D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of Aprotinin price social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms AZD4547 manufacturer dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.

T the funeral … they said that I should take the child.

T the Mangafodipir (trisodium) biological activity funeral … they said that I should take the child. And I said, how will I take the child yet I’m sick? And the thieves have taken all my animals. And at least there, he will have milk to eat, and I refused to take him … this child is yours not mine. And after I buried the mother, three days passed … they came and brought this baby saying their mother said this child is supposed to be here …Yet I said I don’t need him. And they left him. He was very sick. He was very sick. He nearly died … ‘M’e Masello highlights the complexity of fostering AIDS orphans. She felt that she did not have the resources or physical capabilities to care for Lebo and his siblings, yet there was no one else willing to care for them. The children were left with her after lengthy discussions between the two families and their chiefs. However, this does not indicate any lack of love or affection for the children on her part. She was particularly close with Lebo. She often emphasized how happy she was to be living with the children, and how much they helped her. Nevertheless, although she was deemed most capable of caring for Lebo and his siblings, this did not mean that they were ensured adequate care. Although, initially, ‘M’e Masello was physically and mentally able to provide for the children, for the last year of her life she was unable to give them the care they needed. This was especially true for Lebo, whose HIV regimen was particularly complex owing to numerous misdiagnoses. As a result of his grandmother’s sickness, his adherence to his antiretroviral treatment declined. I learned recently that ‘M’e Masello had died. Now the struggle to find a caregiver for the children has begun again.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptConclusionA history of dependence on migrant labour, changing marriage practices, and HIV/ AIDS have altered kin-based fostering networks among Basotho families. More children are in need of care, yet there are fewer caregivers to provide it. In rural communities, whereJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageinstitutionalized care is unavailable and external support is limited, kin-based care is the only option. In order to cope with these pressures, families are organizing themselves by focusing their resources matrilocally. Yet they are making sense of this model of care within the patrilineal system of child fostering. This is most evident in the ways purchase BAY 11-7083 family members negotiate for the care of children. In particular, primarily elderly female caregivers attempt to demonstrate their right to the children, often focusing on the presence or absence of bridewealth as key to their negotiation strategies. Simultaneously, there is an overriding emphasis on the quality of care that potential caregivers can provide (Ksoll 2007). The day-to-day role of women in this system has not drastically changed: women still do the majority of the care work. In fact, women are being called upon to care for an increased number of children — including those with greater health problems — yet with diminishing resources. What has changed, however, is the role a woman’s natal family plays in supporting her. In a context where marriage is a risk factor for contracting HIV (Smith 2007), but where having children still holds significant social value (Booth 2004), an easily dissolvable marriage may be seen as advantageous by mothers and maternal grandmothers, who can manipulate t.T the funeral … they said that I should take the child. And I said, how will I take the child yet I’m sick? And the thieves have taken all my animals. And at least there, he will have milk to eat, and I refused to take him … this child is yours not mine. And after I buried the mother, three days passed … they came and brought this baby saying their mother said this child is supposed to be here …Yet I said I don’t need him. And they left him. He was very sick. He was very sick. He nearly died … ‘M’e Masello highlights the complexity of fostering AIDS orphans. She felt that she did not have the resources or physical capabilities to care for Lebo and his siblings, yet there was no one else willing to care for them. The children were left with her after lengthy discussions between the two families and their chiefs. However, this does not indicate any lack of love or affection for the children on her part. She was particularly close with Lebo. She often emphasized how happy she was to be living with the children, and how much they helped her. Nevertheless, although she was deemed most capable of caring for Lebo and his siblings, this did not mean that they were ensured adequate care. Although, initially, ‘M’e Masello was physically and mentally able to provide for the children, for the last year of her life she was unable to give them the care they needed. This was especially true for Lebo, whose HIV regimen was particularly complex owing to numerous misdiagnoses. As a result of his grandmother’s sickness, his adherence to his antiretroviral treatment declined. I learned recently that ‘M’e Masello had died. Now the struggle to find a caregiver for the children has begun again.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptConclusionA history of dependence on migrant labour, changing marriage practices, and HIV/ AIDS have altered kin-based fostering networks among Basotho families. More children are in need of care, yet there are fewer caregivers to provide it. In rural communities, whereJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageinstitutionalized care is unavailable and external support is limited, kin-based care is the only option. In order to cope with these pressures, families are organizing themselves by focusing their resources matrilocally. Yet they are making sense of this model of care within the patrilineal system of child fostering. This is most evident in the ways family members negotiate for the care of children. In particular, primarily elderly female caregivers attempt to demonstrate their right to the children, often focusing on the presence or absence of bridewealth as key to their negotiation strategies. Simultaneously, there is an overriding emphasis on the quality of care that potential caregivers can provide (Ksoll 2007). The day-to-day role of women in this system has not drastically changed: women still do the majority of the care work. In fact, women are being called upon to care for an increased number of children — including those with greater health problems — yet with diminishing resources. What has changed, however, is the role a woman’s natal family plays in supporting her. In a context where marriage is a risk factor for contracting HIV (Smith 2007), but where having children still holds significant social value (Booth 2004), an easily dissolvable marriage may be seen as advantageous by mothers and maternal grandmothers, who can manipulate t.

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is Leupeptin (hemisulfate)MedChemExpress Leupeptin (hemisulfate) important to note the objective of this get BAY1217389 review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, Tariquidar site discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 –get Zebularine tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.

N by Tonks: Henry Ralph Lumley. Figure 4 shows Lumley before his

N by Tonks: Henry Ralph Lumley. Figure 4 shows Lumley before his injury. These photographs, like the other images reproduced in this article, can be found quite easily on the web, along with Lumley’s case notes, a series of photographs documenting the operations, and Tonks’ portrait.7 When I last checked, the pre-operative photograph had 254,405 hits, so either it has been seen by a considerable number of individuals, or there are people — like me — who’ve returned to it repeatedly, for whatever reason. Henry Lumley was admitted to the specialist hospital for facial casualties in October 1917. In his notes, Harold Gillies AnisomycinMedChemExpress Flagecidin describes Lumley’s condition on admission: the skin and subcutaneous tissue of his face had been destroyed by severe petrol burns, including the left eye and eyelid, both eyebrows, and the nose down to the cartilage. A Second Lieutenant in the Royal Flying Corps, Lumley had been wounded on 14 July 1916: by the time he came to Sidcup, he had lived with his injuries for over a year. No further mention is made of the accident in the case notes, but a genealogist working on Project Fa de looked up Lumley’s service records in The National Archives.8 A former operator with the Eastern Telegraph Company, Lumley was selected for the RFC’s Special Reserve of Officers in April 1916. He never made it out of England though: a letter from the Central Flying School in Upavon, dated 9 August 1916, reveals that the accident happened on the day of his graduation. The two operations at Sidcup, in November 1917 and February 1918, are documented in detail in the case notes, and revisited in Gillies’ 1920 textbook, Plastic Surgery of the Face, which is now out of copyright and freely available online.9 A diagram shows Gillies’ ambitious plan to remove the existing scar tissue and raise a large flap of skin from Lumley’s chest with pedicle tubes providing a further blood supply to the graft (Figure 5). Despite ongoing complications, the initial signs were encouraging, but by day three after the second operation the graft had developed gangrene. Henry Lumley died twenty-four days later on 11 March 1918. He was 26.P H OTO G R AP H I E SFIGURE 3 Photograph of patient before surgery, Lumley case file. Gillies Archives, Queen Mary’s Hospital Sidcup. Photograph courtesy of the Gillies Archives.M E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R EFIGURE 4 Pre-injury photograph, Lumley case file. Gillies Archives, Queen Mary’s Hospital Sidcup. Photograph courtesy of the Gillies Archives.P H OTO G R AP H I E S(a)(b)FIGURE 5 Notes from Lumley case file. Reproduced with permission of the Gillies Archives, Queen Mary’s Hospital Sidcup.M E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R EThe burdens of representationWhat do we gain from seeing images like these? What would constitute their proper — or improper — use? Susan Sontag’s book LumicitabineMedChemExpress ALS-8176 Regarding the Pain of Others is probably the most famous attempt to answer this question. In it she returns to the scene of her earlier study, On Photography, and reconsiders the claim, almost three decades on, that we (in the West) have become desensitised to the suffering of others; that this moral anaesthesia is directly attributable to the proliferation of images of appalling suffering. In On Photography Sontag pointed out an innate paradox of photographs: that they could, simultaneously, make an event more real than if one had never seen the photograph; but also — through “repeated exposure” -.N by Tonks: Henry Ralph Lumley. Figure 4 shows Lumley before his injury. These photographs, like the other images reproduced in this article, can be found quite easily on the web, along with Lumley’s case notes, a series of photographs documenting the operations, and Tonks’ portrait.7 When I last checked, the pre-operative photograph had 254,405 hits, so either it has been seen by a considerable number of individuals, or there are people — like me — who’ve returned to it repeatedly, for whatever reason. Henry Lumley was admitted to the specialist hospital for facial casualties in October 1917. In his notes, Harold Gillies describes Lumley’s condition on admission: the skin and subcutaneous tissue of his face had been destroyed by severe petrol burns, including the left eye and eyelid, both eyebrows, and the nose down to the cartilage. A Second Lieutenant in the Royal Flying Corps, Lumley had been wounded on 14 July 1916: by the time he came to Sidcup, he had lived with his injuries for over a year. No further mention is made of the accident in the case notes, but a genealogist working on Project Fa de looked up Lumley’s service records in The National Archives.8 A former operator with the Eastern Telegraph Company, Lumley was selected for the RFC’s Special Reserve of Officers in April 1916. He never made it out of England though: a letter from the Central Flying School in Upavon, dated 9 August 1916, reveals that the accident happened on the day of his graduation. The two operations at Sidcup, in November 1917 and February 1918, are documented in detail in the case notes, and revisited in Gillies’ 1920 textbook, Plastic Surgery of the Face, which is now out of copyright and freely available online.9 A diagram shows Gillies’ ambitious plan to remove the existing scar tissue and raise a large flap of skin from Lumley’s chest with pedicle tubes providing a further blood supply to the graft (Figure 5). Despite ongoing complications, the initial signs were encouraging, but by day three after the second operation the graft had developed gangrene. Henry Lumley died twenty-four days later on 11 March 1918. He was 26.P H OTO G R AP H I E SFIGURE 3 Photograph of patient before surgery, Lumley case file. Gillies Archives, Queen Mary’s Hospital Sidcup. Photograph courtesy of the Gillies Archives.M E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R EFIGURE 4 Pre-injury photograph, Lumley case file. Gillies Archives, Queen Mary’s Hospital Sidcup. Photograph courtesy of the Gillies Archives.P H OTO G R AP H I E S(a)(b)FIGURE 5 Notes from Lumley case file. Reproduced with permission of the Gillies Archives, Queen Mary’s Hospital Sidcup.M E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R EThe burdens of representationWhat do we gain from seeing images like these? What would constitute their proper — or improper — use? Susan Sontag’s book Regarding the Pain of Others is probably the most famous attempt to answer this question. In it she returns to the scene of her earlier study, On Photography, and reconsiders the claim, almost three decades on, that we (in the West) have become desensitised to the suffering of others; that this moral anaesthesia is directly attributable to the proliferation of images of appalling suffering. In On Photography Sontag pointed out an innate paradox of photographs: that they could, simultaneously, make an event more real than if one had never seen the photograph; but also — through “repeated exposure” -.

Tobal, Rio Blanco Abajo, 04.iv.2002, 500m, 10.90037, -85.37254, DHJPAR0002960. Paratypes. 40 , 6 (BMNH, CNC

Tobal, Rio Blanco Abajo, 04.iv.2002, 500m, 10.90037, -85.37254, DHJPAR0002960. Paratypes. 40 , 6 (BMNH, CNC, INBIO, INHS, NMNH). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: See Appendix 2 for detailed label data. Description. Female. Body color: body mostly dark except for some sternites which may be pale. Antenna color: scape, pedicel, and flagellum dark. Coxae color (pro-, meso, metacoxa): dark, dark, dark. Femora color (pro-, meso-, metafemur): anteriorly dark/ posteriorly pale, dark, dark. Tibiae color (pro-, meso-, metatibia): pale, pale, anteriorly pale/posteriorly dark. Tegula and humeral complex color: tegula pale, humeral complex half pale/half dark. Pterostigma color: mostly pale and/or transparent, with thin dark borders. Fore wing veins color: partially pigmented (a few veins may be dark but most are pale). Antenna length/body length: antenna about as long as body (head to apex of metasoma); if slightly shorter, at least extending beyond anterior 0.7 metasoma length. Body in lateral view: not distinctly flattened dorso entrally. Body length (head to apex of metasoma): 2.9?.0 mm, 3.1?.2 mm, rarely 2.0 mm or less or 3.3?.4 mm. Fore wing length: 2.9?.0 mm, 3.1?.2 mm, rarely 2.0 mm or less or 3.3?.4 mm. Ocular cellar line/posterior ocellus diameter: 2.3?.5, rarely 2.0?.2. Interocellar distance/ posterior ocellus diameter: 1.7?.9. Antennal flagellomerus 2 length/width: 2.6?.8. Antennal flagellomerus 14 length/width: 1.4?.6. Length of flagellomerus 2/length of flagellomerus 14: 2.0?.2. Tarsal claws: with single basal spine ike seta. Metafemur length/width: 3.2?.3. Metatibia inner spur length/metabasitarsus length: 0.4?.5. Anteromesoscutum: mostly with deep, dense punctures (separated by less than 2.0 ?its maximum diameter). Mesoscutellar disc: with punctures near margins, central part mostly smooth. Number of pits in scutoscutellar sulcus: 5 or 6 or 7 or 8. Maximum height of mesoscutellum lunules/maximum height of lateral face of mesoscutellum: 0.4?0.5. Propodeum areola: completely defined by carinae, including transverse carina extending to spiracle. Propodeum background sculpture: mostly sculptured. buy BEZ235 Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin: 2.0?.2. Mediotergite 1 shape: mostly parallel ided for 0.5?.7 of its length, then narrowing posteriorly so mediotergite anterior width >1.1 ?posterior width. Mediotergite 1 sculpture: mostly sculptured, excavated area centrally with transverse striation inside and/or a polished knob centrally on posterior margin of mediotergite. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 2.8?.1. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: mostly smooth. Outer margin of hypopygium: with a wide, medially folded,Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae)…transparent, semi esclerotized area; usually with 4 or more pleats. Ovipositor thickness: about same width throughout its length. Ovipositor sheaths length/metatibial length: 1.6?.7, rarely 1.2?.3. Length of fore wing veins r/2RS: 1.7?.9. Length of fore wing veins 2RS/2M: 0.9?.0. Length of fore wing veins 2M/(RS+M)b: 0.9?.0. Pterostigma length/width: 3.6 or more. Point of insertion of vein r in pterostigma: order PP58 clearly beyond half way point length of pterostigma. Angle of vein r with fore wing anterior margin: clearly outwards, inclined towards fore wing apex. Shape of junction of veins r and 2RS in fore wing: distinctly but not strongly angled. Male. As in female but with darker legs and smoother mediotergite 1. Molecular data. Sequences in BOLD:.Tobal, Rio Blanco Abajo, 04.iv.2002, 500m, 10.90037, -85.37254, DHJPAR0002960. Paratypes. 40 , 6 (BMNH, CNC, INBIO, INHS, NMNH). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: See Appendix 2 for detailed label data. Description. Female. Body color: body mostly dark except for some sternites which may be pale. Antenna color: scape, pedicel, and flagellum dark. Coxae color (pro-, meso, metacoxa): dark, dark, dark. Femora color (pro-, meso-, metafemur): anteriorly dark/ posteriorly pale, dark, dark. Tibiae color (pro-, meso-, metatibia): pale, pale, anteriorly pale/posteriorly dark. Tegula and humeral complex color: tegula pale, humeral complex half pale/half dark. Pterostigma color: mostly pale and/or transparent, with thin dark borders. Fore wing veins color: partially pigmented (a few veins may be dark but most are pale). Antenna length/body length: antenna about as long as body (head to apex of metasoma); if slightly shorter, at least extending beyond anterior 0.7 metasoma length. Body in lateral view: not distinctly flattened dorso entrally. Body length (head to apex of metasoma): 2.9?.0 mm, 3.1?.2 mm, rarely 2.0 mm or less or 3.3?.4 mm. Fore wing length: 2.9?.0 mm, 3.1?.2 mm, rarely 2.0 mm or less or 3.3?.4 mm. Ocular cellar line/posterior ocellus diameter: 2.3?.5, rarely 2.0?.2. Interocellar distance/ posterior ocellus diameter: 1.7?.9. Antennal flagellomerus 2 length/width: 2.6?.8. Antennal flagellomerus 14 length/width: 1.4?.6. Length of flagellomerus 2/length of flagellomerus 14: 2.0?.2. Tarsal claws: with single basal spine ike seta. Metafemur length/width: 3.2?.3. Metatibia inner spur length/metabasitarsus length: 0.4?.5. Anteromesoscutum: mostly with deep, dense punctures (separated by less than 2.0 ?its maximum diameter). Mesoscutellar disc: with punctures near margins, central part mostly smooth. Number of pits in scutoscutellar sulcus: 5 or 6 or 7 or 8. Maximum height of mesoscutellum lunules/maximum height of lateral face of mesoscutellum: 0.4?0.5. Propodeum areola: completely defined by carinae, including transverse carina extending to spiracle. Propodeum background sculpture: mostly sculptured. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin: 2.0?.2. Mediotergite 1 shape: mostly parallel ided for 0.5?.7 of its length, then narrowing posteriorly so mediotergite anterior width >1.1 ?posterior width. Mediotergite 1 sculpture: mostly sculptured, excavated area centrally with transverse striation inside and/or a polished knob centrally on posterior margin of mediotergite. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 2.8?.1. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: mostly smooth. Outer margin of hypopygium: with a wide, medially folded,Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae)…transparent, semi esclerotized area; usually with 4 or more pleats. Ovipositor thickness: about same width throughout its length. Ovipositor sheaths length/metatibial length: 1.6?.7, rarely 1.2?.3. Length of fore wing veins r/2RS: 1.7?.9. Length of fore wing veins 2RS/2M: 0.9?.0. Length of fore wing veins 2M/(RS+M)b: 0.9?.0. Pterostigma length/width: 3.6 or more. Point of insertion of vein r in pterostigma: clearly beyond half way point length of pterostigma. Angle of vein r with fore wing anterior margin: clearly outwards, inclined towards fore wing apex. Shape of junction of veins r and 2RS in fore wing: distinctly but not strongly angled. Male. As in female but with darker legs and smoother mediotergite 1. Molecular data. Sequences in BOLD:.

