Psy that are often difficult to manage, health-related stigma associated with

Psy that are often difficult to manage, health-related stigma associated with narcolepsy is likely to have a negative impact on the quality of life of young adults and is likely partially responsible for the depression, occupational and academic difficulties and personal and social problems reported by younger patients. The present study builds upon previous research to provide a better understanding of the impact of stigma and related variables associated with HRQOL in young adults with narcolepsy. We sought to compare young adults with and without narcolepsy on health-related stigma, mood and health-related quality of life, determine relationships among the variables and identify predictors of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Results providePLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122478 April 21,2 /Stigma in Young Adults with Narcolepsyevidence for further research on stigma and the development of interventions for people with narcolepsy.Materials and Methods Design SampleFor this cross sectional ZM241385 site Survey study we utilized data collected by Merritt and colleagues in 2002[18]. The sample consisted of young adults with narcolepsy 18?7 years of age who contacted the University of Illinois at Chicago, Center for Narcolepsy Research asking that they be placed on the mailing list and indicating an interest in participating in research. An acquaintance approach was used to obtain a control group of young adults without narcolepsy[19]. Young adults with narcolepsy answering an advertisement by phone and agreeing to participate were mailed a packet that included the questionnaire along with a cover letter and a selfaddressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic, socioeconomic and disease-related information and a composite of instruments including the Short Form 36 [20], the modified Social Impact Scale (MSIS)[21], the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)[22,23], the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)[24] and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index[25].Ethics StatementThe principal investigator provided information In the cover letter explaining the purpose and procedures of the study and confidentiality information generally found in the consent form. Also included in the cover letter was a statement that participation in the study was voluntary and that by returning the completed survey, the subject provided consent to be included in the study. Survey data were anonymized and de-identified. The study was approved by the University of Illinois at Chicago Institutional Review Board.MeasuresHealth-related stigma was measured using the Stigma and Social Impact Scale (SSIS)[21] and the Disclosure Concerns scale[26] The SSIS includes 24 items with a 4-point likert response scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree). It consists of four subscales: social EPZ-5676 price rejection (9 items), financial insecurity (3 items), internalized shame (5 items) and social isolation (7 items) experienced in the past 4 weeks. Social rejection signifies the feelings of social and job rejection experienced by the respondent. Financial insecurity captures feelings of the financial consequences of discrimination including income and job security. Internalized shame indicates the extent to which the participant has feelings of being different from others, blames his/her self for the illness and feels the need to conceal the illness. Social isolation captures feelings of low self-esteem and loneliness[21]. The items were reworded o.Psy that are often difficult to manage, health-related stigma associated with narcolepsy is likely to have a negative impact on the quality of life of young adults and is likely partially responsible for the depression, occupational and academic difficulties and personal and social problems reported by younger patients. The present study builds upon previous research to provide a better understanding of the impact of stigma and related variables associated with HRQOL in young adults with narcolepsy. We sought to compare young adults with and without narcolepsy on health-related stigma, mood and health-related quality of life, determine relationships among the variables and identify predictors of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Results providePLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122478 April 21,2 /Stigma in Young Adults with Narcolepsyevidence for further research on stigma and the development of interventions for people with narcolepsy.Materials and Methods Design SampleFor this cross sectional survey study we utilized data collected by Merritt and colleagues in 2002[18]. The sample consisted of young adults with narcolepsy 18?7 years of age who contacted the University of Illinois at Chicago, Center for Narcolepsy Research asking that they be placed on the mailing list and indicating an interest in participating in research. An acquaintance approach was used to obtain a control group of young adults without narcolepsy[19]. Young adults with narcolepsy answering an advertisement by phone and agreeing to participate were mailed a packet that included the questionnaire along with a cover letter and a selfaddressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic, socioeconomic and disease-related information and a composite of instruments including the Short Form 36 [20], the modified Social Impact Scale (MSIS)[21], the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)[22,23], the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)[24] and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index[25].Ethics StatementThe principal investigator provided information In the cover letter explaining the purpose and procedures of the study and confidentiality information generally found in the consent form. Also included in the cover letter was a statement that participation in the study was voluntary and that by returning the completed survey, the subject provided consent to be included in the study. Survey data were anonymized and de-identified. The study was approved by the University of Illinois at Chicago Institutional Review Board.MeasuresHealth-related stigma was measured using the Stigma and Social Impact Scale (SSIS)[21] and the Disclosure Concerns scale[26] The SSIS includes 24 items with a 4-point likert response scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree). It consists of four subscales: social rejection (9 items), financial insecurity (3 items), internalized shame (5 items) and social isolation (7 items) experienced in the past 4 weeks. Social rejection signifies the feelings of social and job rejection experienced by the respondent. Financial insecurity captures feelings of the financial consequences of discrimination including income and job security. Internalized shame indicates the extent to which the participant has feelings of being different from others, blames his/her self for the illness and feels the need to conceal the illness. Social isolation captures feelings of low self-esteem and loneliness[21]. The items were reworded o.

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