D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent OPC-8212 supplier drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The SB856553 msds evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown C.I. 75535 web University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and BAY 11-7083 supplier behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data ML390 price collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were MonocrotalineMedChemExpress Monocrotaline selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy NIK333 web transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely Mirogabalin web reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.

N scan or take a photo of the object in their

N scan or take a photo of the object in their workplace, task, or virtual case, and the real object will be integrated in MARE. GP behavior can be tracked and their skill within the knowledge level tested. For example, KS1 involves obtaining microbiological cultures or other relevant tests before starting treatment as necessary. A patient who has bacterial pneumonia or viral pneumonia will be shown to a GP treating in MARE. The GP will either select laboratory tests and interpret results or not. We will know whether the GP achieves KS1 or not. The KC of GPs can also be evaluated in MARE. GPs can write instant messages, comment, and annotate that they understand the rational use of antibiotics. GPs can also categorize, tag, or highlight the information that they think is order BMS-5 correct. For example, KC2 is recognizing trade and generic names, and the class of prescribed antimicrobials. GPs can categorize the class of prescribed antimicrobials when using MARE to scan trade or generic names.Competence LevelThe competence level expected of GPs regarding rational use of antibiotics is described in Table 2. Emotions and values not only affect the application of knowledge but are also a foundation for building GP competence according to physicians’ professional competence definitions [34]. When we use MARE to evaluate GPs’ competence levels, the cases could be conducted in mixed real environments (eg, the real person and the ARRY-334543 price symptom described coexist on the GP’s mobile phone in his or her workplace). The procedure for forecasting, executing, or replying can be uploaded to evaluate the GP’s CC and CS. For example, CC4 is constructing a prescription for an antimicrobial with its pharmacokinetics and knowing how this affects the choice of dosage regimen. The case condition will change when different antimicrobials are used with their pharmacokinetics. The result for the forecasting of antibiotics by the GP and the dosage regimen will be evaluated.Application of Mobile Augmented Reality Education to a Health Care ChallengeIn recent years, one of the global health threats has been the spread of antibiotic resistance. Encouraging rational antibiotic use is of paramount concern to authorities worldwide in order to minimize the development of resistance [50]. Multifaceted national and international strategies have been recommended [51]. Education is an important strategy for the rational use of antibiotics. We used the MARE framework to design GP training for the rational use of antibiotics. Implementing the MARE framework involves several steps: (1) defining the educational outcomes (based on the outcome layer), (2) defining the GP’s personal paradigm, (3) characterizing the learning environment, and (4) designing the learning activities.Performance LevelThe performance level expected of GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics is shown in Table 3. To aid GPs in assessing their workplace performance using the MARE framework, we should build a network for physicians in which they can share their work experiences; then the GPs can review, question, and validate their work performances with each other. Further, the GPs can negotiate, debate, and comment on real cases, and their performance in skills, such as PC and PS, can be tracked and estimated. For example, PS2 is mastering when to use a delayed antimicrobial prescription and how to negotiate this with the patient. One way is to evaluate the GP’s response with the patient case shared on MARE with othe.N scan or take a photo of the object in their workplace, task, or virtual case, and the real object will be integrated in MARE. GP behavior can be tracked and their skill within the knowledge level tested. For example, KS1 involves obtaining microbiological cultures or other relevant tests before starting treatment as necessary. A patient who has bacterial pneumonia or viral pneumonia will be shown to a GP treating in MARE. The GP will either select laboratory tests and interpret results or not. We will know whether the GP achieves KS1 or not. The KC of GPs can also be evaluated in MARE. GPs can write instant messages, comment, and annotate that they understand the rational use of antibiotics. GPs can also categorize, tag, or highlight the information that they think is correct. For example, KC2 is recognizing trade and generic names, and the class of prescribed antimicrobials. GPs can categorize the class of prescribed antimicrobials when using MARE to scan trade or generic names.Competence LevelThe competence level expected of GPs regarding rational use of antibiotics is described in Table 2. Emotions and values not only affect the application of knowledge but are also a foundation for building GP competence according to physicians’ professional competence definitions [34]. When we use MARE to evaluate GPs’ competence levels, the cases could be conducted in mixed real environments (eg, the real person and the symptom described coexist on the GP’s mobile phone in his or her workplace). The procedure for forecasting, executing, or replying can be uploaded to evaluate the GP’s CC and CS. For example, CC4 is constructing a prescription for an antimicrobial with its pharmacokinetics and knowing how this affects the choice of dosage regimen. The case condition will change when different antimicrobials are used with their pharmacokinetics. The result for the forecasting of antibiotics by the GP and the dosage regimen will be evaluated.Application of Mobile Augmented Reality Education to a Health Care ChallengeIn recent years, one of the global health threats has been the spread of antibiotic resistance. Encouraging rational antibiotic use is of paramount concern to authorities worldwide in order to minimize the development of resistance [50]. Multifaceted national and international strategies have been recommended [51]. Education is an important strategy for the rational use of antibiotics. We used the MARE framework to design GP training for the rational use of antibiotics. Implementing the MARE framework involves several steps: (1) defining the educational outcomes (based on the outcome layer), (2) defining the GP’s personal paradigm, (3) characterizing the learning environment, and (4) designing the learning activities.Performance LevelThe performance level expected of GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics is shown in Table 3. To aid GPs in assessing their workplace performance using the MARE framework, we should build a network for physicians in which they can share their work experiences; then the GPs can review, question, and validate their work performances with each other. Further, the GPs can negotiate, debate, and comment on real cases, and their performance in skills, such as PC and PS, can be tracked and estimated. For example, PS2 is mastering when to use a delayed antimicrobial prescription and how to negotiate this with the patient. One way is to evaluate the GP’s response with the patient case shared on MARE with othe.