With similar connectivity profiles. We have shown how both global digital

With similar connectivity profiles. We have shown how both global digital and physical network flows can contribute to support a better monitoring of SDG indicators, as illustrated by the high correlation between Internet and postal flows on the one hand, with an exhaustive list of socioeconomic indicators on the other hand.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,16 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Nutlin (3a) web proxies for National WellbeingWe also note the considerable potential, exposed here, for future applications of postal flow data. While we have here restricted our analysis to country-level relations, postal flows allow for socio-economic mapping on a sub-national level which can inform development programmes on a practical level. An additional dimension to be explored–that is beyond the scope of this paper is temporal analysis which, combined with the multiplex network model presented above, could provide early warning of economic shocks and their propagation [41]. Interestingly, despite the ease of digital interactions and subsequent evidence that `distance is dead’ [42], physical networks, particularly the global postal, flight and migration networks, are still stronger candidates for proxy variables in case of missing data than digital networks such as the Internet or social media. These networks not only reach populations excluded from access to digital communications, but are also associated with the highest RDX5791 solubility number of country pairs sharing relatively similar socioeconomic patterns, in turn opening numerous ways of completing missing data with proxy variables. In the digital era, greater granularity and frequency of analysis and monitoring of SDGs can, paradoxically, be achieved through global physical networks data. We expect that the value as proxies for the digital communication networks will increase as they mature, expand and become more accessible. In the near future, both physical and digital networks will need to be combined to optimise monitoring efforts. In that sense, the emergence of the Internet of things (IoT) could play a critical role by making even more fuzzy the frontiers between the digital and physical worlds.Supporting InformationS1 Fig. Correlation matrix augmented with correlation coefficients for each cell. All results are statistically significant with p<0.05. (EPS) S1 Table. Two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic results and p-values for socioeconomic indicator differences between pairs of countries with minimal and maximal community multiplexity values (1 and 6). (TEX) S1 File. International postal network edges, where Source is the sending country, Target is the receiving country and Weight is the volume of post sent, normalised over the Source country population and scaled. (CSV)AcknowledgmentsDesislava Hristova was supported by the Project LASAGNE, Contract No. 318132 (STREP), funded by the European Commission and EPSRC through Grant GALE (EP/K019392). We are grateful to Andrei Bejan for the statistics consultation and Noa Zilberman for advice on the DIMES Project data.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: DH AR JA MLO. Performed the experiments: DH. Analyzed the data: DH AR JA. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AR JA MLO. Wrote the paper: DH AR JA MLO CM.
Integrated Care Settings (ICS) provide a holistic approach to the transition from chronic kidney disease into renal replacement therapy (RRT), offering at least both types of d.With similar connectivity profiles. We have shown how both global digital and physical network flows can contribute to support a better monitoring of SDG indicators, as illustrated by the high correlation between Internet and postal flows on the one hand, with an exhaustive list of socioeconomic indicators on the other hand.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,16 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingWe also note the considerable potential, exposed here, for future applications of postal flow data. While we have here restricted our analysis to country-level relations, postal flows allow for socio-economic mapping on a sub-national level which can inform development programmes on a practical level. An additional dimension to be explored–that is beyond the scope of this paper is temporal analysis which, combined with the multiplex network model presented above, could provide early warning of economic shocks and their propagation [41]. Interestingly, despite the ease of digital interactions and subsequent evidence that `distance is dead’ [42], physical networks, particularly the global postal, flight and migration networks, are still stronger candidates for proxy variables in case of missing data than digital networks such as the Internet or social media. These networks not only reach populations excluded from access to digital communications, but are also associated with the highest number of country pairs sharing relatively similar socioeconomic patterns, in turn opening numerous ways of completing missing data with proxy variables. In the digital era, greater granularity and frequency of analysis and monitoring of SDGs can, paradoxically, be achieved through global physical networks data. We expect that the value as proxies for the digital communication networks will increase as they mature, expand and become more accessible. In the near future, both physical and digital networks will need to be combined to optimise monitoring efforts. In that sense, the emergence of the Internet of things (IoT) could play a critical role by making even more fuzzy the frontiers between the digital and physical worlds.Supporting InformationS1 Fig. Correlation matrix augmented with correlation coefficients for each cell. All results are statistically significant with p<0.05. (EPS) S1 Table. Two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic results and p-values for socioeconomic indicator differences between pairs of countries with minimal and maximal community multiplexity values (1 and 6). (TEX) S1 File. International postal network edges, where Source is the sending country, Target is the receiving country and Weight is the volume of post sent, normalised over the Source country population and scaled. (CSV)AcknowledgmentsDesislava Hristova was supported by the Project LASAGNE, Contract No. 318132 (STREP), funded by the European Commission and EPSRC through Grant GALE (EP/K019392). We are grateful to Andrei Bejan for the statistics consultation and Noa Zilberman for advice on the DIMES Project data.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: DH AR JA MLO. Performed the experiments: DH. Analyzed the data: DH AR JA. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AR JA MLO. Wrote the paper: DH AR JA MLO CM.
Integrated Care Settings (ICS) provide a holistic approach to the transition from chronic kidney disease into renal replacement therapy (RRT), offering at least both types of d.

L abuse in males (Tables 4 and S2 Table) and an association

L abuse in males (Tables 4 and S2 Table) and an association among females disappeared with adjustment for physical abuse (S3 Table). In females but not males buy TSA faster zBMI gains with age were observed for ICG-001 web sexual abuse, by 0.0034/y, although confidence intervals include 0. For obesity, sexual abuse was associated with a lower ORadjusted at 7y of 0.23 (0.06,0.84) but faster, 1.04 (1.01,1.08) fold/y, linear increase with age such that the ORadjusted increased to 0.44 at 23y, to 1.09 at 45yPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119985 March 26,8 /Child Maltreatment and BMI TrajectoriesTable 4. Mean differences in zBMI (95 CIs) at 7y and rate of change in zBMI (7?0y) by childhood maltreatment, estimated using multilevel models.Mean difference in 7y z-BMI or rate of zBMI change Males Physical abuse 7y z-BMI rate of change in z-BMI Psychological abuse 7y z-BMI rate of change in z-BMI Sexual abuse 7y z-BMI rate of change in z-BMI Neglect 7 and/or 11 7y z-BMI coefficient for interaction with age coefficient for interaction with age2 Females Physical abuse 7y z-BMI rate of change in z-BMI Psychological abuse 7y z-BMI rate of change in z-BMI Sexual abuse 7y z-BMI rate of change in z-BMI Neglect 7 and/or 11 7y z-BMI coefficient for interaction with age coefficient for interaction with age2 0.0039 (-0.0527,0.0605) 0.0131 (0.0087,0.0174) -0.0002 (-0.0003,-0.0001) -0.0728 (-0.1300,-0.0157) 0.0130 (0.0086,0.0173) -0.0002 (-0.0003,-0.0001) -0.0634 (-0.1223,-0.0045) 0.0129 (0.0086,0.0173) -0.0002 (-0.0003,-0.0001) -0.0622 (-0.1211,-0.0032) 0.0127 (0.0083,0.0170) -0.0002 (-0.0003,-0.0001) -0.0601 (-0.2230,0.1027) 0.0034 (-0.0014,0.0082) -0.0651 (-0.2238,0.0935) 0.0033 (-0.0015,0.0081) -0.0790 (-0.2367,0.0787) 0.0036 (-0.0012,0.0084) -0.0795 (-0.2371,0.0782) 0.0034 (-0.0014,0.0082) -0.0762 (-0.1576,0.0051) 0.0035 (0.0011,0.0059) -0.0926 (-0.1711,-0.0142) 0.0035 (0.0011,0.0059) -0.0593 (-0.1368,0.0182) 0.0036 (0.0013,0.0060) -0.0592 (-0.1368,0.0183) 0.0035 (0.0011,0.0059) -0.0876 (-0.1964,0.0212) 0.0066 (0.0034,0.0098) -0.1132 (-0.2180,-0.0083) 0.0066 (0.0034,0.0098) -0.0971 (-0.2005,0.0064) 0.0068 (0.0036,0.0100) -0.0969 (-0.2004,0.0066) 0.0066 (0.0034,0.0098) -0.0883 (-0.1425,-0.0340) 0.0156 (0.0109,0.0203) -0.0003 (-0.0004,-0.0002) -0.1488 (-0.2010,-0.0967) 0.0156 (0.0108,0.0204) -0.0003 (-0.0004,-0.0002) -0.1612 (-0.2147,-0.1078) 0.0167 (0.0120,0.0215) -0.0003 (-0.0004,-0.0002) -0.1605 (-0.2140,-0.1070) 0.0166 (0.0118,0.0213) -0.0003 (-0.0004,-0.0002) 0.2089 (-0.1611,0.5789) -0.0017 (-0.0128,0.0093) 0.0995 (-0.2554,0.4544) -0.0016 (-0.0127,0.0094) 0.0799 (-0.2742,0.4340) -0.0007 (-0.0118,0.0103) 0.0804 (-0.2736,0.4345) -0.0009 (-0.0119,0.0101) 0.0201 (-0.0728,0.1131) 0.0011 (-0.0016,0.0039) 0.0231 (-0.0660,0.1122) 0.0011 (-0.0016,0.0039) 0.0201 (-0.0684,0.1086) 0.0015 (-0.0012,0.0043) 0.0203 (-0.0681,0.1088) 0.0014 (-0.0013,0.0042) -0.0503 (-0.1588,0.0583) 0.0052 (0.0020,0.0085) -0.0767 (-0.1805,0.0271) 0.0052 (0.0020,0.0084) -0.0737 (-0.1774,0.0300) 0.0057 (0.0025,0.0089) -0.0735 (-0.1772,0.0302) 0.0057 (0.0024,0.0089) Unadjusted Adjusted (A)* Adjusted (A+B)** Adjusted (A+B+C)***Mean difference in rate of change (i.e. additional rate of change associated with maltreatment) is represented by the coefficient for a linear age interaction term (and for 7y/11y neglect only it is a linear function of age: i.e. coefficient for interaction with age +2*(coefficient for interaction with age2)* age (where age is centred at 7y) *A: adjusted for: social class at birt.L abuse in males (Tables 4 and S2 Table) and an association among females disappeared with adjustment for physical abuse (S3 Table). In females but not males faster zBMI gains with age were observed for sexual abuse, by 0.0034/y, although confidence intervals include 0. For obesity, sexual abuse was associated with a lower ORadjusted at 7y of 0.23 (0.06,0.84) but faster, 1.04 (1.01,1.08) fold/y, linear increase with age such that the ORadjusted increased to 0.44 at 23y, to 1.09 at 45yPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119985 March 26,8 /Child Maltreatment and BMI TrajectoriesTable 4. Mean differences in zBMI (95 CIs) at 7y and rate of change in zBMI (7?0y) by childhood maltreatment, estimated using multilevel models.Mean difference in 7y z-BMI or rate of zBMI change Males Physical abuse 7y z-BMI rate of change in z-BMI Psychological abuse 7y z-BMI rate of change in z-BMI Sexual abuse 7y z-BMI rate of change in z-BMI Neglect 7 and/or 11 7y z-BMI coefficient for interaction with age coefficient for interaction with age2 Females Physical abuse 7y z-BMI rate of change in z-BMI Psychological abuse 7y z-BMI rate of change in z-BMI Sexual abuse 7y z-BMI rate of change in z-BMI Neglect 7 and/or 11 7y z-BMI coefficient for interaction with age coefficient for interaction with age2 0.0039 (-0.0527,0.0605) 0.0131 (0.0087,0.0174) -0.0002 (-0.0003,-0.0001) -0.0728 (-0.1300,-0.0157) 0.0130 (0.0086,0.0173) -0.0002 (-0.0003,-0.0001) -0.0634 (-0.1223,-0.0045) 0.0129 (0.0086,0.0173) -0.0002 (-0.0003,-0.0001) -0.0622 (-0.1211,-0.0032) 0.0127 (0.0083,0.0170) -0.0002 (-0.0003,-0.0001) -0.0601 (-0.2230,0.1027) 0.0034 (-0.0014,0.0082) -0.0651 (-0.2238,0.0935) 0.0033 (-0.0015,0.0081) -0.0790 (-0.2367,0.0787) 0.0036 (-0.0012,0.0084) -0.0795 (-0.2371,0.0782) 0.0034 (-0.0014,0.0082) -0.0762 (-0.1576,0.0051) 0.0035 (0.0011,0.0059) -0.0926 (-0.1711,-0.0142) 0.0035 (0.0011,0.0059) -0.0593 (-0.1368,0.0182) 0.0036 (0.0013,0.0060) -0.0592 (-0.1368,0.0183) 0.0035 (0.0011,0.0059) -0.0876 (-0.1964,0.0212) 0.0066 (0.0034,0.0098) -0.1132 (-0.2180,-0.0083) 0.0066 (0.0034,0.0098) -0.0971 (-0.2005,0.0064) 0.0068 (0.0036,0.0100) -0.0969 (-0.2004,0.0066) 0.0066 (0.0034,0.0098) -0.0883 (-0.1425,-0.0340) 0.0156 (0.0109,0.0203) -0.0003 (-0.0004,-0.0002) -0.1488 (-0.2010,-0.0967) 0.0156 (0.0108,0.0204) -0.0003 (-0.0004,-0.0002) -0.1612 (-0.2147,-0.1078) 0.0167 (0.0120,0.0215) -0.0003 (-0.0004,-0.0002) -0.1605 (-0.2140,-0.1070) 0.0166 (0.0118,0.0213) -0.0003 (-0.0004,-0.0002) 0.2089 (-0.1611,0.5789) -0.0017 (-0.0128,0.0093) 0.0995 (-0.2554,0.4544) -0.0016 (-0.0127,0.0094) 0.0799 (-0.2742,0.4340) -0.0007 (-0.0118,0.0103) 0.0804 (-0.2736,0.4345) -0.0009 (-0.0119,0.0101) 0.0201 (-0.0728,0.1131) 0.0011 (-0.0016,0.0039) 0.0231 (-0.0660,0.1122) 0.0011 (-0.0016,0.0039) 0.0201 (-0.0684,0.1086) 0.0015 (-0.0012,0.0043) 0.0203 (-0.0681,0.1088) 0.0014 (-0.0013,0.0042) -0.0503 (-0.1588,0.0583) 0.0052 (0.0020,0.0085) -0.0767 (-0.1805,0.0271) 0.0052 (0.0020,0.0084) -0.0737 (-0.1774,0.0300) 0.0057 (0.0025,0.0089) -0.0735 (-0.1772,0.0302) 0.0057 (0.0024,0.0089) Unadjusted Adjusted (A)* Adjusted (A+B)** Adjusted (A+B+C)***Mean difference in rate of change (i.e. additional rate of change associated with maltreatment) is represented by the coefficient for a linear age interaction term (and for 7y/11y neglect only it is a linear function of age: i.e. coefficient for interaction with age +2*(coefficient for interaction with age2)* age (where age is centred at 7y) *A: adjusted for: social class at birt.

A six-min incubation with Gentle Cell Dissociation Reagent followed by complete

A six-min incubation with Gentle Cell Dissociation Reagent followed by complete physical dispersions by repeated pipetting. Large cells (>70 m) were then collected by passing the suspension successively buy GW 4064 through a series of nylon cell GW 4064 solubility strainers (70 m and 40 m, Fisher Scientific) to generate three cell size fractions (>70 m, 40?0 m, and <40 m). The captured cells on the strainer were recovered by inverting the strainer and rinsing with culture medium. Similarly, middle size cells (40?0 m) were obtained from the <70-m fraction by collection on a 40-m cell strainer after removal of <70-m cells. The three size fractions were used in all subsequent analyses. Portions of the size-fractioned cells were fixed in 4 (vol/vol) paraformaldehyde/PBS solution for 15 min and resuspended (5.0 ?102 and 1.0 ?105 cells/100 L PBS). The suspensions were loaded into a Shandon single cytofunnel and centrifuged for 5 min at 1,000 ?g in a Shandon CytoSpin 4 cytocentrifuge (Thermo Scientific). Derivation Primary Human PHTu and PHTd. Placental tissue samples were collected by the Obstetrical Specimen Procurement Unit at Magee-Womens Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The work was performed under an exempt protocol approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Pittsburgh. Under the protocol, patients provided written consent for the use of deidentified discarded tissues for research upon admittance to the hospital. Primary villous PHTs were derived and cultured according to published procedures (12, 49, 50) from three term human placentas (one female and two males). Multiple primary cultures were established from each placenta at a density of 3.5 ?105 cells/cm2 in DMEM supplemented with 10 (vol/vol) FBS and antibiotics under a 5 (vol/vol) CO2/air atmosphere at 37 . Triplicate cultures from each placenta were harvested at 9 h (PHTu) before syncytium formation and subsequently at 48 h (PHTd) when syncytium formation had occurred. The sieving technique used for the hESC-derived cells was thus unnecessary for the term placental STB. Total RNA was extracted from each sample (3 ?3 at 9 h and 48 h, respectively) to provide a total of 18 samples for RNA-seq analysis. Additional methods are described in SI Appendix, SI Materials and Methods. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank L. C. Schulz for her critical reading of the manuscript and her helpful comments; N. J. Bivens for RNA-seq; W. Spollen, C. Bottoms, and S. Givan for their sequence data analysis; Y. Tian for immunoassays; A. Jurkevich for technical assistance; M. Schauflinger, D. Grant, and T. A. White for sharing equipment; and D. F. Reith for his editorial assistance and administrative support. This study was supported by NIH Grant R01HD077108 (to T.E. and D.J.S.) and Grant R01HD067759 (to R.M.R.).7. Loke YW, King A (1995) Human Implantation: Cell Biology and Immunology (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge). 8. Miller RK, et al. (2005) Human placental explants in culture: Approaches and assessments. Placenta 26(6):439?48. 9. Sim CM, Sibley CP, Jones CJ, Turner MA, Greenwood SL (2001) The functional regeneration of syncytiotrophoblast in cultured explants of term placenta. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 280(4):R1116 1122. 10. Wice B, Menton D, Geuze H, Schwartz AL (1990) Modulators of cyclic AMP metabolism induce syncytiotrophoblast formation in vitro. Exp Cell Res 186(2):306?16. 11. Orendi K, Gauster M, Moser G, Meiri H, Huppertz B (2010) The choriocarcinoma cell line BeW.A six-min incubation with Gentle Cell Dissociation Reagent followed by complete physical dispersions by repeated pipetting. Large cells (>70 m) were then collected by passing the suspension successively through a series of nylon cell strainers (70 m and 40 m, Fisher Scientific) to generate three cell size fractions (>70 m, 40?0 m, and <40 m). The captured cells on the strainer were recovered by inverting the strainer and rinsing with culture medium. Similarly, middle size cells (40?0 m) were obtained from the <70-m fraction by collection on a 40-m cell strainer after removal of <70-m cells. The three size fractions were used in all subsequent analyses. Portions of the size-fractioned cells were fixed in 4 (vol/vol) paraformaldehyde/PBS solution for 15 min and resuspended (5.0 ?102 and 1.0 ?105 cells/100 L PBS). The suspensions were loaded into a Shandon single cytofunnel and centrifuged for 5 min at 1,000 ?g in a Shandon CytoSpin 4 cytocentrifuge (Thermo Scientific). Derivation Primary Human PHTu and PHTd. Placental tissue samples were collected by the Obstetrical Specimen Procurement Unit at Magee-Womens Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The work was performed under an exempt protocol approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Pittsburgh. Under the protocol, patients provided written consent for the use of deidentified discarded tissues for research upon admittance to the hospital. Primary villous PHTs were derived and cultured according to published procedures (12, 49, 50) from three term human placentas (one female and two males). Multiple primary cultures were established from each placenta at a density of 3.5 ?105 cells/cm2 in DMEM supplemented with 10 (vol/vol) FBS and antibiotics under a 5 (vol/vol) CO2/air atmosphere at 37 . Triplicate cultures from each placenta were harvested at 9 h (PHTu) before syncytium formation and subsequently at 48 h (PHTd) when syncytium formation had occurred. The sieving technique used for the hESC-derived cells was thus unnecessary for the term placental STB. Total RNA was extracted from each sample (3 ?3 at 9 h and 48 h, respectively) to provide a total of 18 samples for RNA-seq analysis. Additional methods are described in SI Appendix, SI Materials and Methods. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank L. C. Schulz for her critical reading of the manuscript and her helpful comments; N. J. Bivens for RNA-seq; W. Spollen, C. Bottoms, and S. Givan for their sequence data analysis; Y. Tian for immunoassays; A. Jurkevich for technical assistance; M. Schauflinger, D. Grant, and T. A. White for sharing equipment; and D. F. Reith for his editorial assistance and administrative support. This study was supported by NIH Grant R01HD077108 (to T.E. and D.J.S.) and Grant R01HD067759 (to R.M.R.).7. Loke YW, King A (1995) Human Implantation: Cell Biology and Immunology (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge). 8. Miller RK, et al. (2005) Human placental explants in culture: Approaches and assessments. Placenta 26(6):439?48. 9. Sim CM, Sibley CP, Jones CJ, Turner MA, Greenwood SL (2001) The functional regeneration of syncytiotrophoblast in cultured explants of term placenta. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 280(4):R1116 1122. 10. Wice B, Menton D, Geuze H, Schwartz AL (1990) Modulators of cyclic AMP metabolism induce syncytiotrophoblast formation in vitro. Exp Cell Res 186(2):306?16. 11. Orendi K, Gauster M, Moser G, Meiri H, Huppertz B (2010) The choriocarcinoma cell line BeW.

