectively, according to manufacturer’s instructions. Apoptosis in INS-1E cells was assessed by FITC-AnnexinV (An) and propidium iodide (PI) staining (BD, Heidelberg, Germany) and flow cytometric analysis (BD FACSCalibur). For each sample, 10,000 cells were counted. An-positive and double-stained An/PI positive cells were considered to be apoptotic. For detection of beta-cell apoptosis in human islets, 100 human islets were cultured in suspension dishes, treated for 72 h, and fixed with Bouins solution. Islet sections were prepared as described previously [29] and insulin and TUNEL staining was performed according to the manufacturer (In Situ Cell Death Detection Kit, TMR-red; Roche) [29].Materials and Methods Ethics StatementWe have received the human islets from the European Consortium for Islet Transplantation (ECIT), where six European-based centers for human islet transplantation have established collaboration with the aim establishing an integrated project to develop and expand clinical islet transplantation. Whenever islet isolation fails to be suitable for transplantation, centers provide them for islet research. Thus, these research projects apply to NIHEffects of Nampt and NMN on Insulin SecretionFigure 1. The adipocytokines leptin, adiponectin, Nampt and NMN have no direct effects on beta-cell survival in INS-1E cells. INS-1E cells were kept under serum-free conditions 24 h before and during the 48 h experiment. (A,B) INS-1E cells were exposed to cytokines (A: IL-1b, IFN-c or TNFa) or adipocytokines (B: adiponectin, leptin, Nampt, NMN) at the indicated concentrations for 48 h and cell viability was measured by WST-Effects of Nampt and NMN on Insulin Secretionassay. Data are shown as means 6SEM of 3 independent experiments performed in triplicates. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni’s Multiple Comparison Test as posthoc test. C,D: INS-1E cells were exposed to adipocytokines (adiponectin 167 ng/ml, leptin 200 ng/ml, Nampt 2.5 ng/ml, NMN 100 mM) or a cytokine combination (10 ng/ml IL-1b+10 ng/ml IFN-c) for 48 h. Cytotoxicity (C) was analyzed by measuring the release of adenylate kinase into the supernatant and (D) apoptosis was measured by FITC-annexinV (An) and propidium iodide (PI) staining and subsequent flow cytometric analysis of An-positive and double An/PI positive cells. Results were expressed relative to cells exposed to serum free 23977191 medium (con) and as means 6SEM of three independent experiments performed in triplicates. E,F: INS-1E cells were exposed to a cytokine combination (IL/IF; 10 ng/ml IL-1b+10 ng/ml IFN-c) (E) or 0.25 mM palmitate (pal) (F) for 48 h in the absence or presence of the adipocytokines (167 ng/ml adiponectin, 200 ng/ml leptin, 2.5 ng/ml Nampt) and induction of apoptosis was measured by An/PI staining and flow cytometric analysis. Data are shown as means 6SEM of triplicates of three independent experiments. Statistical analyses were performed by students t-test. G: INS-1E cells were exposed to the adipocytokines adiponectin (167 ng/ml), leptin (200 ng/ml) or Nampt (2.5 ng/ml) or a combination of camptothecin (2 mM) and etoposide (85 mM; CE, upper and low.

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