43.6?0.9 68.8?4.9 24.7?5.2 61.2?7.1 6.9?1.0 24.8?5.3 0.16?.Flanking SNPs of SNPs OAR2_88062818.1 35257.1 s26286.1 AR3_165050963.1 s59995.1 AR5_53435489.1 OAR6_6402059.1?OAR

43.6?0.9 68.8?4.9 24.7?5.2 61.2?7.1 6.9?1.0 24.8?5.3 0.16?.Flanking SNPs of SNPs OAR2_88062818.1 35257.1 s26286.1 AR3_165050963.1 s59995.1 AR5_53435489.1 OAR6_6402059.1?OAR6_55087517_X.1 OAR6_57796972.1 AR6_58069886.1 OAR6_70844973.1 AR6_81183719.1 OAR6_127397796.1 33220.1 OAR10_29159858.1 AR10_29381795.1 s39429.1 AR13_55448085.1 OAR13_74074760.1 AR13_80614774_X.1 s59907.1 AR16_27501072.1 s25636.1 73670.1 OAR24_8063846.1 18520.1 OAR25_25923466.1 AR25_48288071_X.1 OAR26_222715_X.1 54858.Number 97 68 48 860 7 180 58 7 104 97 13 34 44 353Raw P-value 0.034 0.029 0.007 0.000 0.049 0.016 0.026 0.044 0.006 0.025 0.043 0.039 0.042 0.008 0.q-value 0.574 0.545 0.213 0.000 0.604 0.389 0.52 0.598 0.192 0.524 0.598 0.591 0.598 0.249 0.Guti rez-Gil et al.8 83.1?5.3 Mb 153.4?54.5 Mb ?39.3?9.5 Mb ?69.9?0.5 Mb ??48.9?2.0 Mb ??????Fariello et al.7 81.2?7.3 Mb 151.4?56.9 Mb 47.3?9.3 Mb 35.9?8.3 Mb ?67.9?0.3 Mb ?29.4?9.7 Mb 43.3?1.2 ??????10 13 16 17 24 25Table 2. Putative selective sweeps identified in the hapFLK-based analysis. Those sweeps consistently found with BayeScan are shown in bold. In the two columns at the right part of the table, we show evidence of positional concordance with previously reported selective sweeps7,8. CHR = chromosome. (Table 2, Fig. 4), positional coincidences were identified on Oar3 (150?54 Mb), Oar6 (4.3?9.9 Mb), and Oar13 (68.8?4.9 Mb). Next, we will examine more thoroughly a set of physiological and positional candidate genes whose patterns of variation could have been potentially modified by selection. Selective sweep on Oar3. The Oar3 (150?54 Mb) region co-localizes with a pleiotropic bovine A-836339 chemical information quantitative trait locus (QTL) for birth weight, calving ease direct, marbling and ribeye muscle area20 as well as with a second bovine QTL for fat yield21. There are several genes that may explain the existence of a selective sweep in this genomic region. The high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2, 153.7 Mb) gene is particularly relevant becauseScientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/Figure 4. A detailed view of the putative selective sweeps on Oar3, Oar6 and Oar13 detected with the HapFLK statistic and confirmed with BayeScan. The red and blue lines indicate the thresholds of significance set at 0.05 before (nominal P-value) and after (q-value) correction for multiple SIS3 web testing, respectively. Genomic coordinates and statistical significance (-log10 P-values) are plotted in the x- and y-axis, respectively. The approximate location of the candidate genes discussed in the current work is indicated (in Mb).polymorphism at this transcriptional regulator has been associated with height in humans and body size in horses and dogs20. Moreover, the inactivation of HMGA2 in mouse leads to the pygmy phenotype, characterized by a substantial decrease in body size and adiposity and defective spermatogenesis22,23. Another gene of interest is the WNT Inhibitory Factor 1 (WIF1, 154.5 Mb) locus, that encodes a molecule inhibiting extracellular WNT signaling, and that has been identified as positively selected in domestic cattle24. Interestingly, the WNT effector pathway is essential for the initiation of embryonic mammary organogenesis and the maintenance of stem cells, and it may also regulate post-natal ductal and alveolar development25. Finally, it is worth to mention the methionine sulfoxide reductase B3 (MSRB3, 154.2 Mb) and the LEM domain containing 3 (LEMD3, 154.4 Mb) loci, that are involved in cell grow.43.6?0.9 68.8?4.9 24.7?5.2 61.2?7.1 6.9?1.0 24.8?5.3 0.16?.Flanking SNPs of SNPs OAR2_88062818.1 35257.1 s26286.1 AR3_165050963.1 s59995.1 AR5_53435489.1 OAR6_6402059.1?OAR6_55087517_X.1 OAR6_57796972.1 AR6_58069886.1 OAR6_70844973.1 