‘ coordinate is the percentage of roles (s)he accepted for each

‘ coordinate is the percentage of roles (s)he accepted for each category. Scatterplots are for (a) ordinary favorable roles, (b) extraordinary favorable roles, (c) ordinary unfavorable roles, and (d) extraordinary unfavorable roles. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.** ** * ** * ** **Reaction Times (ms)Percentage of accepted roles70 60 50 40 30 20 101180 1160 1140 1120 1100 1080 1060 1040 1020 1000 980 960 940 920**Ordinary FavorableOrdinary Extraordinary Unfavorable Favorable Category combinations High SPQ scorersExtraordinary UnfavorableOrdinary FavorableExtraordinary Ordinary Favorable Unfavorable Category combinations High extraordinary role acceptersExtraordinary UnfavorableLow SPQ scorersLow extraordinary role acceptersAcceptanceRejectionFigure 2. Percentages of social roles accepted in each category for high- and low-SPQ scorers and standard errors (vertical bars) for the 203 participants. *P o0.05, **P o0.0001. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.Figure 3. Mean reaction times and standard errors (vertical bars) for accepted (plain rectangles) and rejected (crosshatched rectangles) social roles for high and low extraordinary roles accepters. *Po 0.05.(i.e., bizarre behavior, thought disorders, unusual thoughts, poor insight, and difficulty in Tyrphostin AG 490 web abstract thinking).16 In accordance with that view, the multiple regression suggested that the tendency to accept ordinary favorable roles had some protective effect Necrostatin-1 price againstnpj Schizophrenia (2016)schizotypal traits. Across all the categories, individuals with higher SPQ scores accepted more social roles than those with lower scores. All these results are reminiscent of the numerous anecdotes, so often published in the media, about thePublished in partnership with the Schizophrenia International Research SocietyExtraordinary roles and schizotypy AL Fernandez-Cruz et al5 disorganization of famous artists and the extraordinary roles they perform in society, now and in the past.17 On the other hand, works, such as the study of Twomey et al.,18 link psychoticism to openness to experience, sensation-seeking and creativity. Similarly, it was observed that, among writers and actors, scores for psychoticism were higher than among less `creative’ individuals19 and Andreasen noted in 1996 (ref. 20) that highly creative people had higher scores on measures of psychopathology than less creative people. In our case, this is akin to individuals who accept a lesser percentage of extraordinary social roles having lower SPQ scores. Further supporting the drive hypothesis, high accepters of extraordinary roles appeared `more enthusiast’ at accepting roles and more reluctant at rejecting them as they took less times for acceptances and more times for rejections than low accepters. This could be related to a higher baseline level of activation of the brain representations of these roles in the participants with higher SPQ scores. These results were obtained in a sample of the general population. Given the low frequency of schizotypy and of schizophrenia in that population, it is highly unlikely that those who accepted more extraordinary roles did it as a consequence of some pre-existing schizophrenia factors. One could eliminate an effect of the cognitive deficits found in the continuum going from normality to schizophrenia via schizotypy.9?3,21 In the task, these deficits would have induced longer reaction times for those who accepted more extraordinary roles or for the subgroup with higher SPQ.’ coordinate is the percentage of roles (s)he accepted for each category. Scatterplots are for (a) ordinary favorable roles, (b) extraordinary favorable roles, (c) ordinary unfavorable roles, and (d) extraordinary unfavorable roles. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.** ** * ** * ** **Reaction Times (ms)Percentage of accepted roles70 60 50 40 30 20 101180 1160 1140 1120 1100 1080 1060 1040 1020 1000 980 960 940 920**Ordinary FavorableOrdinary Extraordinary Unfavorable Favorable Category combinations High SPQ scorersExtraordinary UnfavorableOrdinary FavorableExtraordinary Ordinary Favorable Unfavorable Category combinations High extraordinary role acceptersExtraordinary UnfavorableLow SPQ scorersLow extraordinary role acceptersAcceptanceRejectionFigure 2. Percentages of social roles accepted in each category for high- and low-SPQ scorers and standard errors (vertical bars) for the 203 participants. *P o0.05, **P o0.0001. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.Figure 3. Mean reaction times and standard errors (vertical bars) for accepted (plain rectangles) and rejected (crosshatched rectangles) social roles for high and low extraordinary roles accepters. *Po 0.05.(i.e., bizarre behavior, thought disorders, unusual thoughts, poor insight, and difficulty in abstract thinking).16 In accordance with that view, the multiple regression suggested that the tendency to accept ordinary favorable roles had some protective effect againstnpj Schizophrenia (2016)schizotypal traits. Across all the categories, individuals with higher SPQ scores accepted more social roles than those with lower scores. All these results are reminiscent of the numerous anecdotes, so often published in the media, about thePublished in partnership with the Schizophrenia International Research SocietyExtraordinary roles and schizotypy AL Fernandez-Cruz et al5 disorganization of famous artists and the extraordinary roles they perform in society, now and in the past.17 On the other hand, works, such as the study of Twomey et al.,18 link psychoticism to openness to experience, sensation-seeking and creativity. Similarly, it was observed that, among writers and actors, scores for psychoticism were higher than among less `creative’ individuals19 and Andreasen noted in 1996 (ref. 20) that highly creative people had higher scores on measures of psychopathology than less creative people. In our case, this is akin to individuals who accept a lesser percentage of extraordinary social roles having lower SPQ scores. Further supporting the drive hypothesis, high accepters of extraordinary roles appeared `more enthusiast’ at accepting roles and more reluctant at rejecting them as they took less times for acceptances and more times for rejections than low accepters. This could be related to a higher baseline level of activation of the brain representations of these roles in the participants with higher SPQ scores. These results were obtained in a sample of the general population. Given the low frequency of schizotypy and of schizophrenia in that population, it is highly unlikely that those who accepted more extraordinary roles did it as a consequence of some pre-existing schizophrenia factors. One could eliminate an effect of the cognitive deficits found in the continuum going from normality to schizophrenia via schizotypy.9?3,21 In the task, these deficits would have induced longer reaction times for those who accepted more extraordinary roles or for the subgroup with higher SPQ.

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent OPC-8212 supplier drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The SB856553 msds evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown C.I. 75535 web University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and BAY 11-7083 supplier behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data ML390 price collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were MonocrotalineMedChemExpress Monocrotaline selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy NIK333 web transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely Mirogabalin web reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.

N scan or take a photo of the object in their

N scan or take a photo of the object in their workplace, task, or virtual case, and the real object will be integrated in MARE. GP behavior can be tracked and their skill within the knowledge level tested. For example, KS1 involves obtaining microbiological cultures or other relevant tests before starting treatment as necessary. A patient who has bacterial pneumonia or viral pneumonia will be shown to a GP treating in MARE. The GP will either select laboratory tests and interpret results or not. We will know whether the GP achieves KS1 or not. The KC of GPs can also be evaluated in MARE. GPs can write instant messages, comment, and annotate that they understand the rational use of antibiotics. GPs can also categorize, tag, or highlight the information that they think is order BMS-5 correct. For example, KC2 is recognizing trade and generic names, and the class of prescribed antimicrobials. GPs can categorize the class of prescribed antimicrobials when using MARE to scan trade or generic names.Competence LevelThe competence level expected of GPs regarding rational use of antibiotics is described in Table 2. Emotions and values not only affect the application of knowledge but are also a foundation for building GP competence according to physicians’ professional competence definitions [34]. When we use MARE to evaluate GPs’ competence levels, the cases could be conducted in mixed real environments (eg, the real person and the ARRY-334543 price symptom described coexist on the GP’s mobile phone in his or her workplace). The procedure for forecasting, executing, or replying can be uploaded to evaluate the GP’s CC and CS. For example, CC4 is constructing a prescription for an antimicrobial with its pharmacokinetics and knowing how this affects the choice of dosage regimen. The case condition will change when different antimicrobials are used with their pharmacokinetics. The result for the forecasting of antibiotics by the GP and the dosage regimen will be evaluated.Application of Mobile Augmented Reality Education to a Health Care ChallengeIn recent years, one of the global health threats has been the spread of antibiotic resistance. Encouraging rational antibiotic use is of paramount concern to authorities worldwide in order to minimize the development of resistance [50]. Multifaceted national and international strategies have been recommended [51]. Education is an important strategy for the rational use of antibiotics. We used the MARE framework to design GP training for the rational use of antibiotics. Implementing the MARE framework involves several steps: (1) defining the educational outcomes (based on the outcome layer), (2) defining the GP’s personal paradigm, (3) characterizing the learning environment, and (4) designing the learning activities.Performance LevelThe performance level expected of GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics is shown in Table 3. To aid GPs in assessing their workplace performance using the MARE framework, we should build a network for physicians in which they can share their work experiences; then the GPs can review, question, and validate their work performances with each other. Further, the GPs can negotiate, debate, and comment on real cases, and their performance in skills, such as PC and PS, can be tracked and estimated. For example, PS2 is mastering when to use a delayed antimicrobial prescription and how to negotiate this with the patient. One way is to evaluate the GP’s response with the patient case shared on MARE with othe.N scan or take a photo of the object in their workplace, task, or virtual case, and the real object will be integrated in MARE. GP behavior can be tracked and their skill within the knowledge level tested. For example, KS1 involves obtaining microbiological cultures or other relevant tests before starting treatment as necessary. A patient who has bacterial pneumonia or viral pneumonia will be shown to a GP treating in MARE. The GP will either select laboratory tests and interpret results or not. We will know whether the GP achieves KS1 or not. The KC of GPs can also be evaluated in MARE. GPs can write instant messages, comment, and annotate that they understand the rational use of antibiotics. GPs can also categorize, tag, or highlight the information that they think is correct. For example, KC2 is recognizing trade and generic names, and the class of prescribed antimicrobials. GPs can categorize the class of prescribed antimicrobials when using MARE to scan trade or generic names.Competence LevelThe competence level expected of GPs regarding rational use of antibiotics is described in Table 2. Emotions and values not only affect the application of knowledge but are also a foundation for building GP competence according to physicians’ professional competence definitions [34]. When we use MARE to evaluate GPs’ competence levels, the cases could be conducted in mixed real environments (eg, the real person and the symptom described coexist on the GP’s mobile phone in his or her workplace). The procedure for forecasting, executing, or replying can be uploaded to evaluate the GP’s CC and CS. For example, CC4 is constructing a prescription for an antimicrobial with its pharmacokinetics and knowing how this affects the choice of dosage regimen. The case condition will change when different antimicrobials are used with their pharmacokinetics. The result for the forecasting of antibiotics by the GP and the dosage regimen will be evaluated.Application of Mobile Augmented Reality Education to a Health Care ChallengeIn recent years, one of the global health threats has been the spread of antibiotic resistance. Encouraging rational antibiotic use is of paramount concern to authorities worldwide in order to minimize the development of resistance [50]. Multifaceted national and international strategies have been recommended [51]. Education is an important strategy for the rational use of antibiotics. We used the MARE framework to design GP training for the rational use of antibiotics. Implementing the MARE framework involves several steps: (1) defining the educational outcomes (based on the outcome layer), (2) defining the GP’s personal paradigm, (3) characterizing the learning environment, and (4) designing the learning activities.Performance LevelThe performance level expected of GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics is shown in Table 3. To aid GPs in assessing their workplace performance using the MARE framework, we should build a network for physicians in which they can share their work experiences; then the GPs can review, question, and validate their work performances with each other. Further, the GPs can negotiate, debate, and comment on real cases, and their performance in skills, such as PC and PS, can be tracked and estimated. For example, PS2 is mastering when to use a delayed antimicrobial prescription and how to negotiate this with the patient. One way is to evaluate the GP’s response with the patient case shared on MARE with othe.

43.6?0.9 68.8?4.9 24.7?5.2 61.2?7.1 6.9?1.0 24.8?5.3 0.16?.Flanking SNPs of SNPs OAR2_88062818.1 35257.1 s26286.1 AR3_165050963.1 s59995.1 AR5_53435489.1 OAR6_6402059.1?OAR

43.6?0.9 68.8?4.9 24.7?5.2 61.2?7.1 6.9?1.0 24.8?5.3 0.16?.Flanking SNPs of SNPs OAR2_88062818.1 35257.1 s26286.1 AR3_165050963.1 s59995.1 AR5_53435489.1 OAR6_6402059.1?OAR6_55087517_X.1 OAR6_57796972.1 AR6_58069886.1 OAR6_70844973.1 AR6_81183719.1 OAR6_127397796.1 33220.1 OAR10_29159858.1 AR10_29381795.1 s39429.1 AR13_55448085.1 OAR13_74074760.1 AR13_80614774_X.1 s59907.1 AR16_27501072.1 s25636.1 73670.1 OAR24_8063846.1 18520.1 OAR25_25923466.1 AR25_48288071_X.1 OAR26_222715_X.1 54858.Number 97 68 48 860 7 180 58 7 104 97 13 34 44 353Raw P-value 0.034 0.029 0.007 0.000 0.049 0.016 0.026 0.044 0.006 0.025 0.043 0.039 0.042 0.008 0.q-value 0.574 0.545 0.213 0.000 0.604 0.389 0.52 0.598 0.192 0.524 0.598 0.591 0.598 0.249 0.Guti rez-Gil et al.8 83.1?5.3 Mb 153.4?54.5 Mb ?39.3?9.5 Mb ?69.9?0.5 Mb ??48.9?2.0 Mb ??????Fariello et al.7 81.2?7.3 Mb 151.4?56.9 Mb 47.3?9.3 Mb 35.9?8.3 Mb ?67.9?0.3 Mb ?29.4?9.7 Mb 43.3?1.2 ??????10 13 16 17 24 25Table 2. Putative selective sweeps identified in the hapFLK-based analysis. Those sweeps consistently found with BayeScan are shown in bold. In the two columns at the right part of the table, we show evidence of positional concordance with previously reported selective sweeps7,8. CHR = chromosome. (Table 2, Fig. 4), positional coincidences were identified on Oar3 (150?54 Mb), Oar6 (4.3?9.9 Mb), and Oar13 (68.8?4.9 Mb). Next, we will examine more thoroughly a set of physiological and positional candidate genes whose patterns of variation could have been potentially modified by selection. Selective sweep on Oar3. The Oar3 (150?54 Mb) region co-localizes with a pleiotropic bovine A-836339 chemical information quantitative trait locus (QTL) for birth weight, calving ease direct, marbling and ribeye muscle area20 as well as with a second bovine QTL for fat yield21. There are several genes that may explain the existence of a selective sweep in this genomic region. The high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2, 153.7 Mb) gene is particularly relevant becauseScientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/Figure 4. A detailed view of the putative selective sweeps on Oar3, Oar6 and Oar13 detected with the HapFLK statistic and confirmed with BayeScan. The red and blue lines indicate the thresholds of significance set at 0.05 before (nominal P-value) and after (q-value) correction for multiple SIS3 web testing, respectively. Genomic coordinates and statistical significance (-log10 P-values) are plotted in the x- and y-axis, respectively. The approximate location of the candidate genes discussed in the current work is indicated (in Mb).polymorphism at this transcriptional regulator has been associated with height in humans and body size in horses and dogs20. Moreover, the inactivation of HMGA2 in mouse leads to the pygmy phenotype, characterized by a substantial decrease in body size and adiposity and defective spermatogenesis22,23. Another gene of interest is the WNT Inhibitory Factor 1 (WIF1, 154.5 Mb) locus, that encodes a molecule inhibiting extracellular WNT signaling, and that has been identified as positively selected in domestic cattle24. Interestingly, the WNT effector pathway is essential for the initiation of embryonic mammary organogenesis and the maintenance of stem cells, and it may also regulate post-natal ductal and alveolar development25. Finally, it is worth to mention the methionine sulfoxide reductase B3 (MSRB3, 154.2 Mb) and the LEM domain containing 3 (LEMD3, 154.4 Mb) loci, that are involved in cell grow.43.6?0.9 68.8?4.9 24.7?5.2 61.2?7.1 6.9?1.0 24.8?5.3 0.16?.Flanking SNPs of SNPs OAR2_88062818.1 35257.1 s26286.1 AR3_165050963.1 s59995.1 AR5_53435489.1 OAR6_6402059.1?OAR6_55087517_X.1 OAR6_57796972.1 AR6_58069886.1 OAR6_70844973.1 AR6_81183719.1 OAR6_127397796.1 33220.1 OAR10_29159858.1 AR10_29381795.1 s39429.1 AR13_55448085.1 OAR13_74074760.1 AR13_80614774_X.1 s59907.1 AR16_27501072.1 s25636.1 73670.1 OAR24_8063846.1 18520.1 OAR25_25923466.1 AR25_48288071_X.1 OAR26_222715_X.1 54858.Number 97 68 48 860 7 180 58 7 104 97 13 34 44 353Raw P-value 0.034 0.029 0.007 0.000 0.049 0.016 0.026 0.044 0.006 0.025 0.043 0.039 0.042 0.008 0.q-value 0.574 0.545 0.213 0.000 0.604 0.389 0.52 0.598 0.192 0.524 0.598 0.591 0.598 0.249 0.Guti rez-Gil et al.8 83.1?5.3 Mb 153.4?54.5 Mb ?39.3?9.5 Mb ?69.9?0.5 Mb ??48.9?2.0 Mb ??????Fariello et al.7 81.2?7.3 Mb 151.4?56.9 Mb 47.3?9.3 Mb 35.9?8.3 Mb ?67.9?0.3 Mb ?29.4?9.7 Mb 43.3?1.2 ??????10 13 16 17 24 25Table 2. Putative selective sweeps identified in the hapFLK-based analysis. Those sweeps consistently found with BayeScan are shown in bold. In the two columns at the right part of the table, we show evidence of positional concordance with previously reported selective sweeps7,8. CHR = chromosome. (Table 2, Fig. 4), positional coincidences were identified on Oar3 (150?54 Mb), Oar6 (4.3?9.9 Mb), and Oar13 (68.8?4.9 Mb). Next, we will examine more thoroughly a set of physiological and positional candidate genes whose patterns of variation could have been potentially modified by selection. Selective sweep on Oar3. The Oar3 (150?54 Mb) region co-localizes with a pleiotropic bovine quantitative trait locus (QTL) for birth weight, calving ease direct, marbling and ribeye muscle area20 as well as with a second bovine QTL for fat yield21. There are several genes that may explain the existence of a selective sweep in this genomic region. The high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2, 153.7 Mb) gene is particularly relevant becauseScientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/Figure 4. A detailed view of the putative selective sweeps on Oar3, Oar6 and Oar13 detected with the HapFLK statistic and confirmed with BayeScan. The red and blue lines indicate the thresholds of significance set at 0.05 before (nominal P-value) and after (q-value) correction for multiple testing, respectively. Genomic coordinates and statistical significance (-log10 P-values) are plotted in the x- and y-axis, respectively. The approximate location of the candidate genes discussed in the current work is indicated (in Mb).polymorphism at this transcriptional regulator has been associated with height in humans and body size in horses and dogs20. Moreover, the inactivation of HMGA2 in mouse leads to the pygmy phenotype, characterized by a substantial decrease in body size and adiposity and defective spermatogenesis22,23. Another gene of interest is the WNT Inhibitory Factor 1 (WIF1, 154.5 Mb) locus, that encodes a molecule inhibiting extracellular WNT signaling, and that has been identified as positively selected in domestic cattle24. Interestingly, the WNT effector pathway is essential for the initiation of embryonic mammary organogenesis and the maintenance of stem cells, and it may also regulate post-natal ductal and alveolar development25. Finally, it is worth to mention the methionine sulfoxide reductase B3 (MSRB3, 154.2 Mb) and the LEM domain containing 3 (LEMD3, 154.4 Mb) loci, that are involved in cell grow.

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney PF-04418948 structure Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a purchase 1,1-Dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations POR-8 site around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are LitronesibMedChemExpress KF-89617 reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study L 663536 chemical information stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are buy 1-Deoxynojirimycin contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix purchase AZD-8835 diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,BMS-791325 site 8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.

