Ation mutations in SNCA associated with autosomal dominant familial PD [28,29].Median

Ation mutations in SNCA associated with autosomal MedChemExpress GDC-0152 dominant familial PD [28,29].Median (IQR)Number29 (19?6)Control36 (19.7?3)a-synuclein plasma levels in iPD patients (n = 134, p = 0.010; see Table 2 and Figure 1). However, the reduction was less significant in patients who were LRRK2 mutation carriers (n = 32, p = 0.133). The ROC curve analysis of the total a-synuclein levels did not RG7440 custom synthesis discriminate between idiopathic patients and healthy controls (AUC = 0.595; 95 CI = 0.524?667) (Table 2; Figure 2). We did not observe any significant difference in the levels of asynuclein oligomers between iPD patients and control groups (Table 2). Moreover, no differences between PD patients and controls were found with respect to the ratio of plasma a-synuclein oligomers to total a-synuclein (Figure 1).Patients382.50 (240.7?226)227894.5 (151752.5?295485.3)LRRk2 mutPDiPD38 (15.5?0.3)0.Figure 2. ROC curve for a-synuclein levels in iPD patients. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated for total asynuclein in iPD patients. The dashed reference line represents the ROC curve for a test with no discriminatory ability. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is displayed on the graph with the 95 confidence interval shown between the parentheses (0.524?.667). The level of significance was set at p,0.05. No possible cutoff value was derived from the analysis. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052312.gpCPS: counts per second. Participants are grouped as healthy controls (Control), LRRK2 mutation carrier Parkinson’s disease patients (LRRK2 mutPD) and non-carrier or idiopathic Parkinson’s disease patients (iPD). Three different measurements of asynuclein levels in plasma are shown for each group. Mann-Whitney U test results are specified for each comparison performed. *The level of significance was set at p,0.05. AUC: the Area Under the Curve for each analysis is shown with a 95 CI. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052312.tmutPD vs Control0.580 (0.474?.686)0.584 (0.464?.705)0.555 (0.482?.627)mutPD vs Contr iPD vs mutPD0.595 (0.524?.667)0.0.0.0.0.0.0.465 (0.391?.539)AUCiPD vs Control0.472 (0.348?.595)Levels of a-Synuclein in PD BloodFurthermore, abnormal aggregates of a-synuclein protein were identified as the main components of LBs and LNs, the pathological hallmark of PD and dementia with Lewy bodies [9]. Since we reported the unexpected discovery of a-synuclein in the CSF and peripheral blood plasma [13], several groups have examined the potential use of a-synuclein as a putative biomarker for PD and other a-synucleinopathies, but the results have been inconclusive [16?9,30?3]. Moreover, total and oligomeric forms of a-synuclein have been distinguished, with the latter seemingly more closely related to neuronal cell death and neurodegeneration, and therefore could potentially serve as a good biomarker for the early diagnosis of PD and monitoring of disease progression [20?5,27]. Here we present the first case-control study of a-synuclein levels in the peripheral plasma of patients and controls, and provide data for both oligomeric and total a-synuclein levels. In addition, we have assessed both iPD patients and LRRK2 mutation carrier PD patients as separate groups. Although total a-synuclein was significantly lower in iPD patients compared with controls (see Table 2; Figure 1), a similar reduction was also observed for the LRRK2 patient group compared with controls (p 12926553 = 0.133), however, the differences were not statistically significant (Table 2; Figure 1). T.Ation mutations in SNCA associated with autosomal dominant familial PD [28,29].Median (IQR)Number29 (19?6)Control36 (19.7?3)a-synuclein plasma levels in iPD patients (n = 134, p = 0.010; see Table 2 and Figure 1). However, the reduction was less significant in patients who were LRRK2 mutation carriers (n = 32, p = 0.133). The ROC curve analysis of the total a-synuclein levels did not discriminate between idiopathic patients and healthy controls (AUC = 0.595; 95 CI = 0.524?667) (Table 2; Figure 2). We did not observe any significant difference in the levels of asynuclein oligomers between iPD patients and control groups (Table 2). Moreover, no differences between PD patients and controls were found with respect to the ratio of plasma a-synuclein oligomers to total a-synuclein (Figure 1).Patients382.50 (240.7?226)227894.5 (151752.5?295485.3)LRRk2 mutPDiPD38 (15.5?0.3)0.Figure 2. ROC curve for a-synuclein levels in iPD patients. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated for total asynuclein in iPD patients. The dashed reference line represents the ROC curve for a test with no discriminatory ability. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is displayed on the graph with the 95 confidence interval shown between the parentheses (0.524?.667). The level of significance was set at p,0.05. No possible cutoff value was derived from the analysis. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052312.gpCPS: counts per second. Participants are grouped as healthy controls (Control), LRRK2 mutation carrier Parkinson’s disease patients (LRRK2 mutPD) and non-carrier or idiopathic Parkinson’s disease patients (iPD). Three different measurements of asynuclein levels in plasma are shown for each group. Mann-Whitney U test results are specified for each comparison performed. *The level of significance was set at p,0.05. AUC: the Area Under the Curve for each analysis is shown with a 95 CI. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052312.tmutPD vs Control0.580 (0.474?.686)0.584 (0.464?.705)0.555 (0.482?.627)mutPD vs Contr iPD vs mutPD0.595 (0.524?.667)0.0.0.0.0.0.0.465 (0.391?.539)AUCiPD vs Control0.472 (0.348?.595)Levels of a-Synuclein in PD BloodFurthermore, abnormal aggregates of a-synuclein protein were identified as the main components of LBs and LNs, the pathological hallmark of PD and dementia with Lewy bodies [9]. Since we reported the unexpected discovery of a-synuclein in the CSF and peripheral blood plasma [13], several groups have examined the potential use of a-synuclein as a putative biomarker for PD and other a-synucleinopathies, but the results have been inconclusive [16?9,30?3]. Moreover, total and oligomeric forms of a-synuclein have been distinguished, with the latter seemingly more closely related to neuronal cell death and neurodegeneration, and therefore could potentially serve as a good biomarker for the early diagnosis of PD and monitoring of disease progression [20?5,27]. Here we present the first case-control study of a-synuclein levels in the peripheral plasma of patients and controls, and provide data for both oligomeric and total a-synuclein levels. In addition, we have assessed both iPD patients and LRRK2 mutation carrier PD patients as separate groups. Although total a-synuclein was significantly lower in iPD patients compared with controls (see Table 2; Figure 1), a similar reduction was also observed for the LRRK2 patient group compared with controls (p 12926553 = 0.133), however, the differences were not statistically significant (Table 2; Figure 1). T.

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