Etermined four weeks later by isolating gastric tissue and using qPCR

Etermined four weeks later by isolating gastric tissue and using qPCR analysis. H. pylori infection in WT animals resulted in the induction of Foxp3 expression in the gastric mucosa (Figure 7, P,0.05). Gastric tissue from IRAK-M2/ 2 animals also had increased Foxp3 expression after H. pylori infection but levels were comparable to those observed in the gastric tissue of WT animals. Together, this data suggests that the proinflammatory phenotype of IRAK-M2/2 BMDCs does not affect Treg generation.IRAK-M upregulation in HP-BMDCs is dependent on both TLR2 and TLRTLR2 and TLR4 have been shown to play an important role in H. pylori sensing by DCs [31]. We therefore sought to determine if either TLR2 or TLR4 might be important in IRAK-M upregulation by comparing HP-BMDCs from WT, TLR22/2 and TLR42/2 mice. Whereas WT HP-BMDC displayed a 15-fold increase in IRAK-M expression by eight hours that remained high at 24 hours, Figure 4A illustrates that IRAK-M upregulation in HP-BMDCs is dependent on both TLR2 and TLR4 expression, and that abrogation of either TLR results in a reduction in IRAKM expression(P,0.05).Additional evidence for the importance of both TLR2 and TLR4 in H. pylori lysate induced activation of DC is demonstrated in Figure 4B and 4C where expression of IL-The Role of IRAK-M in H. pylori ImmunityThe Role of IRAK-M in H. pylori ImmunityFigure 6. IRAK-M2/2 BMDCs do not affect Treg induction in vitro. (A) BMDCs isolated from WT and IRAK-M2/2 mice were plated and pulsed with OVA for 2 hours before CD4+ T cells isolated from OT-II Foxp3-GFP animals were added to the wells in the presence of IL-2 and TGFb for 72 hours. Cells were restimulated with PMA and ionomycin in the presence of monesin, and Foxp3-GFP expression in CD4+ T cells was measured by flow cytometry.Data are representative of three independent experiments. (B) Bar graph represents mean 6 SD from data collected from three individual experiments performed in duplicate. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066914.gDiscussionRecent studies have demonstrated that DCs play an important immunoregulatory role in H. pylori infection and may even impact susceptibility or severity of other diseases such as asthma development [11,12,27,32,47]. An understanding of the molecular pathways that are activated in DCs by H. pylori, therefore, could provide significant insight into how immunoregulatory and inflammatory pathways are controlled during the course of infection and how these mechanisms may act more broadly. In the present study, we used a microarray approach to identify molecules in DCs whose expression is changed most significantly by H. pylori. We identified IRAK-M as a potential important regulatory protein for further characterization. By comparing HP-BMDCs to EC-BMDCs in our microarray study, H. pylori appeared to be weakly immunogenic as only 10 gene expression changes were apparent after 24 hours. Although this contrasted significantly with the 2162 gene expression changes seen in the EC-BMDCs, our data are Eledoisin consistent with previous microarray analyses on H. pylori-activated cells. One study Hypericin conducted a BMDC microarray following H. pylori exposure observed 126 gene expression changes after six hours [30]. A more recent study using H. pylori LPS stimulation of HEK293 cells reported only three significant gene expression changes afterFigure 7. IRAK-M deficiency does not affect iTreg generation in vivo. GFP2CD4+ T cells were isolated from Foxp3-GFP mice and sorted forlack of GFPexpression.Etermined four weeks later by isolating gastric tissue and using qPCR analysis. H. pylori infection in WT animals resulted in the induction of Foxp3 expression in the gastric mucosa (Figure 7, P,0.05). Gastric tissue from IRAK-M2/ 2 animals also had increased Foxp3 expression after H. pylori infection but levels were comparable to those observed in the gastric tissue of WT animals. Together, this data suggests that the proinflammatory phenotype of IRAK-M2/2 BMDCs does not affect Treg generation.IRAK-M upregulation in HP-BMDCs is dependent on both TLR2 and TLRTLR2 and TLR4 have been shown to play an important role in H. pylori sensing by DCs [31]. We therefore sought to determine if either TLR2 or TLR4 might be important in IRAK-M upregulation by comparing HP-BMDCs from WT, TLR22/2 and TLR42/2 mice. Whereas WT HP-BMDC displayed a 15-fold increase in IRAK-M expression by eight hours that remained high at 24 hours, Figure 4A illustrates that IRAK-M upregulation in HP-BMDCs is dependent on both TLR2 and TLR4 expression, and that abrogation of either TLR results in a reduction in IRAKM expression(P,0.05).Additional evidence for the importance of both TLR2 and TLR4 in H. pylori lysate induced activation of DC is demonstrated in Figure 4B and 4C where expression of IL-The Role of IRAK-M in H. pylori ImmunityThe Role of IRAK-M in H. pylori ImmunityFigure 6. IRAK-M2/2 BMDCs do not affect Treg induction in vitro. (A) BMDCs isolated from WT and IRAK-M2/2 mice were plated and pulsed with OVA for 2 hours before CD4+ T cells isolated from OT-II Foxp3-GFP animals were added to the wells in the presence of IL-2 and TGFb for 72 hours. Cells were restimulated with PMA and ionomycin in the presence of monesin, and Foxp3-GFP expression in CD4+ T cells was measured by flow cytometry.Data are representative of three independent experiments. (B) Bar graph represents mean 6 SD from data collected from three individual experiments performed in duplicate. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066914.gDiscussionRecent studies have demonstrated that DCs play an important immunoregulatory role in H. pylori infection and may even impact susceptibility or severity of other diseases such as asthma development [11,12,27,32,47]. An understanding of the molecular pathways that are activated in DCs by H. pylori, therefore, could provide significant insight into how immunoregulatory and inflammatory pathways are controlled during the course of infection and how these mechanisms may act more broadly. In the present study, we used a microarray approach to identify molecules in DCs whose expression is changed most significantly by H. pylori. We identified IRAK-M as a potential important regulatory protein for further characterization. By comparing HP-BMDCs to EC-BMDCs in our microarray study, H. pylori appeared to be weakly immunogenic as only 10 gene expression changes were apparent after 24 hours. Although this contrasted significantly with the 2162 gene expression changes seen in the EC-BMDCs, our data are consistent with previous microarray analyses on H. pylori-activated cells. One study conducted a BMDC microarray following H. pylori exposure observed 126 gene expression changes after six hours [30]. A more recent study using H. pylori LPS stimulation of HEK293 cells reported only three significant gene expression changes afterFigure 7. IRAK-M deficiency does not affect iTreg generation in vivo. GFP2CD4+ T cells were isolated from Foxp3-GFP mice and sorted forlack of GFPexpression.

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