Rld context could be dangerous, expensive, or even impossible [46]. Computer-generated content

Rld context could be dangerous, expensive, or even impossible [46]. Computer-generated content, such as sound, graphics, 3D, video, or text, shows learners an indirect view of surroundings and enhances learners’ different senses to achieve the learning objectives. In these environments, learning activities are added, which will help medical learners to recognize and build their ARRY-334543 supplier personal paradigm as they develop skills, gain insights, and determine the dispositions that are essential for translating what they learn into action. Each mixed environment in MARE has its own focus on different learning activities, and the environments should complement and reinforce one another.Personal ParadigmThe personal paradigm is compiled from the frames of reference that shape learners’ beliefs regarding guiding action in transformative learning theory. The personal paradigm combines the individual’s mind-sets, habits, and meaning perspectives,http://mededu.jmir.org/2015/2/e10/and encompasses cognitive, conative, and affective components. This paradigm is affected by sociolinguistics, moral and ethical values, learning styles, religious beliefs, psychological heath, and aesthetic preferences [43], and is developed through the learners’ learning and/or practice experience. Problematic frames of reference can be caused by poor teaching, disjointed practice,JMIR Medical Education 2015 | vol. 1 | iss. 2 | e10 | p.9 (page Cyclosporine web number not for citation purposes)XSL?FORenderXJMIR MEDICAL EDUCATION bad example by colleagues, patient pressure, and salesmanship [47].Zhu et al for easy understanding. Attitudes within each level will be surveyed through an attitude questionnaire instrument.Learning Environment, Assets, and ActivitiesThe learning environment provides the conditions and external stimuli that facilitate learning and transform the learners’ paradigms. Learning assets provide the content for learning [48]. Learning assets are composed of different media forms, such as text, sound, and video; various media can be used in MARE to create different learning environments and realize the valuable functions of different media [49]. MARE mixes real clinical environments and virtual environments in a learning environment within which learners feel, think, watch, and act. Real clinical environments are an immediate context in which learners connect with the learning and practice. These environments include physical environments and social environments. As expected by situation learning theory [39], the clinical environments provide the anchor and scaffold in which learning is encouraged. The virtual environment is useful for learners who learn in different ways and transforms the problematic frames of reference in their personal paradigms. These types of environments conform to create safe environments, in which learners experience learning theories including transformative learning theory [42]. Learning activities are the approach by which learners obtain meaning from learning material, context, and other people in the learning environment. The three learning theories suggest various learning activities, as seen in Table 1. Although an individual’s learning style preferences may be inclined toward specific activities, using diverse learning activities is effective for all learning styles [42].Knowledge LevelKnowledge-level expectations for GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics are shown in Table 1. When GPs use MARE as a tool for evaluating knowledge, they ca.Rld context could be dangerous, expensive, or even impossible [46]. Computer-generated content, such as sound, graphics, 3D, video, or text, shows learners an indirect view of surroundings and enhances learners’ different senses to achieve the learning objectives. In these environments, learning activities are added, which will help medical learners to recognize and build their personal paradigm as they develop skills, gain insights, and determine the dispositions that are essential for translating what they learn into action. Each mixed environment in MARE has its own focus on different learning activities, and the environments should complement and reinforce one another.Personal ParadigmThe personal paradigm is compiled from the frames of reference that shape learners’ beliefs regarding guiding action in transformative learning theory. The personal paradigm combines the individual’s mind-sets, habits, and meaning perspectives,http://mededu.jmir.org/2015/2/e10/and encompasses cognitive, conative, and affective components. This paradigm is affected by sociolinguistics, moral and ethical values, learning styles, religious beliefs, psychological heath, and aesthetic preferences [43], and is developed through the learners’ learning and/or practice experience. Problematic frames of reference can be caused by poor teaching, disjointed practice,JMIR Medical Education 2015 | vol. 1 | iss. 2 | e10 | p.9 (page number not for citation purposes)XSL?FORenderXJMIR MEDICAL EDUCATION bad example by colleagues, patient pressure, and salesmanship [47].Zhu et al for easy understanding. Attitudes within each level will be surveyed through an attitude questionnaire instrument.Learning Environment, Assets, and ActivitiesThe learning environment provides the conditions and external stimuli that facilitate learning and transform the learners’ paradigms. Learning assets provide the content for learning [48]. Learning assets are composed of different media forms, such as text, sound, and video; various media can be used in MARE to create different learning environments and realize the valuable functions of different media [49]. MARE mixes real clinical environments and virtual environments in a learning environment within which learners feel, think, watch, and act. Real clinical environments are an immediate context in which learners connect with the learning and practice. These environments include physical environments and social environments. As expected by situation learning theory [39], the clinical environments provide the anchor and scaffold in which learning is encouraged. The virtual environment is useful for learners who learn in different ways and transforms the problematic frames of reference in their personal paradigms. These types of environments conform to create safe environments, in which learners experience learning theories including transformative learning theory [42]. Learning activities are the approach by which learners obtain meaning from learning material, context, and other people in the learning environment. The three learning theories suggest various learning activities, as seen in Table 1. Although an individual’s learning style preferences may be inclined toward specific activities, using diverse learning activities is effective for all learning styles [42].Knowledge LevelKnowledge-level expectations for GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics are shown in Table 1. When GPs use MARE as a tool for evaluating knowledge, they ca.

Ctancy of 50, the absolute difference between the two is 20 which represents

Ctancy of 50, the absolute difference between the two is 20 which represents low similarity when compared to the United Kingdom’s life expectancy of 72 for this indicator. In Fig 9, we can observe the variations in similarity for countries with different levels of community multiplexity. What is immediately striking is that countries that share a maximal number of communities and therefore exhibit the greatest community multiplexity, have the smallest margin of difference across all indicators. This suggests that countries with the highest community multiplexity have a very similar socioeconomic RG7666 site profile. This is confirmed by a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test between the distributions of differences in each GDC-0084 site indicator for pairs sharing different numbers of communities. Although the KS statistic is lower between groups sharing 0 and 1 communities (apx. 0.1 for all indicators and p-value <0.01), it is very high for groups between 1 and 6 communities (0.4 and above, p-value <0.01), except for mobile phone penetration (detailed KS test results are presented in S1 Table).PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,15 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingFig 9. Socioeconomic difference margin between countries who share communities in the global flow networks. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976.gFurther to this observation, in most indicators there is a very strong significance in the level of community multiplexity–the higher the community multiplexity index between two countries, the smaller the difference between their socioeconomic profiles. There are notable exceptions to this such as the mobile phone penetration ratio, where it appears that beyond the highest level of multiplexity, all other countries are relatively similar in this aspect with low variation even for those pairs of countries which share no communities. For all other indicators such as GDP, Literacy ratio, HDI and Internet penetration, there is a dramatic increase in similarity past a community multiplexity of 3. Ultimately, these similarities can be used to estimate the wellbeing of countries for which it is unknown but can be estimated from its neighbours.DiscussionBig data is often related to real-time data captured through the Internet or social networks. However, the digital divide makes access to big data insights for development more challenging in the least developed and many developing and emerging countries. Can we rely on other networks to overcome these critical data gaps in view of better measuring and monitoring developmental progress? This is particularly important following the United Nations adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in September 2015, made of 17 goals, 169 targets and almost 200 universal indicators, each of them calling for regular and increasingly disaggregated monitoring in every country during the 2016?0 period. This commitment invites a nuanced discussion on the nature and importance of measurement, inference and triangulation of data sources. This discussion is particularly prescient in the face of complex intertwined developmental challenges in an age of increased globalisation, economic interdependence and climate change. The work presented above has clearly shown the value of measuring, comparing, and combining metrics of global connectivity across six different global networks in order to approximate socioeconomic indicators and to identify network communities.Ctancy of 50, the absolute difference between the two is 20 which represents low similarity when compared to the United Kingdom’s life expectancy of 72 for this indicator. In Fig 9, we can observe the variations in similarity for countries with different levels of community multiplexity. What is immediately striking is that countries that share a maximal number of communities and therefore exhibit the greatest community multiplexity, have the smallest margin of difference across all indicators. This suggests that countries with the highest community multiplexity have a very similar socioeconomic profile. This is confirmed by a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test between the distributions of differences in each indicator for pairs sharing different numbers of communities. Although the KS statistic is lower between groups sharing 0 and 1 communities (apx. 0.1 for all indicators and p-value <0.01), it is very high for groups between 1 and 6 communities (0.4 and above, p-value <0.01), except for mobile phone penetration (detailed KS test results are presented in S1 Table).PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,15 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingFig 9. Socioeconomic difference margin between countries who share communities in the global flow networks. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976.gFurther to this observation, in most indicators there is a very strong significance in the level of community multiplexity–the higher the community multiplexity index between two countries, the smaller the difference between their socioeconomic profiles. There are notable exceptions to this such as the mobile phone penetration ratio, where it appears that beyond the highest level of multiplexity, all other countries are relatively similar in this aspect with low variation even for those pairs of countries which share no communities. For all other indicators such as GDP, Literacy ratio, HDI and Internet penetration, there is a dramatic increase in similarity past a community multiplexity of 3. Ultimately, these similarities can be used to estimate the wellbeing of countries for which it is unknown but can be estimated from its neighbours.DiscussionBig data is often related to real-time data captured through the Internet or social networks. However, the digital divide makes access to big data insights for development more challenging in the least developed and many developing and emerging countries. Can we rely on other networks to overcome these critical data gaps in view of better measuring and monitoring developmental progress? This is particularly important following the United Nations adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in September 2015, made of 17 goals, 169 targets and almost 200 universal indicators, each of them calling for regular and increasingly disaggregated monitoring in every country during the 2016?0 period. This commitment invites a nuanced discussion on the nature and importance of measurement, inference and triangulation of data sources. This discussion is particularly prescient in the face of complex intertwined developmental challenges in an age of increased globalisation, economic interdependence and climate change. The work presented above has clearly shown the value of measuring, comparing, and combining metrics of global connectivity across six different global networks in order to approximate socioeconomic indicators and to identify network communities.

T social rejection and also overreact to social rejection (Qualter et

T social rejection and also overreact to social rejection (Qualter et al., 2013). Also, among individuals with high distress, social rejection is associated with hypervigilance to socially threatening stimuli and with difficulty disengaging from the threatening stimuli (Qualter et al., 2013). In children with high BX795MedChemExpress BX795 distress in our study, we propose that hypervigilance to social rejection by stranger presents as the heightened neural response to these events. Relatedly, the presence of psychopathology is associated with attachment insecurity in middle childhood, with insecurity extending to social relationships (Cassidy et al., 2013). For example, socially withdrawn and anxious children avoid conflict even with their known peers and have difficulties in friendships (Garmezy and Rutter, 1988). On the other end of the continuum, participants with low psychological distress, and possibly greater attachment security, may place more emphasis on friends. Even in our unselected sample, the more `well adjusted’ children (lower psychological distress), showed stronger neural responding (P2) for rejection events by best friends, suggesting greater attention engagement in their best friend’s behaviors.S. Baddam et al.|We examined the actor by partner psychological distress within dyads, finding that dyadic psychological distress was associated with slow wave neural response. In terms of this psychological distress-slow wave finding, it is useful to consider dyadic effects (plots in Figure 6A and B) against main effects (scatter plots in Figure 5c and d). Children with `higher distress’ friends appear to be driving the main effects. That is, the regression lines for high partner distress and slow wave ERPs (black lines, Figure 6A and B) resemble the scatter plots of these data (Figure 5C and D), whereas children whose friends have lower psychological distress (grey lines, Figure 6A and B) show a pattern opposite to the main effect in the case of `Friend’ and show a weak to no relationship in the case of `stranger’. High psychological distress (high actor and partner psychological distress) in the dyad was associated with a relatively more negative slow wave for exclusion by friend (Figure 6A) and a relatively more positive slow wave when excluded by stranger (Figure 6B). Two conclusions can be drawn from the dyad-level effect (combined distress levels in the dyad). First, the dyadic distress levels within a child friendship matters in Cyberball. Best friends who are members of high psychological distress dyads show greater differential responsivity to exclusion across friends and strangers. Second, and building on our previous work finding that greater negative frontal slow waves in Cyberball are associated with more experienced distress generally (Crowley et al., 2009a,b, 2010; Sreekrishnan et al., 2014), our data indicate that high psychological distress dyads show greater negative frontal slow waves for rejection by a friend and reduced negative frontal slow waves for exclusion by a stranger. Data suggest that when both members of a dyad bring high levels of psychological distress to the interaction, they are more responsive to rejection by a friend with a pattern of frontal negative slow wave consistent with greater distress. This is the first study to examine the ERP based neural correlates of social rejection in best friend dyads using Cyberball. The AZD0156 web results highlight the unique neural response to social rejection upon exclusion by a best frien.T social rejection and also overreact to social rejection (Qualter et al., 2013). Also, among individuals with high distress, social rejection is associated with hypervigilance to socially threatening stimuli and with difficulty disengaging from the threatening stimuli (Qualter et al., 2013). In children with high distress in our study, we propose that hypervigilance to social rejection by stranger presents as the heightened neural response to these events. Relatedly, the presence of psychopathology is associated with attachment insecurity in middle childhood, with insecurity extending to social relationships (Cassidy et al., 2013). For example, socially withdrawn and anxious children avoid conflict even with their known peers and have difficulties in friendships (Garmezy and Rutter, 1988). On the other end of the continuum, participants with low psychological distress, and possibly greater attachment security, may place more emphasis on friends. Even in our unselected sample, the more `well adjusted’ children (lower psychological distress), showed stronger neural responding (P2) for rejection events by best friends, suggesting greater attention engagement in their best friend’s behaviors.S. Baddam et al.|We examined the actor by partner psychological distress within dyads, finding that dyadic psychological distress was associated with slow wave neural response. In terms of this psychological distress-slow wave finding, it is useful to consider dyadic effects (plots in Figure 6A and B) against main effects (scatter plots in Figure 5c and d). Children with `higher distress’ friends appear to be driving the main effects. That is, the regression lines for high partner distress and slow wave ERPs (black lines, Figure 6A and B) resemble the scatter plots of these data (Figure 5C and D), whereas children whose friends have lower psychological distress (grey lines, Figure 6A and B) show a pattern opposite to the main effect in the case of `Friend’ and show a weak to no relationship in the case of `stranger’. High psychological distress (high actor and partner psychological distress) in the dyad was associated with a relatively more negative slow wave for exclusion by friend (Figure 6A) and a relatively more positive slow wave when excluded by stranger (Figure 6B). Two conclusions can be drawn from the dyad-level effect (combined distress levels in the dyad). First, the dyadic distress levels within a child friendship matters in Cyberball. Best friends who are members of high psychological distress dyads show greater differential responsivity to exclusion across friends and strangers. Second, and building on our previous work finding that greater negative frontal slow waves in Cyberball are associated with more experienced distress generally (Crowley et al., 2009a,b, 2010; Sreekrishnan et al., 2014), our data indicate that high psychological distress dyads show greater negative frontal slow waves for rejection by a friend and reduced negative frontal slow waves for exclusion by a stranger. Data suggest that when both members of a dyad bring high levels of psychological distress to the interaction, they are more responsive to rejection by a friend with a pattern of frontal negative slow wave consistent with greater distress. This is the first study to examine the ERP based neural correlates of social rejection in best friend dyads using Cyberball. The results highlight the unique neural response to social rejection upon exclusion by a best frien.

A six-min incubation with Gentle Cell Dissociation Reagent followed by complete

A six-min incubation with Gentle Cell Dissociation Reagent followed by complete XAV-939 solubility physical MS023 price dispersions by repeated pipetting. Large cells (>70 m) were then collected by passing the suspension successively through a series of nylon cell strainers (70 m and 40 m, Fisher Scientific) to generate three cell size fractions (>70 m, 40?0 m, and <40 m). The captured cells on the strainer were recovered by inverting the strainer and rinsing with culture medium. Similarly, middle size cells (40?0 m) were obtained from the <70-m fraction by collection on a 40-m cell strainer after removal of <70-m cells. The three size fractions were used in all subsequent analyses. Portions of the size-fractioned cells were fixed in 4 (vol/vol) paraformaldehyde/PBS solution for 15 min and resuspended (5.0 ?102 and 1.0 ?105 cells/100 L PBS). The suspensions were loaded into a Shandon single cytofunnel and centrifuged for 5 min at 1,000 ?g in a Shandon CytoSpin 4 cytocentrifuge (Thermo Scientific). Derivation Primary Human PHTu and PHTd. Placental tissue samples were collected by the Obstetrical Specimen Procurement Unit at Magee-Womens Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The work was performed under an exempt protocol approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Pittsburgh. Under the protocol, patients provided written consent for the use of deidentified discarded tissues for research upon admittance to the hospital. Primary villous PHTs were derived and cultured according to published procedures (12, 49, 50) from three term human placentas (one female and two males). Multiple primary cultures were established from each placenta at a density of 3.5 ?105 cells/cm2 in DMEM supplemented with 10 (vol/vol) FBS and antibiotics under a 5 (vol/vol) CO2/air atmosphere at 37 . Triplicate cultures from each placenta were harvested at 9 h (PHTu) before syncytium formation and subsequently at 48 h (PHTd) when syncytium formation had occurred. The sieving technique used for the hESC-derived cells was thus unnecessary for the term placental STB. Total RNA was extracted from each sample (3 ?3 at 9 h and 48 h, respectively) to provide a total of 18 samples for RNA-seq analysis. Additional methods are described in SI Appendix, SI Materials and Methods. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank L. C. Schulz for her critical reading of the manuscript and her helpful comments; N. J. Bivens for RNA-seq; W. Spollen, C. Bottoms, and S. Givan for their sequence data analysis; Y. Tian for immunoassays; A. Jurkevich for technical assistance; M. Schauflinger, D. Grant, and T. A. White for sharing equipment; and D. F. Reith for his editorial assistance and administrative support. This study was supported by NIH Grant R01HD077108 (to T.E. and D.J.S.) and Grant R01HD067759 (to R.M.R.).7. Loke YW, King A (1995) Human Implantation: Cell Biology and Immunology (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge). 8. Miller RK, et al. (2005) Human placental explants in culture: Approaches and assessments. Placenta 26(6):439?48. 9. Sim CM, Sibley CP, Jones CJ, Turner MA, Greenwood SL (2001) The functional regeneration of syncytiotrophoblast in cultured explants of term placenta. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 280(4):R1116 1122. 10. Wice B, Menton D, Geuze H, Schwartz AL (1990) Modulators of cyclic AMP metabolism induce syncytiotrophoblast formation in vitro. Exp Cell Res 186(2):306?16. 11. Orendi K, Gauster M, Moser G, Meiri H, Huppertz B (2010) The choriocarcinoma cell line BeW.A six-min incubation with Gentle Cell Dissociation Reagent followed by complete physical dispersions by repeated pipetting. Large cells (>70 m) were then collected by passing the suspension successively through a series of nylon cell strainers (70 m and 40 m, Fisher Scientific) to generate three cell size fractions (>70 m, 40?0 m, and <40 m). The captured cells on the strainer were recovered by inverting the strainer and rinsing with culture medium. Similarly, middle size cells (40?0 m) were obtained from the <70-m fraction by collection on a 40-m cell strainer after removal of <70-m cells. The three size fractions were used in all subsequent analyses. Portions of the size-fractioned cells were fixed in 4 (vol/vol) paraformaldehyde/PBS solution for 15 min and resuspended (5.0 ?102 and 1.0 ?105 cells/100 L PBS). The suspensions were loaded into a Shandon single cytofunnel and centrifuged for 5 min at 1,000 ?g in a Shandon CytoSpin 4 cytocentrifuge (Thermo Scientific). Derivation Primary Human PHTu and PHTd. Placental tissue samples were collected by the Obstetrical Specimen Procurement Unit at Magee-Womens Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The work was performed under an exempt protocol approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Pittsburgh. Under the protocol, patients provided written consent for the use of deidentified discarded tissues for research upon admittance to the hospital. Primary villous PHTs were derived and cultured according to published procedures (12, 49, 50) from three term human placentas (one female and two males). Multiple primary cultures were established from each placenta at a density of 3.5 ?105 cells/cm2 in DMEM supplemented with 10 (vol/vol) FBS and antibiotics under a 5 (vol/vol) CO2/air atmosphere at 37 . Triplicate cultures from each placenta were harvested at 9 h (PHTu) before syncytium formation and subsequently at 48 h (PHTd) when syncytium formation had occurred. The sieving technique used for the hESC-derived cells was thus unnecessary for the term placental STB. Total RNA was extracted from each sample (3 ?3 at 9 h and 48 h, respectively) to provide a total of 18 samples for RNA-seq analysis. Additional methods are described in SI Appendix, SI Materials and Methods. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank L. C. Schulz for her critical reading of the manuscript and her helpful comments; N. J. Bivens for RNA-seq; W. Spollen, C. Bottoms, and S. Givan for their sequence data analysis; Y. Tian for immunoassays; A. Jurkevich for technical assistance; M. Schauflinger, D. Grant, and T. A. White for sharing equipment; and D. F. Reith for his editorial assistance and administrative support. This study was supported by NIH Grant R01HD077108 (to T.E. and D.J.S.) and Grant R01HD067759 (to R.M.R.).7. Loke YW, King A (1995) Human Implantation: Cell Biology and Immunology (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge). 8. Miller RK, et al. (2005) Human placental explants in culture: Approaches and assessments. Placenta 26(6):439?48. 9. Sim CM, Sibley CP, Jones CJ, Turner MA, Greenwood SL (2001) The functional regeneration of syncytiotrophoblast in cultured explants of term placenta. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 280(4):R1116 1122. 10. Wice B, Menton D, Geuze H, Schwartz AL (1990) Modulators of cyclic AMP metabolism induce syncytiotrophoblast formation in vitro. Exp Cell Res 186(2):306?16. 11. Orendi K, Gauster M, Moser G, Meiri H, Huppertz B (2010) The choriocarcinoma cell line BeW.

