Ays of culture, expanded/activated cd T cells were incubated in

Ays of culture, expanded/activated cd T cells were incubated in media containing 400 mM TMZ for 24 h. Control cd T cells not transduced with vector were virtually 100 non-viable when TMZ was added, but MGMT transduced cells were TMZ resistant as demonstrated by cell viability at each MOI tested (Figure 3A). The cd T cells were then transduced at an MOI of 15 and cultured in 0, 200 or 400 mM TMZ. Copy number determined by quantitative PCR increased with increasing TMZ concentrations, likely due to the selection of cells expressing greater amounts of MGMT (Figure 3B).Cloning of TMZ Resistant Cell LinesTMZ-resistant cells were cloned as described by Zhang [31]. SNB19 and U373 cell lines were cultured in six-well polypropylene plates in equal volumes of DMEM-F12 and HAM’s media. Starting with 1 mM, cells were cultured in incrementally increasing TMZ concentrations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and finally 100 mM until cells could be passaged in 100 mM TMZ. The procedure required approximately six months to achieve small numbers of replicating TMZ-resistant cells that are highly resistant to TMZ and show strong expression of NKG2DL ULBP-2 and ULBP-3.Cytotoxicity assaysPotency of the cell product was determined using in vitro cytotoxicity assays against the unmodified and TMZ-resistant clones of the SNB-19 and U373 cell lines and normal astrocyte cultures (control for toxicity). Targets were labeled with the membrane dye PKH26 (Sigma; St. Louis, MO). Expanded/ activated cd T cells were then added to the tubes at ratios of 0:1 (Background), 5:1, 10:1, 20:1 and 40:1 effectors/GBM targets, incubated for four hours at 37uC and 5 CO2, washed once and resuspended in 1 ml HBSS. ToPro Iodide solution (20 ml) (Molecular Probes; Eugene, OR) was added prior to acquisition on the flow cytometer. Cytotoxicity was calculated as: (Toprolodide+PKH26+ events/total PKH26+ events) 6100. Single tubes were acquired for each experiment and duplicate experiments were performed as quality control.Genetic engineering of cd T cells does not alter their response to Zoledronic acid/IL-2 expansion or cytotoxic functionWe then tested whether genetic modification with the MGMT vector had an effect on the the proliferative or cytotoxic function of cd T cells (TMZ-transduced/resistant T cells – cdTMZ-R) in response to the Zoledronic acid and IL-2 expansion protocol. Two representative experiments using expanded/activated cd T cells from separate donors are shown. When comparing geneticallymodified cd T cells to unmodified cells we found no difference in the proliferative response, as all populations routinely yielded an expansion of cd T cells comprising 65 – 90 of the total lymphocyte population (Figure 4a and 4b). The cytotoxicity of unmodified to modified cd T cells to the U87 glioma cell line was nearly EGF816 equivalent at all E:T ratios (Figure 4c and 4d), verifying that cdTMZ-R genetically-modified T cell function is equivalent to that of unmodified cd T cells. For three separate donors, the expanded cells comprised approximately 2.0?2.06108 cells with transduced cell number yields generally less than unmodified cells due to cell loss during lentivirus transduction (Table 1). However, a 50 ml blood draw routinely yielded 26108 transduced cd T cells, which is sufficient for a therapeutic intracranial cell dose.eFT508 web Statistical analysisDescriptive statistics were used to characterize mean, standard deviation, and standard error of populations. For comparison of antigen expression, me.Ays of culture, expanded/activated cd T cells were incubated in media containing 400 mM TMZ for 24 h. Control cd T cells not transduced with vector were virtually 100 non-viable when TMZ was added, but MGMT transduced cells were TMZ resistant as demonstrated by cell viability at each MOI tested (Figure 3A). The cd T cells were then transduced at an MOI of 15 and cultured in 0, 200 or 400 mM TMZ. Copy number determined by quantitative PCR increased with increasing TMZ concentrations, likely due to the selection of cells expressing greater amounts of MGMT (Figure 3B).Cloning of TMZ Resistant Cell LinesTMZ-resistant cells were cloned as described by Zhang [31]. SNB19 and U373 cell lines were cultured in six-well polypropylene plates in equal volumes of DMEM-F12 and HAM’s media. Starting with 1 mM, cells were cultured in incrementally increasing TMZ concentrations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and finally 100 mM until cells could be passaged in 100 mM TMZ. The procedure required approximately six months to achieve small numbers of replicating TMZ-resistant cells that are highly resistant to TMZ and show strong expression of NKG2DL ULBP-2 and ULBP-3.Cytotoxicity assaysPotency of the cell product was determined using in vitro cytotoxicity assays against the unmodified and TMZ-resistant clones of the SNB-19 and U373 cell lines and normal astrocyte cultures (control for toxicity). Targets were labeled with the membrane dye PKH26 (Sigma; St. Louis, MO). Expanded/ activated cd T cells were then added to the tubes at ratios of 0:1 (Background), 5:1, 10:1, 20:1 and 40:1 effectors/GBM targets, incubated for four hours at 37uC and 5 CO2, washed once and resuspended in 1 ml HBSS. ToPro Iodide solution (20 ml) (Molecular Probes; Eugene, OR) was added prior to acquisition on the flow cytometer. Cytotoxicity was calculated as: (Toprolodide+PKH26+ events/total PKH26+ events) 6100. Single tubes were acquired for each experiment and duplicate experiments were performed as quality control.Genetic engineering of cd T cells does not alter their response to Zoledronic acid/IL-2 expansion or cytotoxic functionWe then tested whether genetic modification with the MGMT vector had an effect on the the proliferative or cytotoxic function of cd T cells (TMZ-transduced/resistant T cells – cdTMZ-R) in response to the Zoledronic acid and IL-2 expansion protocol. Two representative experiments using expanded/activated cd T cells from separate donors are shown. When comparing geneticallymodified cd T cells to unmodified cells we found no difference in the proliferative response, as all populations routinely yielded an expansion of cd T cells comprising 65 – 90 of the total lymphocyte population (Figure 4a and 4b). The cytotoxicity of unmodified to modified cd T cells to the U87 glioma cell line was nearly equivalent at all E:T ratios (Figure 4c and 4d), verifying that cdTMZ-R genetically-modified T cell function is equivalent to that of unmodified cd T cells. For three separate donors, the expanded cells comprised approximately 2.0?2.06108 cells with transduced cell number yields generally less than unmodified cells due to cell loss during lentivirus transduction (Table 1). However, a 50 ml blood draw routinely yielded 26108 transduced cd T cells, which is sufficient for a therapeutic intracranial cell dose.Statistical analysisDescriptive statistics were used to characterize mean, standard deviation, and standard error of populations. For comparison of antigen expression, me.

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