El production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipase-bound MNP was 40 (w/w of oil) and there was little distinction in between stepwise addition of methanol at 12 h- and 24 h-intervals. Reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil), and water content (w/w of oil) were optimized making use of response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal reaction conditions were 44.2 , substrate molar ratio of 5.2, and water content of 12.five . The predicted and experimental molar conversions of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) had been 80 and 79 , respectively. Keywords: biodiesel; lipase; magnetic nanoparticles; response surface methodology; waste cooking oil1. Introduction Biodiesel is defined because the fatty acid alkyl monoesters derived from renewable feedstocks which include Mite Inhibitor Molecular Weight vegetable oils and animal fats [1]. It draws much consideration as an alternative fuel since it isInt. J. Mol. Sci. 2013,biodegradable, non-toxic, and may be employed directly or blended with conventional petrodiesel in unmodified diesel engines. As compared to petrodiesel, biodiesel features a higher cetane quantity, no aromatics, RSK3 Inhibitor Purity & Documentation almost no sulfur, and consists of ten 1 oxygen by weight [2], hence minimizing the emission of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter inside the exhaust gas. Biodiesel is generally made by transesterification of virgin vegetable oils with quick chain alcohols applying alkaline catalysts. However, the course of action needs higher high quality food-grade vegetable oils with low degree of no cost fatty acids (FFA) to prevent saponification, which results in low biodiesel conversion and causes difficulties within the separation of glycerol. A major hurdle within the commercialization of biodiesel is its high manufacturing cost, primarily from virgin vegetable oils. Consequently, waste cooking oil (WCO) has develop into a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. WCO is much less costly than pure vegetable oils from soybean, sunflower or canola, and it really is presently utilized as animal feed or is basically discarded. However, the damaging compounds of WCO may possibly return into the food chain when applied as animal feed and also the disposal of WCO usually results in contamination of recipient waters [3]. Also to the advantage of lower expense, utilization of WCO as a feedstock for biodiesel production partly solves the problem of disposing WCO. Biodiesel attained out of animal fat and WCO includes a decrease cost than those derived from refined vegetable oils and fossil diesel [4]. Lipases (E.C. are capable of catalyzing a number of reactions for instance hydrolysis, alcoholysis, esterification, transesterification, and hence are extensively utilized in market [5]. Biodiesel may also be synthesized via lipase-catalyzed transesterification; the method produces higher purity solutions and enables uncomplicated separation of your glycerol byproduct [6]. The enzymatic procedure is compatible with low good quality feedstocks with higher levels of FFA. In addition, it calls for much less energy input as a consequence of decrease reaction temperature than the akali-catalyzed method. Having said that, there has been pretty limited industrial good results as a result of higher expense of lipases. One particular typical technique for lowering the cost of lipases is always to recycle the biocatalyst via immobilization [7]. A variety of immobilization approaches have already been applied to lipases for the production of biodiesel. Assistance materials including Celite [8], acrylic resin [9], and ion exchange resins [10,11] were made use of for attaching lipases by means of adsorption. The adsorption approach is easy to carry out, nevertheless it suffers from des.