Actor for many participants (56 , n = 97), although this factor was more common

Actor for many Vorapaxar site participants (56 , n = 97), although this factor was more common in Bondo (71 , n = 60) than in Pretoria (42 , n = 37). Overall, when responses from both sites were combined, few differences were found between the responses of participants assigned FTC/TDF and responses of participants assigned placebo (Table 3). Specifically, we did not see a difference in responses between the two groups regarding taking the study pill because they believed they were taking the active drug (59 of participants assigned FTC/TDF, n = 36; 58 of participants assigned placebo, n = 22). However, more participants assigned FTC/TDF (79 , n = 48) than assigned placebo (66 , n = 25) thought the study pill would protect them against HIV, although the difference was not significant (p = 0.17).Table 2. Reasons given during ACASI for taking the study pills in FEM-PrEP, by site, n ( ). Item To help answer question of can FTC/TDF prevent HIV Thought pills would protect against HIV Thought pills were FTC/TDF Believed had a high chance of getting HIV Thought they would treat an illness you had Other participants were taking them doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125458.t002 Bondo (n = 84) 78 (93) 66 (79) 47 (56) 60 (71) 21 (25) 6 (7) Pretoria (n = 88) 83 (94) 66 (75) 58 (66) 37 (42) 20 (23) 24 (27) Overall (n = 172) 161 (94) 132 (77) 105 (61) 97 (56) 41 (24) 30 (17)PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125458 April 13,12 /Facilitators of Study Pill Adherence in FEM-PrEPTable 3. Reasons given during ACASI for taking the study pills in FEM-PrEP, by study arm, n ( ). Item To help answer question of can FTC/TDF prevent HIV Thought pills would protect against HIV Thought pills were FTC/TDF Believed had a high chance of getting HIV Thought they would treat an illness you had Other participants were taking them doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125458.t003 TDF/FTC(n = 61) 58 (95) 48 (79) 36 (59) 34 (56) 18 (30) 11 (18) Placebo(n = 38) 35 (92) 25 (66) 22 (58) 17 (45) 6 (16) 7 (18)DiscussionWe identified numerous facilitators that motivated or assisted participants to take the study pill, at least some of the time, during FEM-PrEP. Participants reported that they adhered primarily because of 1) personal motivations, which were HIV risk reduction and a general interest in the outcome of the research or altruism; and 2) adherence strategies, which consisted of external cues, reminders, and support, such as partner awareness, encouragement and support, or assistance; established routines and tools; and adherence counseling. Based on the findings described here, women may need several kinds of tools and approaches to facilitate their adherence to a daily pill for HIV prevention. The findings on partner engagement suggest that partners who were aware of trial participation played a role in facilitating adherence in several different ways. First, some partners actively encouraged and supported trial participation. In response, participants may have been motivated to adhere to the study pills because they had the support of their partners. Second, and often combined with the active support described above, some partners provided tangible support by regularly reminding participants to take their study pill. Third, and quite different from the first two ways in which partners supported adherence, some partners did not object to trial participation, encourage it, or SCH 530348MedChemExpress Vorapaxar interfere with it. In this situation, participants may have used partner awareness as a strategy for removing a barrier to a.Actor for many participants (56 , n = 97), although this factor was more common in Bondo (71 , n = 60) than in Pretoria (42 , n = 37). Overall, when responses from both sites were combined, few differences were found between the responses of participants assigned FTC/TDF and responses of participants assigned placebo (Table 3). Specifically, we did not see a difference in responses between the two groups regarding taking the study pill because they believed they were taking the active drug (59 of participants assigned FTC/TDF, n = 36; 58 of participants assigned placebo, n = 22). However, more participants assigned FTC/TDF (79 , n = 48) than assigned placebo (66 , n = 25) thought the study pill would protect them against HIV, although the difference was not significant (p = 0.17).Table 2. Reasons given during ACASI for taking the study pills in FEM-PrEP, by site, n ( ). Item To help answer question of can FTC/TDF prevent HIV Thought pills would protect against HIV Thought pills were FTC/TDF Believed had a high chance of getting HIV Thought they would treat an illness you had Other participants were taking them doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125458.t002 Bondo (n = 84) 78 (93) 66 (79) 47 (56) 60 (71) 21 (25) 6 (7) Pretoria (n = 88) 83 (94) 66 (75) 58 (66) 37 (42) 20 (23) 24 (27) Overall (n = 172) 161 (94) 132 (77) 105 (61) 97 (56) 41 (24) 30 (17)PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125458 April 13,12 /Facilitators of Study Pill Adherence in FEM-PrEPTable 3. Reasons given during ACASI for taking the study pills in FEM-PrEP, by study arm, n ( ). Item To help answer question of can FTC/TDF prevent HIV Thought pills would protect against HIV Thought pills were FTC/TDF Believed had a high chance of getting HIV Thought they would treat an illness you had Other participants were taking them doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125458.t003 TDF/FTC(n = 61) 58 (95) 48 (79) 36 (59) 34 (56) 18 (30) 11 (18) Placebo(n = 38) 35 (92) 25 (66) 22 (58) 17 (45) 6 (16) 7 (18)DiscussionWe identified numerous facilitators that motivated or assisted participants to take the study pill, at least some of the time, during FEM-PrEP. Participants reported that they adhered primarily because of 1) personal motivations, which were HIV risk reduction and a general interest in the outcome of the research or altruism; and 2) adherence strategies, which consisted of external cues, reminders, and support, such as partner awareness, encouragement and support, or assistance; established routines and tools; and adherence counseling. Based on the findings described here, women may need several kinds of tools and approaches to facilitate their adherence to a daily pill for HIV prevention. The findings on partner engagement suggest that partners who were aware of trial participation played a role in facilitating adherence in several different ways. First, some partners actively encouraged and supported trial participation. In response, participants may have been motivated to adhere to the study pills because they had the support of their partners. Second, and often combined with the active support described above, some partners provided tangible support by regularly reminding participants to take their study pill. Third, and quite different from the first two ways in which partners supported adherence, some partners did not object to trial participation, encourage it, or interfere with it. In this situation, participants may have used partner awareness as a strategy for removing a barrier to a.

Articipants provided consent and subsequently transcribed; otherwise, notes recorded during the

Articipants provided consent and subsequently transcribed; otherwise, notes recorded during the interviews were used for the analysis.Ethics statementStudy procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill and the Guangdong Provincial Dermatology Hospital. Participants provided written informed consent to participate in the study.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123255 May 12,4 /African Migrant Patients’ Trust in Chinese PhysiciansTheoryPatient-physician trust includes both interpersonal trust–trust in an individual physician– and impersonal trust–trust in physicians in general [1,2]. These types of trust are inter-related. Impersonal or institutional trust enables a patient to trust a new physician, and trust relations built through interpersonal interactions with physicians help to sustain impersonal trust in physicians in general and the institutions they represent [1,35?7]. We focused on interpersonal patient-physician trust because the importance of this type of trust for patient care outcomes has been demonstrated [4?]. Drawing from Hall et al. [19] and Russell [37], we define trust as the optimistic acceptance of a vulnerable situation in which the truster believes the trustee will care for the truster’s interests and has the competency to do so. Given the inter-related nature of interpersonal, impersonal, and institutional trust in the health care system, we sought to identify not only factors at the patient-physician level that may influence African patients’ trust in Chinese physicians, but also structural and socio-cultural factors. As Wuthnow JNJ-26481585 side effects argues, “trust does not depend only on judgments one person makes about another, but also on assumptions that emerge from the context in which relationships take place, on expectations derived from previous relationships, and on criteria for making judgments that are deemed legitimate by the actors involved” [38]. We used a modified version of the Vorapaxar cost Social ecological model [39,40] as a framework for organizing the themes that emerged from the interviews (Fig 1). The social ecological model has been widely used in the field of public health to analyze factors affecting health behavior and health promotion interventions. This model recognizes that behavior is affected by not only individual factors but also multiple spheres of influence in an individual’s social environment. InFig 1. Social ecological framework for African migrant patients’ trust of Chinese physicians. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123255.gPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123255 May 12,5 /African Migrant Patients’ Trust in Chinese Physiciansthe modified social ecological model we used for this analysis, we included the following levels: interpersonal, social network, health system, and socio-cultural.AnalysisTwo researchers reviewed the transcripts and inductively developed a preliminary list of codes representing the main themes. These codes were categorized into one of four levels of a modified social ecological framework. Using the initial code structure, three individuals independently coded transcripts and cross-checked coding until a consensus was reached about the code structure. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti version 7 (Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany).ResultsAmong the 40 African migrant participants, 29 were traders, 9 were students, one was a restaurant worker, and one was a housewife (supporting information, S1 Table. Dem.Articipants provided consent and subsequently transcribed; otherwise, notes recorded during the interviews were used for the analysis.Ethics statementStudy procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill and the Guangdong Provincial Dermatology Hospital. Participants provided written informed consent to participate in the study.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123255 May 12,4 /African Migrant Patients’ Trust in Chinese PhysiciansTheoryPatient-physician trust includes both interpersonal trust–trust in an individual physician– and impersonal trust–trust in physicians in general [1,2]. These types of trust are inter-related. Impersonal or institutional trust enables a patient to trust a new physician, and trust relations built through interpersonal interactions with physicians help to sustain impersonal trust in physicians in general and the institutions they represent [1,35?7]. We focused on interpersonal patient-physician trust because the importance of this type of trust for patient care outcomes has been demonstrated [4?]. Drawing from Hall et al. [19] and Russell [37], we define trust as the optimistic acceptance of a vulnerable situation in which the truster believes the trustee will care for the truster’s interests and has the competency to do so. Given the inter-related nature of interpersonal, impersonal, and institutional trust in the health care system, we sought to identify not only factors at the patient-physician level that may influence African patients’ trust in Chinese physicians, but also structural and socio-cultural factors. As Wuthnow argues, “trust does not depend only on judgments one person makes about another, but also on assumptions that emerge from the context in which relationships take place, on expectations derived from previous relationships, and on criteria for making judgments that are deemed legitimate by the actors involved” [38]. We used a modified version of the social ecological model [39,40] as a framework for organizing the themes that emerged from the interviews (Fig 1). The social ecological model has been widely used in the field of public health to analyze factors affecting health behavior and health promotion interventions. This model recognizes that behavior is affected by not only individual factors but also multiple spheres of influence in an individual’s social environment. InFig 1. Social ecological framework for African migrant patients’ trust of Chinese physicians. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123255.gPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123255 May 12,5 /African Migrant Patients’ Trust in Chinese Physiciansthe modified social ecological model we used for this analysis, we included the following levels: interpersonal, social network, health system, and socio-cultural.AnalysisTwo researchers reviewed the transcripts and inductively developed a preliminary list of codes representing the main themes. These codes were categorized into one of four levels of a modified social ecological framework. Using the initial code structure, three individuals independently coded transcripts and cross-checked coding until a consensus was reached about the code structure. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti version 7 (Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany).ResultsAmong the 40 African migrant participants, 29 were traders, 9 were students, one was a restaurant worker, and one was a housewife (supporting information, S1 Table. Dem.

‘ coordinate is the percentage of roles (s)he accepted for each

‘ coordinate is the percentage of roles (s)he accepted for each category. Scatterplots are for (a) ordinary favorable roles, (b) extraordinary favorable roles, (c) ordinary unfavorable roles, and (d) extraordinary unfavorable roles. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.** ** * ** * ** **Reaction Times (ms)Percentage of accepted roles70 60 50 40 30 20 101180 1160 1140 1120 1100 1080 1060 1040 1020 1000 980 960 940 920**Ordinary FavorableOrdinary Extraordinary Unfavorable Favorable Category combinations High SPQ scorersExtraordinary UnfavorableOrdinary FavorableExtraordinary Ordinary Favorable Unfavorable Category combinations High extraordinary role acceptersExtraordinary UnfavorableLow SPQ scorersLow extraordinary role acceptersAcceptanceRejectionFigure 2. Percentages of order Chaetocin social roles accepted in each category for high- and low-SPQ scorers and standard errors (vertical bars) for the 203 participants. *P o0.05, **P o0.0001. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.Figure 3. Mean reaction times and standard errors (vertical bars) for accepted (plain rectangles) and rejected (crosshatched rectangles) social roles for high and low extraordinary roles accepters. *Po 0.05.(i.e., bizarre behavior, thought disorders, unusual thoughts, poor insight, and difficulty in abstract thinking).16 In accordance with that view, the multiple regression suggested that the tendency to accept ordinary favorable roles had some protective effect againstnpj Schizophrenia (2016)schizotypal traits. Across all the categories, individuals with higher SPQ scores accepted more social roles than those with lower scores. All these results are reminiscent of the numerous anecdotes, so often published in the media, about thePublished in AZD0156 chemical information partnership with the Schizophrenia International Research SocietyExtraordinary roles and schizotypy AL Fernandez-Cruz et al5 disorganization of famous artists and the extraordinary roles they perform in society, now and in the past.17 On the other hand, works, such as the study of Twomey et al.,18 link psychoticism to openness to experience, sensation-seeking and creativity. Similarly, it was observed that, among writers and actors, scores for psychoticism were higher than among less `creative’ individuals19 and Andreasen noted in 1996 (ref. 20) that highly creative people had higher scores on measures of psychopathology than less creative people. In our case, this is akin to individuals who accept a lesser percentage of extraordinary social roles having lower SPQ scores. Further supporting the drive hypothesis, high accepters of extraordinary roles appeared `more enthusiast’ at accepting roles and more reluctant at rejecting them as they took less times for acceptances and more times for rejections than low accepters. This could be related to a higher baseline level of activation of the brain representations of these roles in the participants with higher SPQ scores. These results were obtained in a sample of the general population. Given the low frequency of schizotypy and of schizophrenia in that population, it is highly unlikely that those who accepted more extraordinary roles did it as a consequence of some pre-existing schizophrenia factors. One could eliminate an effect of the cognitive deficits found in the continuum going from normality to schizophrenia via schizotypy.9?3,21 In the task, these deficits would have induced longer reaction times for those who accepted more extraordinary roles or for the subgroup with higher SPQ.’ coordinate is the percentage of roles (s)he accepted for each category. Scatterplots are for (a) ordinary favorable roles, (b) extraordinary favorable roles, (c) ordinary unfavorable roles, and (d) extraordinary unfavorable roles. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.** ** * ** * ** **Reaction Times (ms)Percentage of accepted roles70 60 50 40 30 20 101180 1160 1140 1120 1100 1080 1060 1040 1020 1000 980 960 940 920**Ordinary FavorableOrdinary Extraordinary Unfavorable Favorable Category combinations High SPQ scorersExtraordinary UnfavorableOrdinary FavorableExtraordinary Ordinary Favorable Unfavorable Category combinations High extraordinary role acceptersExtraordinary UnfavorableLow SPQ scorersLow extraordinary role acceptersAcceptanceRejectionFigure 2. Percentages of social roles accepted in each category for high- and low-SPQ scorers and standard errors (vertical bars) for the 203 participants. *P o0.05, **P o0.0001. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.Figure 3. Mean reaction times and standard errors (vertical bars) for accepted (plain rectangles) and rejected (crosshatched rectangles) social roles for high and low extraordinary roles accepters. *Po 0.05.(i.e., bizarre behavior, thought disorders, unusual thoughts, poor insight, and difficulty in abstract thinking).16 In accordance with that view, the multiple regression suggested that the tendency to accept ordinary favorable roles had some protective effect againstnpj Schizophrenia (2016)schizotypal traits. Across all the categories, individuals with higher SPQ scores accepted more social roles than those with lower scores. All these results are reminiscent of the numerous anecdotes, so often published in the media, about thePublished in partnership with the Schizophrenia International Research SocietyExtraordinary roles and schizotypy AL Fernandez-Cruz et al5 disorganization of famous artists and the extraordinary roles they perform in society, now and in the past.17 On the other hand, works, such as the study of Twomey et al.,18 link psychoticism to openness to experience, sensation-seeking and creativity. Similarly, it was observed that, among writers and actors, scores for psychoticism were higher than among less `creative’ individuals19 and Andreasen noted in 1996 (ref. 20) that highly creative people had higher scores on measures of psychopathology than less creative people. In our case, this is akin to individuals who accept a lesser percentage of extraordinary social roles having lower SPQ scores. Further supporting the drive hypothesis, high accepters of extraordinary roles appeared `more enthusiast’ at accepting roles and more reluctant at rejecting them as they took less times for acceptances and more times for rejections than low accepters. This could be related to a higher baseline level of activation of the brain representations of these roles in the participants with higher SPQ scores. These results were obtained in a sample of the general population. Given the low frequency of schizotypy and of schizophrenia in that population, it is highly unlikely that those who accepted more extraordinary roles did it as a consequence of some pre-existing schizophrenia factors. One could eliminate an effect of the cognitive deficits found in the continuum going from normality to schizophrenia via schizotypy.9?3,21 In the task, these deficits would have induced longer reaction times for those who accepted more extraordinary roles or for the subgroup with higher SPQ.

Ctancy of 50, the absolute difference between the two is 20 which represents

Ctancy of 50, the absolute difference between the two is 20 which represents low similarity when compared to the United Kingdom’s life expectancy of 72 for this indicator. In Fig 9, we can observe the variations in similarity for countries with different levels of Rocaglamide price community multiplexity. What is immediately striking is that countries that share a maximal number of communities and therefore exhibit the greatest community multiplexity, have the smallest margin of difference across all indicators. This suggests that countries with the highest community Rocaglamide price multiplexity have a very similar socioeconomic profile. This is confirmed by a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test between the distributions of differences in each indicator for pairs sharing different numbers of communities. Although the KS statistic is lower between groups sharing 0 and 1 communities (apx. 0.1 for all indicators and p-value <0.01), it is very high for groups between 1 and 6 communities (0.4 and above, p-value <0.01), except for mobile phone penetration (detailed KS test results are presented in S1 Table).PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,15 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingFig 9. Socioeconomic difference margin between countries who share communities in the global flow networks. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976.gFurther to this observation, in most indicators there is a very strong significance in the level of community multiplexity–the higher the community multiplexity index between two countries, the smaller the difference between their socioeconomic profiles. There are notable exceptions to this such as the mobile phone penetration ratio, where it appears that beyond the highest level of multiplexity, all other countries are relatively similar in this aspect with low variation even for those pairs of countries which share no communities. For all other indicators such as GDP, Literacy ratio, HDI and Internet penetration, there is a dramatic increase in similarity past a community multiplexity of 3. Ultimately, these similarities can be used to estimate the wellbeing of countries for which it is unknown but can be estimated from its neighbours.DiscussionBig data is often related to real-time data captured through the Internet or social networks. However, the digital divide makes access to big data insights for development more challenging in the least developed and many developing and emerging countries. Can we rely on other networks to overcome these critical data gaps in view of better measuring and monitoring developmental progress? This is particularly important following the United Nations adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in September 2015, made of 17 goals, 169 targets and almost 200 universal indicators, each of them calling for regular and increasingly disaggregated monitoring in every country during the 2016?0 period. This commitment invites a nuanced discussion on the nature and importance of measurement, inference and triangulation of data sources. This discussion is particularly prescient in the face of complex intertwined developmental challenges in an age of increased globalisation, economic interdependence and climate change. The work presented above has clearly shown the value of measuring, comparing, and combining metrics of global connectivity across six different global networks in order to approximate socioeconomic indicators and to identify network communities.Ctancy of 50, the absolute difference between the two is 20 which represents low similarity when compared to the United Kingdom’s life expectancy of 72 for this indicator. In Fig 9, we can observe the variations in similarity for countries with different levels of community multiplexity. What is immediately striking is that countries that share a maximal number of communities and therefore exhibit the greatest community multiplexity, have the smallest margin of difference across all indicators. This suggests that countries with the highest community multiplexity have a very similar socioeconomic profile. This is confirmed by a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test between the distributions of differences in each indicator for pairs sharing different numbers of communities. Although the KS statistic is lower between groups sharing 0 and 1 communities (apx. 0.1 for all indicators and p-value <0.01), it is very high for groups between 1 and 6 communities (0.4 and above, p-value <0.01), except for mobile phone penetration (detailed KS test results are presented in S1 Table).PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,15 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingFig 9. Socioeconomic difference margin between countries who share communities in the global flow networks. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976.gFurther to this observation, in most indicators there is a very strong significance in the level of community multiplexity–the higher the community multiplexity index between two countries, the smaller the difference between their socioeconomic profiles. There are notable exceptions to this such as the mobile phone penetration ratio, where it appears that beyond the highest level of multiplexity, all other countries are relatively similar in this aspect with low variation even for those pairs of countries which share no communities. For all other indicators such as GDP, Literacy ratio, HDI and Internet penetration, there is a dramatic increase in similarity past a community multiplexity of 3. Ultimately, these similarities can be used to estimate the wellbeing of countries for which it is unknown but can be estimated from its neighbours.DiscussionBig data is often related to real-time data captured through the Internet or social networks. However, the digital divide makes access to big data insights for development more challenging in the least developed and many developing and emerging countries. Can we rely on other networks to overcome these critical data gaps in view of better measuring and monitoring developmental progress? This is particularly important following the United Nations adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in September 2015, made of 17 goals, 169 targets and almost 200 universal indicators, each of them calling for regular and increasingly disaggregated monitoring in every country during the 2016?0 period. This commitment invites a nuanced discussion on the nature and importance of measurement, inference and triangulation of data sources. This discussion is particularly prescient in the face of complex intertwined developmental challenges in an age of increased globalisation, economic interdependence and climate change. The work presented above has clearly shown the value of measuring, comparing, and combining metrics of global connectivity across six different global networks in order to approximate socioeconomic indicators and to identify network communities.

