Information as a neural mechanism linking social status and stress-related inflammatory

Information as a neural mechanism linking social RG7800 chemical information status and stress-related inflammatory responses. To investigate this, 31 healthy, female participants were exposed to a social stressor while they underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. We focused on females in this study given that women have been shown to be more reactive than men to social stressors (Rohleder et al., 2001; Stroud et al., 2002) and are at greater risk for some inflammatory-related conditions, such as major depressive disorder (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2001) . Blood samples were taken before and after the scan, and plasma was assayed for two inflammatory markers commonly studied in the acute stress literature: interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a; Steptoe et al., 2007). Participants also completed a measure of subjective social status, and reported their affective responses to the social stressor. Consistent with prior research, we hypothesized that lower subjective social status would be associated with greater stressor-evoked increases in inflammation. We also hypothesized that lower subjective status would be related to greater neural activity in the amygdala and the DMPFC in response to negative social feedback, replicating prior research. Finally, we explored whether the relationship between social status and inflammatory responses was mediated by neural activity in the amygdala and/or DMPFC in response to negative social feedback. This is the first known study to examine the potential neurocognitive mechanisms linking social status and inflammatory responses to stress.Materials and methodsParticipantsParticipants were 31 healthy young-adult females (M age ?19 years; range ?18?2 years). The sample self-identified as 32 Asian/Asian American, 23 Hispanic/Latina, 22 Mixed/Other, 13 African American and 10 White (non-Hispanic/Latina). The socioeconomic background of participants was varied: 45.2 (n ?14) of participants’ mothers had completed high school education or less, whereas 32.3 (n ?10) of the sample had fathers who had completed high school education or less. All participants provided written informed consent, and procedures were approved by the UCLA Institutional Review Board. Participants were paid 135 for participating.ProcedureComplete details of the experimental procedure have been previously reported (Muscatell et al., 2015). In brief, prospective participants were excluded during phone screening if they endorsed a number of criteria known to influence levels of inflammation (e.g. acute infection, chronic illness, BMI over 30) or contraindications for the MRI environment (e.g. left-handedness, claustrophobia, metallic implants). Participants were also excluded if they endorsed any current or lifetime history of Axis-I psychiatric disorder, as confirmed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis 1 Disorders (First et al., 1995). Individuals who met all inclusion criteria completed a videorecorded `impressions interview’ in the laboratory, in which they responded to questions such as `What would you most like to change about yourself?’ and `What are you most proud of in your life so far?’ Participants were told that in the next session for the study, they would meet another participant, and theK. A. Muscatell et al.|experimenters would choose one person to form an impression of the other based on the video of the interview. AG-221 cost Meanwhile, the other person would be scanned while they saw the impression being for.Information as a neural mechanism linking social status and stress-related inflammatory responses. To investigate this, 31 healthy, female participants were exposed to a social stressor while they underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. We focused on females in this study given that women have been shown to be more reactive than men to social stressors (Rohleder et al., 2001; Stroud et al., 2002) and are at greater risk for some inflammatory-related conditions, such as major depressive disorder (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2001) . Blood samples were taken before and after the scan, and plasma was assayed for two inflammatory markers commonly studied in the acute stress literature: interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a; Steptoe et al., 2007). Participants also completed a measure of subjective social status, and reported their affective responses to the social stressor. Consistent with prior research, we hypothesized that lower subjective social status would be associated with greater stressor-evoked increases in inflammation. We also hypothesized that lower subjective status would be related to greater neural activity in the amygdala and the DMPFC in response to negative social feedback, replicating prior research. Finally, we explored whether the relationship between social status and inflammatory responses was mediated by neural activity in the amygdala and/or DMPFC in response to negative social feedback. This is the first known study to examine the potential neurocognitive mechanisms linking social status and inflammatory responses to stress.Materials and methodsParticipantsParticipants were 31 healthy young-adult females (M age ?19 years; range ?18?2 years). The sample self-identified as 32 Asian/Asian American, 23 Hispanic/Latina, 22 Mixed/Other, 13 African American and 10 White (non-Hispanic/Latina). The socioeconomic background of participants was varied: 45.2 (n ?14) of participants’ mothers had completed high school education or less, whereas 32.3 (n ?10) of the sample had fathers who had completed high school education or less. All participants provided written informed consent, and procedures were approved by the UCLA Institutional Review Board. Participants were paid 135 for participating.ProcedureComplete details of the experimental procedure have been previously reported (Muscatell et al., 2015). In brief, prospective participants were excluded during phone screening if they endorsed a number of criteria known to influence levels of inflammation (e.g. acute infection, chronic illness, BMI over 30) or contraindications for the MRI environment (e.g. left-handedness, claustrophobia, metallic implants). Participants were also excluded if they endorsed any current or lifetime history of Axis-I psychiatric disorder, as confirmed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis 1 Disorders (First et al., 1995). Individuals who met all inclusion criteria completed a videorecorded `impressions interview’ in the laboratory, in which they responded to questions such as `What would you most like to change about yourself?’ and `What are you most proud of in your life so far?’ Participants were told that in the next session for the study, they would meet another participant, and theK. A. Muscatell et al.|experimenters would choose one person to form an impression of the other based on the video of the interview. Meanwhile, the other person would be scanned while they saw the impression being for.

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