Re Complex in Heart Failure

Calmodulin (CaM), a 16.7 kDa protein found
Re Complex in Heart Failure
Calmodulin (CaM), a 16.7 kDa protein found in all eukaryotic cells, has been extensively studied as a primary calcium (Ca2+)binding protein [1]. CaM mediates various processes, including BIBS39 site inflammation, metabolism, apoptosis, smooth muscle contraction, intracellular movement, short-term and long-term memory, nerve growth, cell motility, growth, proliferation and the immune response [2]. The function of CaM is affected by post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation and proteolytic cleavage [3]. CaM consists of two homologous (46 sequence identity) globular lobes; each has a pair of Ca2+ binding sites (EF-hand motifs), connected by a flexible linker [4]. Each EF-hand motif comprises two a helices connected by a 12residue loop (helix-turn-helix) and get Lixisenatide provides a suitable electronegative environment for Ca2+ ion coordination. The helices of two EF-hands motifs create a Phe and Met-rich hydrophobic pocket that is exposed to solvent and involved in target binding [5]. In apo CaM (Ca2+ free), the a-helices in the EF-hand motifs are positioned almost parallel to each other (closed conformation), whereas in the presence of Ca2+, the a-helices of the EF-hand motifs change their position relative to each other, forming an almost perpendicular conformation (open conformation) [6,7]. Ca2+ therefore induces a large conformational change, exposing the hydrophobic surface and facilitating binding between Ca2+/ CaM and a number of basic amphiphilic helices on target proteins [8]. The central helix of CaM is highly flexible and is the key to its ability to bind a wide range of targets [9]. Conformational flexibility plays a key role in CaM function. CaM is able to adopt a wide variety of conformations for its interaction with different targets [10,11,12,13,14]. The N- and Cterminal lobes move in to wrap around the hydrophobic residues of a target molecule [10,11]. Besides this classical mode of binding, CaM bound to oedema factor adopts an extended conformation[12]. In other cases, part of the central a-helix transforms into loops to facilitate peptide interactions [13,14], or binding to the target peptide occurs only via the C-terminal lobe [15,16]. Moreover, NMR and other spectroscopic studies have shown that the central a-helix is flexible in solution, and the backbone atoms between residues Lys77-Asp80 undergo 15857111 conformational changes [17]. Although CaM is best characterized to specifically bind with Ca2+, a number of studies have indicated that it can also bind with other metal ions [18,19,20]. Besides, CaM is able to selectively bind Ca2+ despite the fact that, in the resting cell, there are high levels of other cations, especially magnesium (Mg2+), which is present in roughly a 102?04-fold higher concentration than intracellular Ca2+ [21]. Zinc (Zn2+) antagonizes the calcium action by inhibiting the same cellular reactions triggered by Ca2+. This inhibition occurs through binding of Zn2+ to the CaM-protein complex [22]. The calpacitin protein family members, neuromodulin (Nm) and neurogranin (Ng), are intrinsically unstructured proteins, and are shown to interact with apo CaM (Ca2+ free). In the present study, the IQ peptides derived from Nm and Ng were present in the crystallization drops; however, no electron density was observed to confirm the existence of complex in the crystal. This crystal structure of CaM, in which no substrate peptide was bound (hereafter referred as ligand-free.Calmodulin (CaM), a 16.7 kDa protein found
Re Complex in Heart Failure
Calmodulin (CaM), a 16.7 kDa protein found in all eukaryotic cells, has been extensively studied as a primary calcium (Ca2+)binding protein [1]. CaM mediates various processes, including inflammation, metabolism, apoptosis, smooth muscle contraction, intracellular movement, short-term and long-term memory, nerve growth, cell motility, growth, proliferation and the immune response [2]. The function of CaM is affected by post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation and proteolytic cleavage [3]. CaM consists of two homologous (46 sequence identity) globular lobes; each has a pair of Ca2+ binding sites (EF-hand motifs), connected by a flexible linker [4]. Each EF-hand motif comprises two a helices connected by a 12residue loop (helix-turn-helix) and provides a suitable electronegative environment for Ca2+ ion coordination. The helices of two EF-hands motifs create a Phe and Met-rich hydrophobic pocket that is exposed to solvent and involved in target binding [5]. In apo CaM (Ca2+ free), the a-helices in the EF-hand motifs are positioned almost parallel to each other (closed conformation), whereas in the presence of Ca2+, the a-helices of the EF-hand motifs change their position relative to each other, forming an almost perpendicular conformation (open conformation) [6,7]. Ca2+ therefore induces a large conformational change, exposing the hydrophobic surface and facilitating binding between Ca2+/ CaM and a number of basic amphiphilic helices on target proteins [8]. The central helix of CaM is highly flexible and is the key to its ability to bind a wide range of targets [9]. Conformational flexibility plays a key role in CaM function. CaM is able to adopt a wide variety of conformations for its interaction with different targets [10,11,12,13,14]. The N- and Cterminal lobes move in to wrap around the hydrophobic residues of a target molecule [10,11]. Besides this classical mode of binding, CaM bound to oedema factor adopts an extended conformation[12]. In other cases, part of the central a-helix transforms into loops to facilitate peptide interactions [13,14], or binding to the target peptide occurs only via the C-terminal lobe [15,16]. Moreover, NMR and other spectroscopic studies have shown that the central a-helix is flexible in solution, and the backbone atoms between residues Lys77-Asp80 undergo 15857111 conformational changes [17]. Although CaM is best characterized to specifically bind with Ca2+, a number of studies have indicated that it can also bind with other metal ions [18,19,20]. Besides, CaM is able to selectively bind Ca2+ despite the fact that, in the resting cell, there are high levels of other cations, especially magnesium (Mg2+), which is present in roughly a 102?04-fold higher concentration than intracellular Ca2+ [21]. Zinc (Zn2+) antagonizes the calcium action by inhibiting the same cellular reactions triggered by Ca2+. This inhibition occurs through binding of Zn2+ to the CaM-protein complex [22]. The calpacitin protein family members, neuromodulin (Nm) and neurogranin (Ng), are intrinsically unstructured proteins, and are shown to interact with apo CaM (Ca2+ free). In the present study, the IQ peptides derived from Nm and Ng were present in the crystallization drops; however, no electron density was observed to confirm the existence of complex in the crystal. This crystal structure of CaM, in which no substrate peptide was bound (hereafter referred as ligand-free.

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