.pone.0119985.gAs expected, childhood maltreatment was associated with several covariates known

.pone.0119985.gAs expected, childhood maltreatment was associated with several covariates known to be related to BMI (Table 3). Some covariates such as unemployment and smoking have been shown in the literature to be negatively associated with BMI, e.g. on average, smokers have a lower BMI [11]. In our study such characteristics were more common among maltreated groups: e.g., prevalence of smoking and unemployment 23y to 50y was Quinoline-Val-Asp-Difluorophenoxymethylketone web higher in the maltreated than nonmaltreated (Table 3). Potentially, these differences would lower the adult BMI among those exposed to childhood maltreatment. Allowance for such factors and their changes over time, as well as other covariates, is important for understanding associations with BMI at specific ages and BMI trajectories. Modelled lifetime (-)-Blebbistatin biological activity trajectories of zBMI and obesity risk (Table 4 and S2 Table) confirmed the patterns with age suggested by simple analyses.Childhood abuseIn both genders there was a positive linear association between zBMI gain with age and physical abuse, by 0.006/y (males) and 0.007/y (females) after adjustment for all covariatesPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119985 March 26,7 /Child Maltreatment and BMI TrajectoriesTable 3. Characteristics of those with no childhood maltreatment and those abused or neglected ( ). Abuse Non-maltreated Males

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). PD150606 web Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their BL-8040 cancer behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased Lasalocid (sodium) supplement access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are BQ-123 chemical information trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data SKF-96365 (hydrochloride) web collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic L 663536 chemical information process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very Thonzonium (bromide)MedChemExpress Thonzonium (bromide) closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox buy GGTI298 couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.

N scan or take a photo of the object in their

N scan or take a photo of the object in their workplace, task, or virtual case, and the real object will be integrated in MARE. GP behavior can be tracked and their skill within the knowledge level tested. For example, KS1 involves obtaining microbiological cultures or other relevant tests before starting treatment as necessary. A patient who has bacterial pneumonia or viral pneumonia will be shown to a GP treating in MARE. The GP will either select laboratory tests and interpret results or not. We will know whether the GP achieves KS1 or not. The KC of GPs can also be evaluated in MARE. GPs can write instant messages, comment, and annotate that they understand the rational use of antibiotics. GPs can also categorize, tag, or highlight the information that they think is correct. For example, KC2 is recognizing trade and generic names, and the class of prescribed antimicrobials. GPs can categorize the class of prescribed antimicrobials when using MARE to scan trade or generic names.Competence LevelThe competence level expected of GPs regarding rational use of antibiotics is described in Table 2. Emotions and values not only affect the application of knowledge but are also a foundation for building GP competence according to physicians’ professional competence definitions [34]. When we use MARE to evaluate GPs’ competence levels, the cases could be conducted in mixed real environments (eg, the real person and the symptom described coexist on the GP’s mobile phone in his or her workplace). The procedure for forecasting, executing, or replying can be uploaded to evaluate the GP’s CC and CS. For example, CC4 is constructing a prescription for an antimicrobial with its pharmacokinetics and knowing how this affects the choice of dosage regimen. The case condition will change when different antimicrobials are used with their pharmacokinetics. The result for the forecasting of antibiotics by the GP and the dosage regimen will be evaluated.Application of Mobile Augmented Reality Education to a Health Care ChallengeIn recent years, one of the global health threats has been the spread of antibiotic resistance. Encouraging rational antibiotic use is of paramount concern to authorities worldwide in order to minimize the development of resistance [50]. Multifaceted national and international strategies have been recommended [51]. Education is an important strategy for the rational use of antibiotics. We used the MARE framework to design GP training for the rational use of antibiotics. Implementing the MARE framework involves several steps: (1) defining the educational outcomes (based on the outcome layer), (2) defining the GP’s personal paradigm, (3) characterizing the learning environment, and (4) designing the learning activities.Performance LevelThe performance level expected of GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics is shown in Table 3. To aid GPs in assessing their workplace performance using the MARE framework, we should build a network for physicians in which they can share their work experiences; then the GPs can review, question, and validate their work Biotin-VAD-FMK site performances with each other. Further, the GPs can negotiate, debate, and comment on real cases, and their performance in NVP-QAW039 web skills, such as PC and PS, can be tracked and estimated. For example, PS2 is mastering when to use a delayed antimicrobial prescription and how to negotiate this with the patient. One way is to evaluate the GP’s response with the patient case shared on MARE with othe.N scan or take a photo of the object in their workplace, task, or virtual case, and the real object will be integrated in MARE. GP behavior can be tracked and their skill within the knowledge level tested. For example, KS1 involves obtaining microbiological cultures or other relevant tests before starting treatment as necessary. A patient who has bacterial pneumonia or viral pneumonia will be shown to a GP treating in MARE. The GP will either select laboratory tests and interpret results or not. We will know whether the GP achieves KS1 or not. The KC of GPs can also be evaluated in MARE. GPs can write instant messages, comment, and annotate that they understand the rational use of antibiotics. GPs can also categorize, tag, or highlight the information that they think is correct. For example, KC2 is recognizing trade and generic names, and the class of prescribed antimicrobials. GPs can categorize the class of prescribed antimicrobials when using MARE to scan trade or generic names.Competence LevelThe competence level expected of GPs regarding rational use of antibiotics is described in Table 2. Emotions and values not only affect the application of knowledge but are also a foundation for building GP competence according to physicians’ professional competence definitions [34]. When we use MARE to evaluate GPs’ competence levels, the cases could be conducted in mixed real environments (eg, the real person and the symptom described coexist on the GP’s mobile phone in his or her workplace). The procedure for forecasting, executing, or replying can be uploaded to evaluate the GP’s CC and CS. For example, CC4 is constructing a prescription for an antimicrobial with its pharmacokinetics and knowing how this affects the choice of dosage regimen. The case condition will change when different antimicrobials are used with their pharmacokinetics. The result for the forecasting of antibiotics by the GP and the dosage regimen will be evaluated.Application of Mobile Augmented Reality Education to a Health Care ChallengeIn recent years, one of the global health threats has been the spread of antibiotic resistance. Encouraging rational antibiotic use is of paramount concern to authorities worldwide in order to minimize the development of resistance [50]. Multifaceted national and international strategies have been recommended [51]. Education is an important strategy for the rational use of antibiotics. We used the MARE framework to design GP training for the rational use of antibiotics. Implementing the MARE framework involves several steps: (1) defining the educational outcomes (based on the outcome layer), (2) defining the GP’s personal paradigm, (3) characterizing the learning environment, and (4) designing the learning activities.Performance LevelThe performance level expected of GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics is shown in Table 3. To aid GPs in assessing their workplace performance using the MARE framework, we should build a network for physicians in which they can share their work experiences; then the GPs can review, question, and validate their work performances with each other. Further, the GPs can negotiate, debate, and comment on real cases, and their performance in skills, such as PC and PS, can be tracked and estimated. For example, PS2 is mastering when to use a delayed antimicrobial prescription and how to negotiate this with the patient. One way is to evaluate the GP’s response with the patient case shared on MARE with othe.

43.6?0.9 68.8?4.9 24.7?5.2 61.2?7.1 6.9?1.0 24.8?5.3 0.16?.Flanking SNPs of SNPs OAR2_88062818.1 35257.1 s26286.1 AR3_165050963.1 s59995.1 AR5_53435489.1 OAR6_6402059.1?OAR

43.6?0.9 68.8?4.9 24.7?5.2 61.2?7.1 6.9?1.0 24.8?5.3 0.16?.Flanking SNPs of SNPs OAR2_88062818.1 35257.1 s26286.1 AR3_165050963.1 s59995.1 AR5_53435489.1 OAR6_6402059.1?OAR6_55087517_X.1 OAR6_57796972.1 AR6_58069886.1 OAR6_70844973.1 AR6_81183719.1 OAR6_127397796.1 33220.1 OAR10_29159858.1 AR10_29381795.1 s39429.1 AR13_55448085.1 OAR13_74074760.1 AR13_80614774_X.1 s59907.1 AR16_27501072.1 s25636.1 73670.1 OAR24_8063846.1 18520.1 OAR25_25923466.1 AR25_48288071_X.1 OAR26_222715_X.1 54858.Number 97 68 48 860 7 180 58 7 104 97 13 34 44 353Raw P-value 0.034 0.029 0.007 0.000 0.049 0.016 0.026 0.044 0.006 0.025 0.043 0.039 0.042 0.008 0.q-value 0.574 0.545 0.213 0.000 0.604 0.389 0.52 0.598 0.192 0.524 0.598 0.591 0.598 0.249 0.Guti rez-Gil et al.8 83.1?5.3 Mb 153.4?54.5 Mb ?39.3?9.5 Mb ?69.9?0.5 Mb ??48.9?2.0 Mb ??????Fariello et al.7 81.2?7.3 Mb 151.4?56.9 Mb 47.3?9.3 Mb 35.9?8.3 Mb ?67.9?0.3 Mb ?29.4?9.7 Mb 43.3?1.2 ??????10 13 16 17 24 25Table 2. Putative selective sweeps identified in the hapFLK-based analysis. Those sweeps consistently found with BayeScan are shown in bold. In the two columns at the right part of the table, we show evidence of positional concordance with previously reported selective sweeps7,8. CHR = chromosome. (Table 2, Fig. 4), positional coincidences were identified on Oar3 (150?54 Mb), Oar6 (4.3?9.9 Mb), and Oar13 (68.8?4.9 Mb). Next, we will examine more thoroughly a set of physiological and positional candidate genes whose patterns of variation could have been potentially modified by selection. Selective sweep on Oar3. The Oar3 (150?54 Mb) region co-localizes with a pleiotropic bovine quantitative trait locus (QTL) for birth weight, calving ease direct, marbling and ribeye muscle area20 as well as with a second bovine QTL for fat yield21. There are several genes that may explain the existence of a selective sweep in this genomic region. The high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2, 153.7 Mb) gene is particularly relevant becauseScientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/Figure 4. A detailed view of the putative selective sweeps on Oar3, Oar6 and Oar13 detected with the HapFLK statistic and confirmed with BayeScan. The red and blue lines indicate the thresholds of significance set at 0.05 before (nominal P-value) and after (q-value) correction for multiple testing, respectively. Genomic coordinates and statistical significance (-log10 P-values) are plotted in the x- and y-axis, respectively. The approximate location of the candidate genes discussed in the current work is indicated (in Mb).polymorphism at this transcriptional 4-Hydroxytamoxifen dose regulator has been associated with height in humans and body size in horses and dogs20. Moreover, the inactivation of HMGA2 in mouse leads to the pygmy phenotype, characterized by a substantial decrease in body size and adiposity and defective spermatogenesis22,23. Another gene of interest is the WNT Inhibitory Factor 1 (WIF1, 154.5 Mb) locus, that encodes a molecule inhibiting extracellular WNT signaling, and that has been identified as positively selected in domestic cattle24. Interestingly, the WNT effector pathway is essential for the initiation of embryonic mammary organogenesis and the maintenance of stem cells, and it may also regulate post-natal ductal and alveolar development25. Finally, it is worth to mention the MS023MedChemExpress MS023 methionine sulfoxide reductase B3 (MSRB3, 154.2 Mb) and the LEM domain containing 3 (LEMD3, 154.4 Mb) loci, that are involved in cell grow.43.6?0.9 68.8?4.9 24.7?5.2 61.2?7.1 6.9?1.0 24.8?5.3 0.16?.Flanking SNPs of SNPs OAR2_88062818.1 35257.1 s26286.1 AR3_165050963.1 s59995.1 AR5_53435489.1 OAR6_6402059.1?OAR6_55087517_X.1 OAR6_57796972.1 AR6_58069886.1 OAR6_70844973.1 AR6_81183719.1 OAR6_127397796.1 33220.1 OAR10_29159858.1 AR10_29381795.1 s39429.1 AR13_55448085.1 OAR13_74074760.1 AR13_80614774_X.1 s59907.1 AR16_27501072.1 s25636.1 73670.1 OAR24_8063846.1 18520.1 OAR25_25923466.1 AR25_48288071_X.1 OAR26_222715_X.1 54858.Number 97 68 48 860 7 180 58 7 104 97 13 34 44 353Raw P-value 0.034 0.029 0.007 0.000 0.049 0.016 0.026 0.044 0.006 0.025 0.043 0.039 0.042 0.008 0.q-value 0.574 0.545 0.213 0.000 0.604 0.389 0.52 0.598 0.192 0.524 0.598 0.591 0.598 0.249 0.Guti rez-Gil et al.8 83.1?5.3 Mb 153.4?54.5 Mb ?39.3?9.5 Mb ?69.9?0.5 Mb ??48.9?2.0 Mb ??????Fariello et al.7 81.2?7.3 Mb 151.4?56.9 Mb 47.3?9.3 Mb 35.9?8.3 Mb ?67.9?0.3 Mb ?29.4?9.7 Mb 43.3?1.2 ??????10 13 16 17 24 25Table 2. Putative selective sweeps identified in the hapFLK-based analysis. Those sweeps consistently found with BayeScan are shown in bold. In the two columns at the right part of the table, we show evidence of positional concordance with previously reported selective sweeps7,8. CHR = chromosome. (Table 2, Fig. 4), positional coincidences were identified on Oar3 (150?54 Mb), Oar6 (4.3?9.9 Mb), and Oar13 (68.8?4.9 Mb). Next, we will examine more thoroughly a set of physiological and positional candidate genes whose patterns of variation could have been potentially modified by selection. Selective sweep on Oar3. The Oar3 (150?54 Mb) region co-localizes with a pleiotropic bovine quantitative trait locus (QTL) for birth weight, calving ease direct, marbling and ribeye muscle area20 as well as with a second bovine QTL for fat yield21. There are several genes that may explain the existence of a selective sweep in this genomic region. The high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2, 153.7 Mb) gene is particularly relevant becauseScientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/Figure 4. A detailed view of the putative selective sweeps on Oar3, Oar6 and Oar13 detected with the HapFLK statistic and confirmed with BayeScan. The red and blue lines indicate the thresholds of significance set at 0.05 before (nominal P-value) and after (q-value) correction for multiple testing, respectively. Genomic coordinates and statistical significance (-log10 P-values) are plotted in the x- and y-axis, respectively. The approximate location of the candidate genes discussed in the current work is indicated (in Mb).polymorphism at this transcriptional regulator has been associated with height in humans and body size in horses and dogs20. Moreover, the inactivation of HMGA2 in mouse leads to the pygmy phenotype, characterized by a substantial decrease in body size and adiposity and defective spermatogenesis22,23. Another gene of interest is the WNT Inhibitory Factor 1 (WIF1, 154.5 Mb) locus, that encodes a molecule inhibiting extracellular WNT signaling, and that has been identified as positively selected in domestic cattle24. Interestingly, the WNT effector pathway is essential for the initiation of embryonic mammary organogenesis and the maintenance of stem cells, and it may also regulate post-natal ductal and alveolar development25. Finally, it is worth to mention the methionine sulfoxide reductase B3 (MSRB3, 154.2 Mb) and the LEM domain containing 3 (LEMD3, 154.4 Mb) loci, that are involved in cell grow.

