Ere allowed to adapt in serum-free medium for 24 h. These cells

Ere allowed to adapt in serum-free medium for 24 h. These cells 15900046 were then detached by trypsinization, washed with PBS and resuspended in serum-free culture medium in the absence or presence of cucurbitacin B. Total volume of 100 ml cell suspension (16106 cells/ml) was added to each upper chamber and the serumcontaining culture medium was added to the bottom chambers. The cells were then incubated for 24 h at 37uC. Cells that had migrated into the bottom chambers were fixed with 4 formaldehyde in PBS and the number of cells was counted under a phase contrast microscope. Triplicate determinations were performed in each experiment. Invasion assays were performed in a similar manner, using Matrigel-coated membrane inserted between the two chambers.Western blottingCells were seeded into 6-well plates and treated with 15 mg/ml cucurbitacin B for 48 h. The cells were prepared for western blotting as previously described [26,35]. Briefly, cell lysates were prepared in the solution containing lysis buffer [50 mM Tris (pH 7.5), 200 mM KCl, 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM EGTA, 1 NP40,Cucurbitacin B in BRCA1 Defective Breast CancerFigure 6. Cucurbitacin B treatment in a mutant BRCA1 breast cancer cells. (A) and (B), Western blot analysis for p21/WAF1, p27kip1 and survivin in the mutant BRCA1 cells, HCC1937 and MDA-MB-436, after cultured in control medium or in the medium containing 15 mg/ml cucurbitacin B for 48 h. GAPDH was used as loading control. (C), The cytotoxic responses of the wild type and the mutant cells to paclitaxel and cucurbitacin B are shown. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055732.g1 mM PMSF, 5 mM sodium orthovanadate, 10 ml/ml protease inhibitor cocktail (EMD chemicals, San Diego, CA)]. Protein concentrations were determined by the Bio-Rad dye-binding assay (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). Cellular proteins were fractionated by SDS-PAGE and transferred onto Nobiletin polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane. The membrane was blocked (with 5 nonfat dried milk in 16 TBS buffer containing 0.1 Tween 20) and immunostained with primary antibodies. Anti-BRCA1 (Cell Signaling Technology, Danvers, MA; 1:1000), anti-p21/Waf1/cip1 (Cell Signaling; 1:2000), anti-p27 (Santa Cruz biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA; 1:2000) or anti-human survivin antibodies (R D Systems, Minneapolis, MN; 1:3000) were used as primary antibodies. Horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibodies in conjunction with chemiluminescence detection in the FUJIFILM LAS-3000 system (Fujifilm Life Science, Stanford, CT)were used to visualize the binding of specific primary antibodies to immobilized proteins. Quantitative analysis of protein expression was performed using a Multi-Gauge Image software installed in the FUJIFILM LAS-3000 system. Changes in protein expression were calculated by comparison to the control. The numbers on the blots represent relative values of protein expression levels as compared to the control. GAPDH expression [using anti-human GAPDH antibody (Abcam, Cambridge, MA)] was used as internal control.Statistical analysisStatistically difference between the two groups was assessed using student’s t-test. P value of less than 0.01 was considered as significant different. The percentage of cells inhibition after cucurbitacin B treatment was calculated by the following formula:Cucurbitacin B in BRCA1 Defective Breast CancerFigure 7. Expression of mutant (Tyr856His) BRCA1 after stably 1948-33-0 chemical information transfected in wild type MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. (A) and (B), Cell proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-2.Ere allowed to adapt in serum-free medium for 24 h. These cells 15900046 were then detached by trypsinization, washed with PBS and resuspended in serum-free culture medium in the absence or presence of cucurbitacin B. Total volume of 100 ml cell suspension (16106 cells/ml) was added to each upper chamber and the serumcontaining culture medium was added to the bottom chambers. The cells were then incubated for 24 h at 37uC. Cells that had migrated into the bottom chambers were fixed with 4 formaldehyde in PBS and the number of cells was counted under a phase contrast microscope. Triplicate determinations were performed in each experiment. Invasion assays were performed in a similar manner, using Matrigel-coated membrane inserted between the two chambers.Western blottingCells were seeded into 6-well plates and treated with 15 mg/ml cucurbitacin B for 48 h. The cells were prepared for western blotting as previously described [26,35]. Briefly, cell lysates were prepared in the solution containing lysis buffer [50 mM Tris (pH 7.5), 200 mM KCl, 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM EGTA, 1 NP40,Cucurbitacin B in BRCA1 Defective Breast CancerFigure 6. Cucurbitacin B treatment in a mutant BRCA1 breast cancer cells. (A) and (B), Western blot analysis for p21/WAF1, p27kip1 and survivin in the mutant BRCA1 cells, HCC1937 and MDA-MB-436, after cultured in control medium or in the medium containing 15 mg/ml cucurbitacin B for 48 h. GAPDH was used as loading control. (C), The cytotoxic responses of the wild type and the mutant cells to paclitaxel and cucurbitacin B are shown. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055732.g1 mM PMSF, 5 mM sodium orthovanadate, 10 ml/ml protease inhibitor cocktail (EMD chemicals, San Diego, CA)]. Protein concentrations were determined by the Bio-Rad dye-binding assay (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). Cellular proteins were fractionated by SDS-PAGE and transferred onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane. The membrane was blocked (with 5 nonfat dried milk in 16 TBS buffer containing 0.1 Tween 20) and immunostained with primary antibodies. Anti-BRCA1 (Cell Signaling Technology, Danvers, MA; 1:1000), anti-p21/Waf1/cip1 (Cell Signaling; 1:2000), anti-p27 (Santa Cruz biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA; 1:2000) or anti-human survivin antibodies (R D Systems, Minneapolis, MN; 1:3000) were used as primary antibodies. Horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibodies in conjunction with chemiluminescence detection in the FUJIFILM LAS-3000 system (Fujifilm Life Science, Stanford, CT)were used to visualize the binding of specific primary antibodies to immobilized proteins. Quantitative analysis of protein expression was performed using a Multi-Gauge Image software installed in the FUJIFILM LAS-3000 system. Changes in protein expression were calculated by comparison to the control. The numbers on the blots represent relative values of protein expression levels as compared to the control. GAPDH expression [using anti-human GAPDH antibody (Abcam, Cambridge, MA)] was used as internal control.Statistical analysisStatistically difference between the two groups was assessed using student’s t-test. P value of less than 0.01 was considered as significant different. The percentage of cells inhibition after cucurbitacin B treatment was calculated by the following formula:Cucurbitacin B in BRCA1 Defective Breast CancerFigure 7. Expression of mutant (Tyr856His) BRCA1 after stably transfected in wild type MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. (A) and (B), Cell proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-2.

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