S/analysis tools: SN KDRS JRH. Wrote the paper: RML KJH

S/analysis tools: SN KDRS JRH. Wrote the paper: RML KJH JRH SN.
Renal fibrosis is the final common manifestation of chronic kidney disease leading to ESRD [1,2]. Furthermore, tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a key structural component of obstructive nephropathy, which is the major cause of chronic kidney disease in children [3]. Renal interstitial fibrosis is characterized by fibroblast activation and excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), which results in the destruction and collapse of renal parenchyma and causes progressive loss of kidney function. Because activated fibroblasts are the principal effector cells responsible for ECM production, their activation is regarded as a key event in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis [4?]. Recent evidence indicates that these activated fibroblasts may originate from bone marrow-derived fibroblast progenitor cells [7?1]. Bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors termed fibrocytes are derived from a subpopulation of monocytes via monocyte-tofibroblast transition [12?5]. These cells express mesenchymal markers such as collagen I and vimentin and hematopoietic markers such as CD45 and CD11b [12,16?8]. These cells in JNJ-7777120 biological activity culture display an adherent, spindle-shape morphology and express a-SMA that is enhanced when cells are treated with TGF-b1, consistent with the concept that they can differentiate into myofibroblasts [16?8]. The differentiation of these cells is regulated by cytokines. Profibrotic INNO-206 web cytokines ?IL-4 and IL-13 promote myeloid fibroblast differentiation, whereas antifibrotic cytokines ?IFN-c and IL-12 inhibit its differentiation [14,19]. Ourrecent study provides evidence that accumulation of myeloid fibroblast precursors in the kidney and development of renal fibrosis required chemokine CXCL16 induction in the renal tubular epithelial cells in a murine model of renal fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction [10]. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the recruitment and activation of these cells into injured kidneys are not fully understood. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that has both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties [20]. Studies have shown that IL-6 is elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease [21]. However, the role of IL-6 in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of IL-6 in a murine model of renal fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) using IL-6 knockout (KO) mice. Our results showed that IL-6 deficiency has no significant effect on the uptake of myeloid fibroblasts and the development of renal fibrosis.Materials and Methods AnimalsAnimal experiments were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Baylor College of Medicine (IACUC permit #: AN-5011). The investigation conforms with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals published by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH Publication No. 85?3, revised 1996). All efforts were made to minimize suffering. The IL-6 KO mice on a backgroundThe Role of IL-6 in Renal Fibrosis(Nikon, Melville, NY), and quantitative evaluation was performed using NIS-Elements Br 3.0 software. The collagen-stained area was calculated as a percentage of the total 16402044 area.Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCRQuantitative analysis of the target mRNA expression was performed with real-time reverse transcription ?polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by the relative standard c.S/analysis tools: SN KDRS JRH. Wrote the paper: RML KJH JRH SN.
Renal fibrosis is the final common manifestation of chronic kidney disease leading to ESRD [1,2]. Furthermore, tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a key structural component of obstructive nephropathy, which is the major cause of chronic kidney disease in children [3]. Renal interstitial fibrosis is characterized by fibroblast activation and excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), which results in the destruction and collapse of renal parenchyma and causes progressive loss of kidney function. Because activated fibroblasts are the principal effector cells responsible for ECM production, their activation is regarded as a key event in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis [4?]. Recent evidence indicates that these activated fibroblasts may originate from bone marrow-derived fibroblast progenitor cells [7?1]. Bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors termed fibrocytes are derived from a subpopulation of monocytes via monocyte-tofibroblast transition [12?5]. These cells express mesenchymal markers such as collagen I and vimentin and hematopoietic markers such as CD45 and CD11b [12,16?8]. These cells in culture display an adherent, spindle-shape morphology and express a-SMA that is enhanced when cells are treated with TGF-b1, consistent with the concept that they can differentiate into myofibroblasts [16?8]. The differentiation of these cells is regulated by cytokines. Profibrotic cytokines ?IL-4 and IL-13 promote myeloid fibroblast differentiation, whereas antifibrotic cytokines ?IFN-c and IL-12 inhibit its differentiation [14,19]. Ourrecent study provides evidence that accumulation of myeloid fibroblast precursors in the kidney and development of renal fibrosis required chemokine CXCL16 induction in the renal tubular epithelial cells in a murine model of renal fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction [10]. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the recruitment and activation of these cells into injured kidneys are not fully understood. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that has both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties [20]. Studies have shown that IL-6 is elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease [21]. However, the role of IL-6 in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of IL-6 in a murine model of renal fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) using IL-6 knockout (KO) mice. Our results showed that IL-6 deficiency has no significant effect on the uptake of myeloid fibroblasts and the development of renal fibrosis.Materials and Methods AnimalsAnimal experiments were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Baylor College of Medicine (IACUC permit #: AN-5011). The investigation conforms with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals published by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH Publication No. 85?3, revised 1996). All efforts were made to minimize suffering. The IL-6 KO mice on a backgroundThe Role of IL-6 in Renal Fibrosis(Nikon, Melville, NY), and quantitative evaluation was performed using NIS-Elements Br 3.0 software. The collagen-stained area was calculated as a percentage of the total 16402044 area.Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCRQuantitative analysis of the target mRNA expression was performed with real-time reverse transcription ?polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by the relative standard c.

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