A six-min incubation with Gentle Cell Dissociation Reagent followed by complete

A six-min incubation with Gentle Cell Dissociation Reagent followed by complete physical dispersions by repeated pipetting. Large cells (>70 m) were then collected by passing the suspension successively through a series of nylon cell strainers (70 m and 40 m, Ascotoxin web Fisher StatticMedChemExpress Stattic Scientific) to generate three cell size fractions (>70 m, 40?0 m, and <40 m). The captured cells on the strainer were recovered by inverting the strainer and rinsing with culture medium. Similarly, middle size cells (40?0 m) were obtained from the <70-m fraction by collection on a 40-m cell strainer after removal of <70-m cells. The three size fractions were used in all subsequent analyses. Portions of the size-fractioned cells were fixed in 4 (vol/vol) paraformaldehyde/PBS solution for 15 min and resuspended (5.0 ?102 and 1.0 ?105 cells/100 L PBS). The suspensions were loaded into a Shandon single cytofunnel and centrifuged for 5 min at 1,000 ?g in a Shandon CytoSpin 4 cytocentrifuge (Thermo Scientific). Derivation Primary Human PHTu and PHTd. Placental tissue samples were collected by the Obstetrical Specimen Procurement Unit at Magee-Womens Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The work was performed under an exempt protocol approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Pittsburgh. Under the protocol, patients provided written consent for the use of deidentified discarded tissues for research upon admittance to the hospital. Primary villous PHTs were derived and cultured according to published procedures (12, 49, 50) from three term human placentas (one female and two males). Multiple primary cultures were established from each placenta at a density of 3.5 ?105 cells/cm2 in DMEM supplemented with 10 (vol/vol) FBS and antibiotics under a 5 (vol/vol) CO2/air atmosphere at 37 . Triplicate cultures from each placenta were harvested at 9 h (PHTu) before syncytium formation and subsequently at 48 h (PHTd) when syncytium formation had occurred. The sieving technique used for the hESC-derived cells was thus unnecessary for the term placental STB. Total RNA was extracted from each sample (3 ?3 at 9 h and 48 h, respectively) to provide a total of 18 samples for RNA-seq analysis. Additional methods are described in SI Appendix, SI Materials and Methods. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank L. C. Schulz for her critical reading of the manuscript and her helpful comments; N. J. Bivens for RNA-seq; W. Spollen, C. Bottoms, and S. Givan for their sequence data analysis; Y. Tian for immunoassays; A. Jurkevich for technical assistance; M. Schauflinger, D. Grant, and T. A. White for sharing equipment; and D. F. Reith for his editorial assistance and administrative support. This study was supported by NIH Grant R01HD077108 (to T.E. and D.J.S.) and Grant R01HD067759 (to R.M.R.).7. Loke YW, King A (1995) Human Implantation: Cell Biology and Immunology (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge). 8. Miller RK, et al. (2005) Human placental explants in culture: Approaches and assessments. Placenta 26(6):439?48. 9. Sim CM, Sibley CP, Jones CJ, Turner MA, Greenwood SL (2001) The functional regeneration of syncytiotrophoblast in cultured explants of term placenta. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 280(4):R1116 1122. 10. Wice B, Menton D, Geuze H, Schwartz AL (1990) Modulators of cyclic AMP metabolism induce syncytiotrophoblast formation in vitro. Exp Cell Res 186(2):306?16. 11. Orendi K, Gauster M, Moser G, Meiri H, Huppertz B (2010) The choriocarcinoma cell line BeW.A six-min incubation with Gentle Cell Dissociation Reagent followed by complete physical dispersions by repeated pipetting. Large cells (>70 m) were then collected by passing the suspension successively through a series of nylon cell strainers (70 m and 40 m, Fisher Scientific) to generate three cell size fractions (>70 m, 40?0 m, and <40 m). The captured cells on the strainer were recovered by inverting the strainer and rinsing with culture medium. Similarly, middle size cells (40?0 m) were obtained from the <70-m fraction by collection on a 40-m cell strainer after removal of <70-m cells. The three size fractions were used in all subsequent analyses. Portions of the size-fractioned cells were fixed in 4 (vol/vol) paraformaldehyde/PBS solution for 15 min and resuspended (5.0 ?102 and 1.0 ?105 cells/100 L PBS). The suspensions were loaded into a Shandon single cytofunnel and centrifuged for 5 min at 1,000 ?g in a Shandon CytoSpin 4 cytocentrifuge (Thermo Scientific). Derivation Primary Human PHTu and PHTd. Placental tissue samples were collected by the Obstetrical Specimen Procurement Unit at Magee-Womens Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The work was performed under an exempt protocol approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Pittsburgh. Under the protocol, patients provided written consent for the use of deidentified discarded tissues for research upon admittance to the hospital. Primary villous PHTs were derived and cultured according to published procedures (12, 49, 50) from three term human placentas (one female and two males). Multiple primary cultures were established from each placenta at a density of 3.5 ?105 cells/cm2 in DMEM supplemented with 10 (vol/vol) FBS and antibiotics under a 5 (vol/vol) CO2/air atmosphere at 37 . Triplicate cultures from each placenta were harvested at 9 h (PHTu) before syncytium formation and subsequently at 48 h (PHTd) when syncytium formation had occurred. The sieving technique used for the hESC-derived cells was thus unnecessary for the term placental STB. Total RNA was extracted from each sample (3 ?3 at 9 h and 48 h, respectively) to provide a total of 18 samples for RNA-seq analysis. Additional methods are described in SI Appendix, SI Materials and Methods. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank L. C. Schulz for her critical reading of the manuscript and her helpful comments; N. J. Bivens for RNA-seq; W. Spollen, C. Bottoms, and S. Givan for their sequence data analysis; Y. Tian for immunoassays; A. Jurkevich for technical assistance; M. Schauflinger, D. Grant, and T. A. White for sharing equipment; and D. F. Reith for his editorial assistance and administrative support. This study was supported by NIH Grant R01HD077108 (to T.E. and D.J.S.) and Grant R01HD067759 (to R.M.R.).7. Loke YW, King A (1995) Human Implantation: Cell Biology and Immunology (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge). 8. Miller RK, et al. (2005) Human placental explants in culture: Approaches and assessments. Placenta 26(6):439?48. 9. Sim CM, Sibley CP, Jones CJ, Turner MA, Greenwood SL (2001) The functional regeneration of syncytiotrophoblast in cultured explants of term placenta. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 280(4):R1116 1122. 10. Wice B, Menton D, Geuze H, Schwartz AL (1990) Modulators of cyclic AMP metabolism induce syncytiotrophoblast formation in vitro. Exp Cell Res 186(2):306?16. 11. Orendi K, Gauster M, Moser G, Meiri H, Huppertz B (2010) The choriocarcinoma cell line BeW.

Ho are active in the community nearly every day they are

Ho are active in the community nearly every day they are active on Twitter. Once we had selected the communities of interest, we collected a more detailed tweet history for each participating user, as described in ?.rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org R. Soc. open sci. 3:…………………………………………4.2. Analysing the endurance of the communitiesWe analysed how well our communities endured over time. We examined a 28-day Olmutinib cancer period starting on 22 September 2014 (which we will call the `autumn period’) and a 28-day period starting on 2 February 2015 (which we will call the `spring period’), and compared how many users in each community were active (mentioned or were mentioned by other users) within the community. Would the same users still be tweeting each other in the spring, or would the communities have dissolved over time? Figure 7 shows a log og plot of the results. We see that the communities persisted well from autumn to spring. In three of them, communities 14 (human resources), 17 (friends chatting) and 18 (friends chatting), all the original users were still active in the community. These are three out of the four smallest communities. The other 15 communities lost between 6.5 (for community 16, nursing) and 39.3 (for community 7, Islam) of their users, with an average loss of 18.6 . We can see differences in the communities produced by the three algorithms here: the six produced by k-clique-communities lost an average of 3.8 of their users, compared to 16.4 for the Louvain method and 26.3 for weighted Louvain. Let us say user loss factor to mean the number of users active in the 28-day autumn period divided by the number active in the later 28-day spring period. When the user loss factor is 1, then the community has retained all its users; the higher the value, the more users the community has lost. We looked to see whether the conductance, sentiment or size of communities is related to their endurance. In figure 8, one can see that conductance is a predictor of what proportion of users will stop participating in the community, with correlation coefficient 0.42. When conductance is lower (so that the community is more densely Isorhamnetin web connected internally and better separated from the rest of the network) then fewer users stopped participating on average. Similarly, the community sentiment is a predictor of community endurance, as shown in figure 9: the more positive the initial sentiment (measured in the autumn period), the fewer users stopped participating on average. For (SS) (as shown in figure 9) the correlation coefficient is -0.60; for (MC) it is -0.48 and for (L) it is -0.58. On the other hand, community size was not correlated to user loss factor; the correlation coefficient was 0.07. We noted in ?.2 that the correlations between the three sentiment measures (MC), (SS) and (L) at the individual tweet level were only moderate. The following shows the correlations between the community sentiments produced by the three measures, in the autumn and spring periods:Table 1. Selected summary statistics for the 18 communities we selected, in size order. The community marked as not connected had eight nodes separated from the rest…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Ho are active in the community nearly every day they are active on Twitter. Once we had selected the communities of interest, we collected a more detailed tweet history for each participating user, as described in ?.rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org R. Soc. open sci. 3:…………………………………………4.2. Analysing the endurance of the communitiesWe analysed how well our communities endured over time. We examined a 28-day period starting on 22 September 2014 (which we will call the `autumn period’) and a 28-day period starting on 2 February 2015 (which we will call the `spring period’), and compared how many users in each community were active (mentioned or were mentioned by other users) within the community. Would the same users still be tweeting each other in the spring, or would the communities have dissolved over time? Figure 7 shows a log og plot of the results. We see that the communities persisted well from autumn to spring. In three of them, communities 14 (human resources), 17 (friends chatting) and 18 (friends chatting), all the original users were still active in the community. These are three out of the four smallest communities. The other 15 communities lost between 6.5 (for community 16, nursing) and 39.3 (for community 7, Islam) of their users, with an average loss of 18.6 . We can see differences in the communities produced by the three algorithms here: the six produced by k-clique-communities lost an average of 3.8 of their users, compared to 16.4 for the Louvain method and 26.3 for weighted Louvain. Let us say user loss factor to mean the number of users active in the 28-day autumn period divided by the number active in the later 28-day spring period. When the user loss factor is 1, then the community has retained all its users; the higher the value, the more users the community has lost. We looked to see whether the conductance, sentiment or size of communities is related to their endurance. In figure 8, one can see that conductance is a predictor of what proportion of users will stop participating in the community, with correlation coefficient 0.42. When conductance is lower (so that the community is more densely connected internally and better separated from the rest of the network) then fewer users stopped participating on average. Similarly, the community sentiment is a predictor of community endurance, as shown in figure 9: the more positive the initial sentiment (measured in the autumn period), the fewer users stopped participating on average. For (SS) (as shown in figure 9) the correlation coefficient is -0.60; for (MC) it is -0.48 and for (L) it is -0.58. On the other hand, community size was not correlated to user loss factor; the correlation coefficient was 0.07. We noted in ?.2 that the correlations between the three sentiment measures (MC), (SS) and (L) at the individual tweet level were only moderate. The following shows the correlations between the community sentiments produced by the three measures, in the autumn and spring periods:Table 1. Selected summary statistics for the 18 communities we selected, in size order. The community marked as not connected had eight nodes separated from the rest…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

T are adaptive (Nelson and Guyer, 2011; Crone and Dahl, 2012). In other

T are adaptive (Nelson and Guyer, 2011; Crone and Dahl, 2012). In other words, adolescents might engage in risk taking to impress peers and achieve or maintain higher social status, instead of risk taking resulting from a lack in the ability to regulate their socially induced emotional tendencies. Indeed, the importance of social status, relative to other domains, peaks during early adolescence (LaFontana and Cillessen, 2010). Furthermore, results of a longitudinal study among high school students showed that engaging in smoking behavior in tenth grade led to increased social status over time (Mayeux et al., 2008). Together, these findings suggest that adolescence is a time in development during which LY2510924 chemical information individuals engage in risk taking as a form of status-seeking behavior. Moreover, a common (neural) mechanism may underlie the motivation to achieve higher social status and to engage in risk taking (Bhanji and Delgado, 2014). One model for understanding the possible links between status-seeking and risk-taking tendencies in adolescence focuses on pubertal changes in social and affective valuation (Nelson et al., 2005; Forbes and Dahl, 2010; Crone and Dahl, 2012). Specifically, hormonal changes might promote adaptive tendencies for youth to explore ways to enhance status (i.e. to find a niche that provides admiration). Indeed, the rise in testosterone and estradiol during puberty is thought to reorganize the adolescent brain (Sisk and Zehr, 2005; Schulz et al., 2009) andimpact social behaviors (Schulz and Sisk, 2006; Forbes and Dahl, 2010) as well as risk taking (Peper and Dahl, 2013). Previous studies in adults have shown that testosterone is involved in the attainment and maintenance of social status (Eisenegger et al., 2011; Terburg and Van Honk, 2013). For example, a study using a multi-player auction task in young adult men showed that higher levels of testosterone corresponded with a willingness to incur monetary losses by overbidding, for the sake of winning the auction (Van den Bos et al., 2013). Less is known about the role of estradiol in status-seeking behavior, although existing findings in female adults suggest that estradiol leads to behaviors that augment social status, particularly in women who are competing with other women (Knight and Mehta, 2014). Together, these findings suggest that the rise in testosterone and estradiol during puberty may play a role in enhancing status-relevant information, which in turn may increase statusseeking behaviors, such as risk taking, across adolescence. In this study, we set out to investigate the role of pubertal hormones (testosterone and estradiol) in social influences on adolescent risky decisions and associated reward-related brain processes. To maximize the variance of our pubertal measures while keeping age relatively constant, we recruited participants around the onset of puberty. In this early adolescent sample, we tested whether information about one’s social status in the form of social rank performance feedback AZD0156 cost compared to monetary performance feedback differentially influenced risk taking and/or reward processing. In keeping with current understandings of the neural networks involved in social cognition in adolescence (reviewed in Blakemore, 2008), multiple brain regions might differentiate these feedback conditions. In particular, sensitivity to the presence of social hierarchies engages the dorsal anterior cingulate and insular cortices (reviewed in Chiao, 2010), which, alo.T are adaptive (Nelson and Guyer, 2011; Crone and Dahl, 2012). In other words, adolescents might engage in risk taking to impress peers and achieve or maintain higher social status, instead of risk taking resulting from a lack in the ability to regulate their socially induced emotional tendencies. Indeed, the importance of social status, relative to other domains, peaks during early adolescence (LaFontana and Cillessen, 2010). Furthermore, results of a longitudinal study among high school students showed that engaging in smoking behavior in tenth grade led to increased social status over time (Mayeux et al., 2008). Together, these findings suggest that adolescence is a time in development during which individuals engage in risk taking as a form of status-seeking behavior. Moreover, a common (neural) mechanism may underlie the motivation to achieve higher social status and to engage in risk taking (Bhanji and Delgado, 2014). One model for understanding the possible links between status-seeking and risk-taking tendencies in adolescence focuses on pubertal changes in social and affective valuation (Nelson et al., 2005; Forbes and Dahl, 2010; Crone and Dahl, 2012). Specifically, hormonal changes might promote adaptive tendencies for youth to explore ways to enhance status (i.e. to find a niche that provides admiration). Indeed, the rise in testosterone and estradiol during puberty is thought to reorganize the adolescent brain (Sisk and Zehr, 2005; Schulz et al., 2009) andimpact social behaviors (Schulz and Sisk, 2006; Forbes and Dahl, 2010) as well as risk taking (Peper and Dahl, 2013). Previous studies in adults have shown that testosterone is involved in the attainment and maintenance of social status (Eisenegger et al., 2011; Terburg and Van Honk, 2013). For example, a study using a multi-player auction task in young adult men showed that higher levels of testosterone corresponded with a willingness to incur monetary losses by overbidding, for the sake of winning the auction (Van den Bos et al., 2013). Less is known about the role of estradiol in status-seeking behavior, although existing findings in female adults suggest that estradiol leads to behaviors that augment social status, particularly in women who are competing with other women (Knight and Mehta, 2014). Together, these findings suggest that the rise in testosterone and estradiol during puberty may play a role in enhancing status-relevant information, which in turn may increase statusseeking behaviors, such as risk taking, across adolescence. In this study, we set out to investigate the role of pubertal hormones (testosterone and estradiol) in social influences on adolescent risky decisions and associated reward-related brain processes. To maximize the variance of our pubertal measures while keeping age relatively constant, we recruited participants around the onset of puberty. In this early adolescent sample, we tested whether information about one’s social status in the form of social rank performance feedback compared to monetary performance feedback differentially influenced risk taking and/or reward processing. In keeping with current understandings of the neural networks involved in social cognition in adolescence (reviewed in Blakemore, 2008), multiple brain regions might differentiate these feedback conditions. In particular, sensitivity to the presence of social hierarchies engages the dorsal anterior cingulate and insular cortices (reviewed in Chiao, 2010), which, alo.

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. PD150606 biological activity Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a Lurbinectedin chemical information variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are Ornipressin biological activity negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and Sodium lasalocid custom synthesis economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data Hexanoyl-Tyr-Ile-Ahx-NH2 clinical trials collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score PNPP side effects assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three HS-173 price phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a Tariquidar web result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.

Ctancy of 50, the absolute difference between the two is 20 which represents

Ctancy of 50, the absolute difference between the two is 20 which represents low similarity when compared to the United Kingdom’s life expectancy of 72 for this indicator. In Fig 9, we can observe the variations in similarity for countries with different levels of community multiplexity. What is immediately striking is that countries that share a maximal number of communities and therefore exhibit the greatest community multiplexity, have the smallest margin of difference across all indicators. This Dalfopristin supplement suggests that countries with the highest community multiplexity have a very similar socioeconomic profile. This is confirmed by a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test between the distributions of differences in each indicator for pairs sharing different numbers of communities. GSK089MedChemExpress Foretinib Although the KS statistic is lower between groups sharing 0 and 1 communities (apx. 0.1 for all indicators and p-value <0.01), it is very high for groups between 1 and 6 communities (0.4 and above, p-value <0.01), except for mobile phone penetration (detailed KS test results are presented in S1 Table).PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,15 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingFig 9. Socioeconomic difference margin between countries who share communities in the global flow networks. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976.gFurther to this observation, in most indicators there is a very strong significance in the level of community multiplexity–the higher the community multiplexity index between two countries, the smaller the difference between their socioeconomic profiles. There are notable exceptions to this such as the mobile phone penetration ratio, where it appears that beyond the highest level of multiplexity, all other countries are relatively similar in this aspect with low variation even for those pairs of countries which share no communities. For all other indicators such as GDP, Literacy ratio, HDI and Internet penetration, there is a dramatic increase in similarity past a community multiplexity of 3. Ultimately, these similarities can be used to estimate the wellbeing of countries for which it is unknown but can be estimated from its neighbours.DiscussionBig data is often related to real-time data captured through the Internet or social networks. However, the digital divide makes access to big data insights for development more challenging in the least developed and many developing and emerging countries. Can we rely on other networks to overcome these critical data gaps in view of better measuring and monitoring developmental progress? This is particularly important following the United Nations adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in September 2015, made of 17 goals, 169 targets and almost 200 universal indicators, each of them calling for regular and increasingly disaggregated monitoring in every country during the 2016?0 period. This commitment invites a nuanced discussion on the nature and importance of measurement, inference and triangulation of data sources. This discussion is particularly prescient in the face of complex intertwined developmental challenges in an age of increased globalisation, economic interdependence and climate change. The work presented above has clearly shown the value of measuring, comparing, and combining metrics of global connectivity across six different global networks in order to approximate socioeconomic indicators and to identify network communities.Ctancy of 50, the absolute difference between the two is 20 which represents low similarity when compared to the United Kingdom’s life expectancy of 72 for this indicator. In Fig 9, we can observe the variations in similarity for countries with different levels of community multiplexity. What is immediately striking is that countries that share a maximal number of communities and therefore exhibit the greatest community multiplexity, have the smallest margin of difference across all indicators. This suggests that countries with the highest community multiplexity have a very similar socioeconomic profile. This is confirmed by a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test between the distributions of differences in each indicator for pairs sharing different numbers of communities. Although the KS statistic is lower between groups sharing 0 and 1 communities (apx. 0.1 for all indicators and p-value <0.01), it is very high for groups between 1 and 6 communities (0.4 and above, p-value <0.01), except for mobile phone penetration (detailed KS test results are presented in S1 Table).PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,15 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingFig 9. Socioeconomic difference margin between countries who share communities in the global flow networks. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976.gFurther to this observation, in most indicators there is a very strong significance in the level of community multiplexity–the higher the community multiplexity index between two countries, the smaller the difference between their socioeconomic profiles. There are notable exceptions to this such as the mobile phone penetration ratio, where it appears that beyond the highest level of multiplexity, all other countries are relatively similar in this aspect with low variation even for those pairs of countries which share no communities. For all other indicators such as GDP, Literacy ratio, HDI and Internet penetration, there is a dramatic increase in similarity past a community multiplexity of 3. Ultimately, these similarities can be used to estimate the wellbeing of countries for which it is unknown but can be estimated from its neighbours.DiscussionBig data is often related to real-time data captured through the Internet or social networks. However, the digital divide makes access to big data insights for development more challenging in the least developed and many developing and emerging countries. Can we rely on other networks to overcome these critical data gaps in view of better measuring and monitoring developmental progress? This is particularly important following the United Nations adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in September 2015, made of 17 goals, 169 targets and almost 200 universal indicators, each of them calling for regular and increasingly disaggregated monitoring in every country during the 2016?0 period. This commitment invites a nuanced discussion on the nature and importance of measurement, inference and triangulation of data sources. This discussion is particularly prescient in the face of complex intertwined developmental challenges in an age of increased globalisation, economic interdependence and climate change. The work presented above has clearly shown the value of measuring, comparing, and combining metrics of global connectivity across six different global networks in order to approximate socioeconomic indicators and to identify network communities.

