G autoimmunity against the diabetogenic endogenous target antigen. Considering the immune

G autoimmunity against the diabetogenic endogenous target antigen. Considering the immune aspects, while efforts have been centered on JI-101 systematic modulation of host immune responses for transplantation tolerance, the converse of strategies focused on direct protection of the allograft itself has not been adequately explored. With the advent of new technologies and especially nano-scale devices and materials, the concept of creating physical barriers combined with therapeutic support of transplanted islets or cell populations becomes a realistic option. Islet encapsulation using immune-isolation devices to facilitate the transplantation of islets so reducing the need for immunosuppression has been explored [3,4]. Macro-capsules (encapsulation of the whole islet graft) and micro-capsulation (encapsulation ofNanotherapeutic Immuno-Isolation for Islet Graftssingle islets) are the most common approaches for encapsulation [5,6]. However, use of agarose- or alginate-based macro- and micro- capsules is problematic on several counts including lack of clinical-grade biocompatible polymers; the physical thickness of the macro-capsules (mm level) that prevents efficient molecular exchange between the cells of the islet and their microenvironment; and the islet death due to hypoxia and subsequent fibrosis [for review, see [7]]. In the field of transfusion medicine, research has shown that surface modification of red blood cell membranes with non-immunogenic materials such as methoxy[polyethylene glycol] (mPEG) could yield antigenically silent (“stealth”) cells [8]. These “stealth” cells exhibit little or no antisera-mediated agglutination or antibody binding, and show markedly decreased immunogenicity. Moreover, for lymphocytes mPEG modification prevented MHC class II-mediated T cell activation in the mixed leukocyte reaction [9] and the pegylation procedure itself has no negative 1531364 effects on normal cell structure, function, or viability [10?2]. Following these findings, attempts to modify the surface of islets with bioreactive chemicals showed that blood-mediated inflammatory responses to the islets can be reduced [13]: furthermore, pegylated islets exhibit prolonged survival in allogeneic hosts without any immunosuppressive treatment [14], Gracillin web whilst a short course of cyclosporine A therapy synergized for even longer survival [15]. Ideally, islet encapsulation with biocompatible materials should exert both isolation and immunomodulation effects by physically isolating islets from inflammatory cytokines and host immune cells, whilst simultaneously delivering immune regulatory factors plus supportive growth factors to the islets. The latter point may allow for relatively low numbers of donor islets providing glycemic control, thereby addressing not only the problem of immunemediated rejection but also the problems of limited islet supply. However, the PEG of the pegylated layer has insufficient rigidity for loading with a therapeutic cargo: therefore we have explored combining pegylation with nanotherapy. Very recently biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles have been designed to carry therapeutic agents plus surface targeting moieties able to decorate the surface of pegylated islets [16?9]. Compared to the traditional immunoisolation and immunoregulation methods, such nanoparticles provide a biodegradable, biocompatible slow release vehicle for paracrine-type delivery of cargo to the targeted cell or islets. PLGA has been us.G autoimmunity against the diabetogenic endogenous target antigen. Considering the immune aspects, while efforts have been centered on systematic modulation of host immune responses for transplantation tolerance, the converse of strategies focused on direct protection of the allograft itself has not been adequately explored. With the advent of new technologies and especially nano-scale devices and materials, the concept of creating physical barriers combined with therapeutic support of transplanted islets or cell populations becomes a realistic option. Islet encapsulation using immune-isolation devices to facilitate the transplantation of islets so reducing the need for immunosuppression has been explored [3,4]. Macro-capsules (encapsulation of the whole islet graft) and micro-capsulation (encapsulation ofNanotherapeutic Immuno-Isolation for Islet Graftssingle islets) are the most common approaches for encapsulation [5,6]. However, use of agarose- or alginate-based macro- and micro- capsules is problematic on several counts including lack of clinical-grade biocompatible polymers; the physical thickness of the macro-capsules (mm level) that prevents efficient molecular exchange between the cells of the islet and their microenvironment; and the islet death due to hypoxia and subsequent fibrosis [for review, see [7]]. In the field of transfusion medicine, research has shown that surface modification of red blood cell membranes with non-immunogenic materials such as methoxy[polyethylene glycol] (mPEG) could yield antigenically silent (“stealth”) cells [8]. These “stealth” cells exhibit little or no antisera-mediated agglutination or antibody binding, and show markedly decreased immunogenicity. Moreover, for lymphocytes mPEG modification prevented MHC class II-mediated T cell activation in the mixed leukocyte reaction [9] and the pegylation procedure itself has no negative 1531364 effects on normal cell structure, function, or viability [10?2]. Following these findings, attempts to modify the surface of islets with bioreactive chemicals showed that blood-mediated inflammatory responses to the islets can be reduced [13]: furthermore, pegylated islets exhibit prolonged survival in allogeneic hosts without any immunosuppressive treatment [14], whilst a short course of cyclosporine A therapy synergized for even longer survival [15]. Ideally, islet encapsulation with biocompatible materials should exert both isolation and immunomodulation effects by physically isolating islets from inflammatory cytokines and host immune cells, whilst simultaneously delivering immune regulatory factors plus supportive growth factors to the islets. The latter point may allow for relatively low numbers of donor islets providing glycemic control, thereby addressing not only the problem of immunemediated rejection but also the problems of limited islet supply. However, the PEG of the pegylated layer has insufficient rigidity for loading with a therapeutic cargo: therefore we have explored combining pegylation with nanotherapy. Very recently biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles have been designed to carry therapeutic agents plus surface targeting moieties able to decorate the surface of pegylated islets [16?9]. Compared to the traditional immunoisolation and immunoregulation methods, such nanoparticles provide a biodegradable, biocompatible slow release vehicle for paracrine-type delivery of cargo to the targeted cell or islets. PLGA has been us.

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