AR6_81183719.1 OAR6_127397796.1 33220.1 OAR10_29159858.1 AR10_29381795.1 s39429.1 AR13_55448085.1 OAR13_74074760.1 AR13_80614774_X.1 s59907.1 AR16_27501072.1 s25636.1 73670.1 OAR24_8063846.1 18520.1 OAR25_25923466.1 AR25_48288071_X.1 OAR26_222715_X.1 54858.Number 97 68 48 860 7 180 58 7 104 97 13 34 44 353Raw P-value 0.034 0.029 0.007 0.000 0.049 0.016 0.026 0.044 0.006 0.025 0.043 0.039 0.042 0.008 0.q-value 0.574 0.545 0.213 0.000 0.604 0.389 0.52 0.598 0.192 0.524 0.598 0.591 0.598 0.249 0.Guti rez-Gil et al.8 83.1?5.3 Mb 153.4?54.5 Mb ?39.3?9.5 Mb ?69.9?0.5 Mb ??48.9?2.0 Mb ??????Fariello et al.7 81.2?7.3 Mb 151.4?56.9 Mb 47.3?9.3 Mb 35.9?8.3 Mb ?67.9?0.3 Mb ?29.4?9.7 Mb 43.3?1.2 ??????10 13 16 17 24 25Table 2. Putative selective sweeps identified in the hapFLK-based analysis. Those sweeps consistently found with BayeScan are shown in bold. In the two columns at the right part of the table, we show evidence of positional concordance with previously reported selective sweeps7,8. CHR = chromosome. (Table 2, Fig. 4), positional coincidences were identified on Oar3 (150?54 Mb), Oar6 (4.3?9.9 Mb), and Oar13 (68.8?4.9 Mb). Next, we will examine more thoroughly a set of physiological and positional candidate genes whose patterns of variation could have been potentially modified by selection. Selective sweep on Oar3. The Oar3 (150?54 Mb) region co-localizes with a pleiotropic bovine quantitative trait locus (QTL) for birth weight, calving ease direct, marbling and ribeye muscle area20 as well as with a second bovine QTL for fat yield21. There are several genes that may explain the existence of a selective sweep in this genomic region. The high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2, 153.7 Mb) gene is particularly relevant becauseScientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/Figure 4. A detailed view of the putative selective sweeps on Oar3, Oar6 and Oar13 detected with the HapFLK statistic and confirmed with BayeScan. The red and blue lines indicate the thresholds of significance set at 0.05 before (nominal P-value) and after (q-value) correction for multiple testing, respectively. Genomic coordinates and statistical significance (-log10 P-values) are plotted in the x- and y-axis, respectively. The approximate location of the candidate genes discussed in the current work is indicated (in Mb).polymorphism at this transcriptional regulator has been associated with height in humans and body size in horses and dogs20. Moreover, the inactivation of HMGA2 in mouse leads to the pygmy phenotype, characterized by a substantial decrease in body size and adiposity and defective spermatogenesis22,23. Another gene of interest is the WNT Inhibitory Factor 1 (WIF1, 154.5 Mb) locus, that encodes a molecule inhibiting extracellular WNT signaling, and that has been identified as positively selected in domestic cattle24. Interestingly, the WNT effector pathway is essential for the initiation of embryonic mammary organogenesis and the maintenance of stem cells, and it may also regulate post-natal ductal and alveolar development25. Finally, it is worth to mention the methionine sulfoxide reductase B3 (MSRB3, 154.2 Mb) and the LEM domain containing 3 (LEMD3, 154.4 Mb) loci, that are involved in cell grow.

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney PF-04418948 structure Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a purchase 1,1-Dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations POR-8 site around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are LitronesibMedChemExpress KF-89617 reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study L 663536 chemical information stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are buy 1-Deoxynojirimycin contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix purchase AZD-8835 diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,BMS-791325 site 8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.