E college or graduate school (94.4 ). For PLWHA participants, the majority were

E college or graduate school (94.4 ). For PLWHA participants, the majority were African American (88.6 ), had a high school education or less (88.6 ), were on antiretroviral therapy (88.6 ), and had annualN C Med J. Flavopiridol web Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 February 11.Sengupta et al.Pageincomes less than 5,000 (54.3 ). Related to being on antiretroviral therapy, 57 of those interviewed were “in-care,” meaning that they had gone to their medical appointments within the past six months. HIV Stigma-Related Themes Grouped by Theoretical Construct and Their Co-Occurrences Table 4 (page 118) presents the HIV stigma themes that were elicited from the interview guide questions and our classification of these themes under existing theoretical constructs; we included an “other” category for HIV stigma-related themes that did not fall neatly into the existing constructs. Nine HIV stigma themes were elicited from the question, What do people in your community think about HIV/AIDS?; five themes from, How are PLWHA treated in the community?; five themes from, Are certain HIV-positive groups more discriminated against than others?; three themes from, What makes it difficult to bring HIV clinical trials into communities? (this included one related theme probing participants about using mobile vans); three themes from, Who have you not told that you have HIV?; and three themes from, What are your reasons for non-disclosure? We then organized each of these themes under the existing HIV stigma theoretical constructs of perceived stigma (PS), experienced stigma (ES), internalized stigma (IS), felt normative stigma (FNS), vicarious stigma (VS), and other by HS-173 cost placing an “X” under the constructs in which we felt they best fit. Some of the stigma themes were classified under more than one construct. Many of the themes elicited when asking about community and personal views about HIV/ AIDS were categorized as “other” given that, while they may be associated with HIV stigma, they were not HIV stigma themes by themselves. We categorized these themes as either causes or consequences of HIV stigma. For example, perceptions of those who are at risk for HIV infection co-occurred with judgments of who is or is not a “sinner” (a perceived stigma theme). Thus, perceptions of who is at risk (or of which groups get infected) could be considered a cause for negative stereotyping associated with perceived stigma (labeling atrisk groups or PLWHA as “sinners”). Isolation of PLWHA and local health care providers’ negative attitudes and interactions with PLWHA were both felt and experienced and, thus, we classified these themes under perceived and experienced stigma. The theme relating to PLWHA saying they have another disease seemed to be more related to felt normative stigma. More direct questions asking about HIV stigma–how PLWHA are treated or which HIVinfected groups are discriminated against more than others–elicited HIV stigma themes that could be classified under experienced stigma and under vicarious stigma in cases where PLWHA participants believed that certain HIV-infected groups were stigmatized more than others, even if that perception was not based on their own experiences.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptAsking PLWHA about disclosure of their HIV status identified the extent of non-disclosure to even close family members. These themes were classified in the “other” category since non-disclosure among PLWHA could be a co.E college or graduate school (94.4 ). For PLWHA participants, the majority were African American (88.6 ), had a high school education or less (88.6 ), were on antiretroviral therapy (88.6 ), and had annualN C Med J. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 February 11.Sengupta et al.Pageincomes less than 5,000 (54.3 ). Related to being on antiretroviral therapy, 57 of those interviewed were “in-care,” meaning that they had gone to their medical appointments within the past six months. HIV Stigma-Related Themes Grouped by Theoretical Construct and Their Co-Occurrences Table 4 (page 118) presents the HIV stigma themes that were elicited from the interview guide questions and our classification of these themes under existing theoretical constructs; we included an “other” category for HIV stigma-related themes that did not fall neatly into the existing constructs. Nine HIV stigma themes were elicited from the question, What do people in your community think about HIV/AIDS?; five themes from, How are PLWHA treated in the community?; five themes from, Are certain HIV-positive groups more discriminated against than others?; three themes from, What makes it difficult to bring HIV clinical trials into communities? (this included one related theme probing participants about using mobile vans); three themes from, Who have you not told that you have HIV?; and three themes from, What are your reasons for non-disclosure? We then organized each of these themes under the existing HIV stigma theoretical constructs of perceived stigma (PS), experienced stigma (ES), internalized stigma (IS), felt normative stigma (FNS), vicarious stigma (VS), and other by placing an “X” under the constructs in which we felt they best fit. Some of the stigma themes were classified under more than one construct. Many of the themes elicited when asking about community and personal views about HIV/ AIDS were categorized as “other” given that, while they may be associated with HIV stigma, they were not HIV stigma themes by themselves. We categorized these themes as either causes or consequences of HIV stigma. For example, perceptions of those who are at risk for HIV infection co-occurred with judgments of who is or is not a “sinner” (a perceived stigma theme). Thus, perceptions of who is at risk (or of which groups get infected) could be considered a cause for negative stereotyping associated with perceived stigma (labeling atrisk groups or PLWHA as “sinners”). Isolation of PLWHA and local health care providers’ negative attitudes and interactions with PLWHA were both felt and experienced and, thus, we classified these themes under perceived and experienced stigma. The theme relating to PLWHA saying they have another disease seemed to be more related to felt normative stigma. More direct questions asking about HIV stigma–how PLWHA are treated or which HIVinfected groups are discriminated against more than others–elicited HIV stigma themes that could be classified under experienced stigma and under vicarious stigma in cases where PLWHA participants believed that certain HIV-infected groups were stigmatized more than others, even if that perception was not based on their own experiences.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptAsking PLWHA about disclosure of their HIV status identified the extent of non-disclosure to even close family members. These themes were classified in the “other” category since non-disclosure among PLWHA could be a co.

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