Ub1-type GC, Supporting Document S1). For other examined genes, expression

Ub1-type GC, Supporting Document S1). For other examined genes, expression of CDH-1 (E-cadherin), reported to be frequently deficient in Lauren’s diffuse type GC [19,32,33], was unexpectedly detected in the two sig-type GCderived cells (Figure 1A). It was also unexpected that CDH-17 (LI-cadherin), thought to be an intestinal marker gene [20,26,27], expresses in almost all the MedChemExpress Danoprevir gastric cancer cell lines including sigtype (Figure 1A). For other cathepsin family genes, CTSD was reported 1655472 to be highly expressed in diffuse type GC and also a prognostic parameter for gastric carcinoma patients [23,34], but the results of RT-PCR revealed that all the examined cancer cell lines equally express CTSD (Figure 1A). CTSB and CTSLExpression of cathepsin E (CTSE) Gene is Regulated Majorly at the Transcription LevelUsing the 13 gastric, 5 colorectal, and 2 other cancer cell lines, CTSE protein production was analyzed by Western blotting (Figure 1B). 7 of the 20 cell lines were also evaluated by immunohistochemistry (Figure S1). In the both analyses CTSE mRNA expression and CTSE protein production were mostly coupled, suggesting CTSE expression is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level. Besides, all-or-none expression of CTSE shown in RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry suggested that gastric cancer cells would be clearly classified into two categories: MedChemExpress CX-5461 CTSE-expressing type and CTSE-deficient type. To investigate the regulation of CTSE gene, two major epigenetic drugs, demethylating agent 5-Aza-29-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A [37], were applied to five GC cell lines (Figure 1C). Three CTSE-expressing and two CTSE-deficient GC cell lines were treated, but we could not detect any change of CTSE transcription (Figure 1C). For methylation, we also searched CpG islands in the suggestive promoter region of human CTSE gene using two websites: “http://www.uscnorris. com/cpgislands2/cpg.aspx” demonstrating CpG island searcher and “http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov” supported by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The results of both searches suggested that the promoter of human CTSE gene is characterized by a lower percentage of CpG dinucleotides (55 ) and no CpG island, which are consistent with our results (Figure 1C). In addition, we evaluated the effect of four transcription factors which have been reported to regulate many gastrointestinal genes:CTSE: A Marker of Signet-Ring Cell Gastric CancerFigure 1. (A) Expression of E-cadherin, LI-cadherin, MUC5AC, MUC6, MUC2, vimentin, CTSE, CTSD, CTSB, CTSL, and GAPDH (internal control) mRNAs in a panel of 32 human cancer cell lines. 20 gastric, 10 colorectal, and 2 non-gastrointestinal cell lines (HeLa-S3 and MDAMB435) were analyzed by RT-PCR. (B) Expression of CTSE protein in 13 gastric, 5 colorectal, and 2 non-gastrointestinal cancer cell lines analyzed by Western blotting. (C) RT-PCR detecting CTSE mRNA in 5 gastric cancer cells treated with 5-Aza-dC and/or TSA for 48 hours. (D) RT-PCR detecting CTSE mRNA in gastric (AGS, MKN-1, SH-10-TC), colorectal (WiDr, Lovo, SW480, DLD-1), and breast cancer (MDA-MB435) cell lines stably transduced with retroviral vector encoding cdx2, gli1, gli3, or sox2 genes. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056766.gCTSE: A Marker of Signet-Ring Cell Gastric CancerTable 1. Summary of the association between CTSE (Cathepsin E) expression and original histological type of gastric cancer cell lines.Gastric cancer cell lines SH.Ub1-type GC, Supporting Document S1). For other examined genes, expression of CDH-1 (E-cadherin), reported to be frequently deficient in Lauren’s diffuse type GC [19,32,33], was unexpectedly detected in the two sig-type GCderived cells (Figure 1A). It was also unexpected that CDH-17 (LI-cadherin), thought to be an intestinal marker gene [20,26,27], expresses in almost all the gastric cancer cell lines including sigtype (Figure 1A). For other cathepsin family genes, CTSD was reported 1655472 to be highly expressed in diffuse type GC and also a prognostic parameter for gastric carcinoma patients [23,34], but the results of RT-PCR revealed that all the examined cancer cell lines equally express CTSD (Figure 1A). CTSB and CTSLExpression of cathepsin E (CTSE) Gene is Regulated Majorly at the Transcription LevelUsing the 13 gastric, 5 colorectal, and 2 other cancer cell lines, CTSE protein production was analyzed by Western blotting (Figure 1B). 7 of the 20 cell lines were also evaluated by immunohistochemistry (Figure S1). In the both analyses CTSE mRNA expression and CTSE protein production were mostly coupled, suggesting CTSE expression is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level. Besides, all-or-none expression of CTSE shown in RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry suggested that gastric cancer cells would be clearly classified into two categories: CTSE-expressing type and CTSE-deficient type. To investigate the regulation of CTSE gene, two major epigenetic drugs, demethylating agent 5-Aza-29-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A [37], were applied to five GC cell lines (Figure 1C). Three CTSE-expressing and two CTSE-deficient GC cell lines were treated, but we could not detect any change of CTSE transcription (Figure 1C). For methylation, we also searched CpG islands in the suggestive promoter region of human CTSE gene using two websites: “http://www.uscnorris. com/cpgislands2/cpg.aspx” demonstrating CpG island searcher and “http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov” supported by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The results of both searches suggested that the promoter of human CTSE gene is characterized by a lower percentage of CpG dinucleotides (55 ) and no CpG island, which are consistent with our results (Figure 1C). In addition, we evaluated the effect of four transcription factors which have been reported to regulate many gastrointestinal genes:CTSE: A Marker of Signet-Ring Cell Gastric CancerFigure 1. (A) Expression of E-cadherin, LI-cadherin, MUC5AC, MUC6, MUC2, vimentin, CTSE, CTSD, CTSB, CTSL, and GAPDH (internal control) mRNAs in a panel of 32 human cancer cell lines. 20 gastric, 10 colorectal, and 2 non-gastrointestinal cell lines (HeLa-S3 and MDAMB435) were analyzed by RT-PCR. (B) Expression of CTSE protein in 13 gastric, 5 colorectal, and 2 non-gastrointestinal cancer cell lines analyzed by Western blotting. (C) RT-PCR detecting CTSE mRNA in 5 gastric cancer cells treated with 5-Aza-dC and/or TSA for 48 hours. (D) RT-PCR detecting CTSE mRNA in gastric (AGS, MKN-1, SH-10-TC), colorectal (WiDr, Lovo, SW480, DLD-1), and breast cancer (MDA-MB435) cell lines stably transduced with retroviral vector encoding cdx2, gli1, gli3, or sox2 genes. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056766.gCTSE: A Marker of Signet-Ring Cell Gastric CancerTable 1. Summary of the association between CTSE (Cathepsin E) expression and original histological type of gastric cancer cell lines.Gastric cancer cell lines SH.

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