.pone.0119985.gAs expected, childhood maltreatment was associated with several covariates known

.pone.0119985.gAs expected, childhood WP1066 price maltreatment was associated with several covariates known to be related to BMI (Table 3). Some covariates such as unemployment and smoking have been shown in the literature to be negatively associated with BMI, e.g. on average, smokers have a lower BMI [11]. In our study such characteristics were more common among maltreated groups: e.g., prevalence of smoking and unemployment 23y to 50y was higher in the maltreated than nonmaltreated (Table 3). Potentially, these differences would lower the adult BMI among those exposed to childhood maltreatment. Allowance for such factors and their changes over time, as well as other covariates, is important for understanding associations with BMI at specific ages and BMI trajectories. Modelled lifetime trajectories of zBMI and obesity risk (Table 4 and S2 Table) confirmed the patterns with age suggested by buy Pinometostat simple analyses.Childhood abuseIn both genders there was a positive linear association between zBMI gain with age and physical abuse, by 0.006/y (males) and 0.007/y (females) after adjustment for all covariatesPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119985 March 26,7 /Child Maltreatment and BMI TrajectoriesTable 3. Characteristics of those with no childhood maltreatment and those abused or neglected ( ). Abuse Non-maltreated Males

N scan or take a photo of the object in their

N scan or take a photo of the object in their workplace, task, or virtual case, and the real object will be integrated in MARE. GP behavior can be tracked and their skill within the LIMKI 3MedChemExpress BMS-5 knowledge level tested. For example, KS1 involves obtaining microbiological cultures or other relevant tests before starting treatment as necessary. A patient who has bacterial pneumonia or viral pneumonia will be shown to a GP treating in MARE. The GP will either select laboratory tests and interpret results or not. We will know whether the GP achieves KS1 or not. The KC of GPs can also be evaluated in MARE. GPs can write instant messages, comment, and annotate that they understand the rational use of antibiotics. GPs can also categorize, tag, or highlight the information that they think is correct. For example, KC2 is buy Biotin-VAD-FMK recognizing trade and generic names, and the class of prescribed antimicrobials. GPs can categorize the class of prescribed antimicrobials when using MARE to scan trade or generic names.Competence LevelThe competence level expected of GPs regarding rational use of antibiotics is described in Table 2. Emotions and values not only affect the application of knowledge but are also a foundation for building GP competence according to physicians’ professional competence definitions [34]. When we use MARE to evaluate GPs’ competence levels, the cases could be conducted in mixed real environments (eg, the real person and the symptom described coexist on the GP’s mobile phone in his or her workplace). The procedure for forecasting, executing, or replying can be uploaded to evaluate the GP’s CC and CS. For example, CC4 is constructing a prescription for an antimicrobial with its pharmacokinetics and knowing how this affects the choice of dosage regimen. The case condition will change when different antimicrobials are used with their pharmacokinetics. The result for the forecasting of antibiotics by the GP and the dosage regimen will be evaluated.Application of Mobile Augmented Reality Education to a Health Care ChallengeIn recent years, one of the global health threats has been the spread of antibiotic resistance. Encouraging rational antibiotic use is of paramount concern to authorities worldwide in order to minimize the development of resistance [50]. Multifaceted national and international strategies have been recommended [51]. Education is an important strategy for the rational use of antibiotics. We used the MARE framework to design GP training for the rational use of antibiotics. Implementing the MARE framework involves several steps: (1) defining the educational outcomes (based on the outcome layer), (2) defining the GP’s personal paradigm, (3) characterizing the learning environment, and (4) designing the learning activities.Performance LevelThe performance level expected of GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics is shown in Table 3. To aid GPs in assessing their workplace performance using the MARE framework, we should build a network for physicians in which they can share their work experiences; then the GPs can review, question, and validate their work performances with each other. Further, the GPs can negotiate, debate, and comment on real cases, and their performance in skills, such as PC and PS, can be tracked and estimated. For example, PS2 is mastering when to use a delayed antimicrobial prescription and how to negotiate this with the patient. One way is to evaluate the GP’s response with the patient case shared on MARE with othe.N scan or take a photo of the object in their workplace, task, or virtual case, and the real object will be integrated in MARE. GP behavior can be tracked and their skill within the knowledge level tested. For example, KS1 involves obtaining microbiological cultures or other relevant tests before starting treatment as necessary. A patient who has bacterial pneumonia or viral pneumonia will be shown to a GP treating in MARE. The GP will either select laboratory tests and interpret results or not. We will know whether the GP achieves KS1 or not. The KC of GPs can also be evaluated in MARE. GPs can write instant messages, comment, and annotate that they understand the rational use of antibiotics. GPs can also categorize, tag, or highlight the information that they think is correct. For example, KC2 is recognizing trade and generic names, and the class of prescribed antimicrobials. GPs can categorize the class of prescribed antimicrobials when using MARE to scan trade or generic names.Competence LevelThe competence level expected of GPs regarding rational use of antibiotics is described in Table 2. Emotions and values not only affect the application of knowledge but are also a foundation for building GP competence according to physicians’ professional competence definitions [34]. When we use MARE to evaluate GPs’ competence levels, the cases could be conducted in mixed real environments (eg, the real person and the symptom described coexist on the GP’s mobile phone in his or her workplace). The procedure for forecasting, executing, or replying can be uploaded to evaluate the GP’s CC and CS. For example, CC4 is constructing a prescription for an antimicrobial with its pharmacokinetics and knowing how this affects the choice of dosage regimen. The case condition will change when different antimicrobials are used with their pharmacokinetics. The result for the forecasting of antibiotics by the GP and the dosage regimen will be evaluated.Application of Mobile Augmented Reality Education to a Health Care ChallengeIn recent years, one of the global health threats has been the spread of antibiotic resistance. Encouraging rational antibiotic use is of paramount concern to authorities worldwide in order to minimize the development of resistance [50]. Multifaceted national and international strategies have been recommended [51]. Education is an important strategy for the rational use of antibiotics. We used the MARE framework to design GP training for the rational use of antibiotics. Implementing the MARE framework involves several steps: (1) defining the educational outcomes (based on the outcome layer), (2) defining the GP’s personal paradigm, (3) characterizing the learning environment, and (4) designing the learning activities.Performance LevelThe performance level expected of GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics is shown in Table 3. To aid GPs in assessing their workplace performance using the MARE framework, we should build a network for physicians in which they can share their work experiences; then the GPs can review, question, and validate their work performances with each other. Further, the GPs can negotiate, debate, and comment on real cases, and their performance in skills, such as PC and PS, can be tracked and estimated. For example, PS2 is mastering when to use a delayed antimicrobial prescription and how to negotiate this with the patient. One way is to evaluate the GP’s response with the patient case shared on MARE with othe.

Scores.21 This was not observed. In fact, the absence of reaction

Scores.21 This was not observed. In fact, the absence of reaction time differences has been previously observed in a study looking at schizotypy and the N400 potential.22 Thus, the participants who accepted more extraordinary roles did not do it because they were less cognizant of their inappropriateness. Their strategy was similar to that of other participants: all subjects were quicker at accepting ordinary or favorable roles than they were at accepting extraordinary or unfavorable roles (Figure 3). Future studies should ask the participants to rate the strength of their will to accept each role as this rating might permit to explain more disorganization and schizotypy variance than the acceptance percentages and the reaction times collected here. These studies should also openly ask participants which roles, even extraordinary ones, they would have likely considered. These roles would enrich the list and their strength ratings may further increase the individual fit. Furthermore, the paradigm could be tried in other patient populations suffering from mental disorders that may include disorganization and other psychotic features, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, and schizoaffective disorder. The drive to perform extraordinary roles could exist in any of them. The drive to perform unfavorable roles should also be studied in disorders including a lack of empathy, such as antisocial diagnosis. The general follow-up of patients might be improved by taking their drives into account in the psychotherapy process. MATERIALS AND METHODS ParticipantsA set of 209 healthy volunteers was recruited through online advertisements, posted on two sites for the general population (Craigslist and Kijiji) and one site for university students: McGill classifieds. This set included two samples that underwent similar versions of the experiment (see the procedure section). The first sample encompassed 159 participants (97 women) who were between 18 and 30 years of age (M = 22.80, s.d. = 3.19) and had a Oroxylin A web number of years of education comprised between 10 and 21 (M = 14.56, s.d. = 1.89). Eight of its individuals did not disclose their education level. The other sample involved 44 individuals (25 women) between the ages of 18 and 30 (M = 22.07, s.d. = 2.77) with an education between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.79, s.d. = 1.21). All the participants were native English speakers or had acquired a minimum of 10 years of English education. They reported no previous history of neurological conditions, intellectual deficits, alcohol or drug abuse, and denied taking medication related to a psychiatric disorder during the two previous years. There were no significant demographic, clinical, and behavioral differences between the two samples. The participants were informed about the purpose of the study and signed a consent form approved by the Research RG7800MedChemExpress RG7800 Ethics Board of the Douglas Mental Health University Institute. They were debriefed following the experiment and given monetary compensation for their participation. Six subjects were excluded because they responded to less than 50 of the social roles or because they responded in more than 2,500 ms, which suggests that they were not using the same cognitive strategy as the other participants. Moreover, their acceptance percentages were more than two standard deviations above the mean, making them outliers.QuestionnairesAll the participants filled out a demographics form and the SPQ. Once prelimina.Scores.21 This was not observed. In fact, the absence of reaction time differences has been previously observed in a study looking at schizotypy and the N400 potential.22 Thus, the participants who accepted more extraordinary roles did not do it because they were less cognizant of their inappropriateness. Their strategy was similar to that of other participants: all subjects were quicker at accepting ordinary or favorable roles than they were at accepting extraordinary or unfavorable roles (Figure 3). Future studies should ask the participants to rate the strength of their will to accept each role as this rating might permit to explain more disorganization and schizotypy variance than the acceptance percentages and the reaction times collected here. These studies should also openly ask participants which roles, even extraordinary ones, they would have likely considered. These roles would enrich the list and their strength ratings may further increase the individual fit. Furthermore, the paradigm could be tried in other patient populations suffering from mental disorders that may include disorganization and other psychotic features, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, and schizoaffective disorder. The drive to perform extraordinary roles could exist in any of them. The drive to perform unfavorable roles should also be studied in disorders including a lack of empathy, such as antisocial diagnosis. The general follow-up of patients might be improved by taking their drives into account in the psychotherapy process. MATERIALS AND METHODS ParticipantsA set of 209 healthy volunteers was recruited through online advertisements, posted on two sites for the general population (Craigslist and Kijiji) and one site for university students: McGill classifieds. This set included two samples that underwent similar versions of the experiment (see the procedure section). The first sample encompassed 159 participants (97 women) who were between 18 and 30 years of age (M = 22.80, s.d. = 3.19) and had a number of years of education comprised between 10 and 21 (M = 14.56, s.d. = 1.89). Eight of its individuals did not disclose their education level. The other sample involved 44 individuals (25 women) between the ages of 18 and 30 (M = 22.07, s.d. = 2.77) with an education between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.79, s.d. = 1.21). All the participants were native English speakers or had acquired a minimum of 10 years of English education. They reported no previous history of neurological conditions, intellectual deficits, alcohol or drug abuse, and denied taking medication related to a psychiatric disorder during the two previous years. There were no significant demographic, clinical, and behavioral differences between the two samples. The participants were informed about the purpose of the study and signed a consent form approved by the Research Ethics Board of the Douglas Mental Health University Institute. They were debriefed following the experiment and given monetary compensation for their participation. Six subjects were excluded because they responded to less than 50 of the social roles or because they responded in more than 2,500 ms, which suggests that they were not using the same cognitive strategy as the other participants. Moreover, their acceptance percentages were more than two standard deviations above the mean, making them outliers.QuestionnairesAll the participants filled out a demographics form and the SPQ. Once prelimina.

Sub-human monstrosities that bear an uncanny likeness to Tonks’ portraits and

Sub-human monstrosities that bear an uncanny likeness to Tonks’ portraits and the case photographs of the same men housed in the Gillies Archives at Queen Mary’s Hospital in Sidcup. Tonks regarded his surgical studies as “rather dreadful subjects for the public view” (n.p.) and complained of “all the more tedious visitors” to the hospital for whom the drawings were one of the “sights” (Hone, 128). In recent years, though, the portraits have found a wider audience. They have been exhibited at the Venice Biennale, Tate Britain, the Science Museum in London, the Hunterian Museum at the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the Wellcome Collection, University College London, and the National Army Museum in Chelsea. In June 2007 the full series was made digitally available on the website of the Gillies Archives,4 and Pat Barker has spoken of them as a source of inspiration for her new novel Toby’s Room.5 The photographs of Gillies’ patients have entered the public domain alongside the drawings. A selection of complete case files from the Gillies Archives can be viewed online as part of the Wellcome-funded Sci-Art collaboration, Project Fa de, and case photographs have featured in several recent exhibitions including Faces of Battle at the National Army Museum and War and Medicine at the Wellcome.6 Even more than the drawings, the photographs question the limits and propriety of spectatorship. At least with the pastels, one is aware — almost physically — of Tonks’ attentiveness, the qualityM E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R EFIGURE 1 ARQ-092 site Photograph of Henry Tonks in his room at The Queen’s Hospital, Sidcup, 1917.P H OTO G R AP H I E SFIGURE 2 Horace Nicholls, Repairing War’s Ravages: Renovating get SB 203580 facial injuries. Captain Derwent Wood painting the plate. Imperial War Museum, Q.30.457. ?IWM.M E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R Eof the artist’s touch and the duration of his gaze. His authority, as an artist and surgeon, licenses our own interest. The photographs appear unmediated by any aesthetic concerns: physically and psychologically naked. When I teach this material (usually to history of art students), I tend not to use the most harrowing images of facial injury and reconstructive surgery. Apart from my own discomfort, I worry how my students will respond: with pity? With disgust? Fascination? Should I name the patient, or protect his anonymity? Would he, or his relatives, want the photograph to be shown in a non-medical context? Is there a happy ending — a redemptive “after surgery” to counterbalance the “before”? These questions might give me pause for thought, but they generally remain unspoken. Here, though, I have chosen one image precisely because it confronts the interested, curious or appalled viewer with the problematic nature of spectatorship and empathy. In an interview with Marq Smith, W.J.T. Mitchell speculated that “the most interesting new questions for visual studies . . . will be located at the frontiers of visuality, the places where seeing approaches a limit” (36). I would suggest that medical images are one such frontier: an ethical borderland in which legal definitions of privacy, personhood and human rights compete with the contemporary politics of witnessing, memory and memorialisation; a space of fantasy where fascination and aversion are found in equal measure. The photograph in question (Figure 3) is a pre-operative record of one of Gillies’ patients, who was also draw.Sub-human monstrosities that bear an uncanny likeness to Tonks’ portraits and the case photographs of the same men housed in the Gillies Archives at Queen Mary’s Hospital in Sidcup. Tonks regarded his surgical studies as “rather dreadful subjects for the public view” (n.p.) and complained of “all the more tedious visitors” to the hospital for whom the drawings were one of the “sights” (Hone, 128). In recent years, though, the portraits have found a wider audience. They have been exhibited at the Venice Biennale, Tate Britain, the Science Museum in London, the Hunterian Museum at the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the Wellcome Collection, University College London, and the National Army Museum in Chelsea. In June 2007 the full series was made digitally available on the website of the Gillies Archives,4 and Pat Barker has spoken of them as a source of inspiration for her new novel Toby’s Room.5 The photographs of Gillies’ patients have entered the public domain alongside the drawings. A selection of complete case files from the Gillies Archives can be viewed online as part of the Wellcome-funded Sci-Art collaboration, Project Fa de, and case photographs have featured in several recent exhibitions including Faces of Battle at the National Army Museum and War and Medicine at the Wellcome.6 Even more than the drawings, the photographs question the limits and propriety of spectatorship. At least with the pastels, one is aware — almost physically — of Tonks’ attentiveness, the qualityM E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R EFIGURE 1 Photograph of Henry Tonks in his room at The Queen’s Hospital, Sidcup, 1917.P H OTO G R AP H I E SFIGURE 2 Horace Nicholls, Repairing War’s Ravages: Renovating facial injuries. Captain Derwent Wood painting the plate. Imperial War Museum, Q.30.457. ?IWM.M E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R Eof the artist’s touch and the duration of his gaze. His authority, as an artist and surgeon, licenses our own interest. The photographs appear unmediated by any aesthetic concerns: physically and psychologically naked. When I teach this material (usually to history of art students), I tend not to use the most harrowing images of facial injury and reconstructive surgery. Apart from my own discomfort, I worry how my students will respond: with pity? With disgust? Fascination? Should I name the patient, or protect his anonymity? Would he, or his relatives, want the photograph to be shown in a non-medical context? Is there a happy ending — a redemptive “after surgery” to counterbalance the “before”? These questions might give me pause for thought, but they generally remain unspoken. Here, though, I have chosen one image precisely because it confronts the interested, curious or appalled viewer with the problematic nature of spectatorship and empathy. In an interview with Marq Smith, W.J.T. Mitchell speculated that “the most interesting new questions for visual studies . . . will be located at the frontiers of visuality, the places where seeing approaches a limit” (36). I would suggest that medical images are one such frontier: an ethical borderland in which legal definitions of privacy, personhood and human rights compete with the contemporary politics of witnessing, memory and memorialisation; a space of fantasy where fascination and aversion are found in equal measure. The photograph in question (Figure 3) is a pre-operative record of one of Gillies’ patients, who was also draw.

Th26 and skeletal development27, respectively. Selective sweep on Oar6 . The Oar

Th26 and skeletal development27, respectively. Selective sweep on Oar6 . The Oar6 selective sweep contains several genes that may have been Ascotoxin dose affected by selection i.e. the non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G (NCAPG, 37.2 Mb), the ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like (LCORL, 37.3 Mb), the leucine aminopeptidase 3 (LAP3, 37.1 Mb) and the ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 2 (ABCG2, 36.5 Mb) loci. Indeed, the NCAPG/LCORL gene pair has been reported as a selection target in many genome scans. LCORL is a co-repressor of ligand-regulatable transcriptional factors, such as the estrogen and thyroid hormone receptors, and plays a fundamental role in hepatic lipogenesis28. More importantly, variation at LCORL has been associated with height in humans29 and horses30, and with vertebrae number in pigs31. Similarly, NCAPG plays a key role in mitotic cell division and affects post-natal growth32. Other genes of interest are ABCG2, a molecule transporter that has been associated with milk yield and composition33, and LAP3. This latter gene displays a selection signature in Holstein cattle and its variability is associated with diverse milk traits24. Interestingly, the bovine chromosome 6 region containing LCORL, NCAPG, LAP3 and ABCG2 overlaps with several quantitative trait loci for growth, carcass quality, feed efficiency, reproduction and milk traits34?7.Scientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/At this point, is difficult to know if selection on Oar6 is targeting one or several loci. In principle, we would favour this second scenario because data generated by us and others evidence that the size of the Oar6 region under selection is considerably large suggesting that it may have been produced by the superposition of several overlapping peaks (Fig. 4). The multiple associations with production traits observed in cattle would also favour this hypothesis, although we cannot rule out the possibility of selection acting on a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Selective sweep on Oar13. Within the Oar13 selective sweep (68?4 Mb), there are two genes related with lipid metabolism i.e. the fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FITM2, 72.3 Mb) and the acyl-CoA thioesterase 8 (ACOT8, 74.1 Mb) loci. The FITM2 protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and induces the packaging of triglycerides as lipid droplets38. This mechanism could be of importance in the mammary gland, since lipids are secreted as droplets that bud from the epithelial cells. The ACOT8 molecule hydrolyzes medium- to long-chain acyl-CoAs and its overexpression has been shown to abolish peroxisomal fatty acid -oxidation and enhance lipid accumulation in droplets39. Thus, these two loci may have effects on milk lipid content. Though Spanish sheep have not been specifically selected for milk fat XAV-939MedChemExpress XAV-939 content, the negative and moderate correlation of this trait with milk yield offers a possible explanation for our findings.improvement of Spanish sheep for milk traits. Latxa and Churra sheep produce around 180 kg (in 140 days) and 117 kg (in 120 days) of milk (Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment web, http://www.magrama. gob.es), respectively. Certainly, these numbers are significantly lower than milk yield registers of cosmopolitan highly specialized breeds (e.g. Lacaune sheep produce 350 kg milk in 150 days). However, in the last two decades the milk production of Spanish dairy sheep breeds has b.Th26 and skeletal development27, respectively. Selective sweep on Oar6 . The Oar6 selective sweep contains several genes that may have been affected by selection i.e. the non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G (NCAPG, 37.2 Mb), the ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like (LCORL, 37.3 Mb), the leucine aminopeptidase 3 (LAP3, 37.1 Mb) and the ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 2 (ABCG2, 36.5 Mb) loci. Indeed, the NCAPG/LCORL gene pair has been reported as a selection target in many genome scans. LCORL is a co-repressor of ligand-regulatable transcriptional factors, such as the estrogen and thyroid hormone receptors, and plays a fundamental role in hepatic lipogenesis28. More importantly, variation at LCORL has been associated with height in humans29 and horses30, and with vertebrae number in pigs31. Similarly, NCAPG plays a key role in mitotic cell division and affects post-natal growth32. Other genes of interest are ABCG2, a molecule transporter that has been associated with milk yield and composition33, and LAP3. This latter gene displays a selection signature in Holstein cattle and its variability is associated with diverse milk traits24. Interestingly, the bovine chromosome 6 region containing LCORL, NCAPG, LAP3 and ABCG2 overlaps with several quantitative trait loci for growth, carcass quality, feed efficiency, reproduction and milk traits34?7.Scientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/At this point, is difficult to know if selection on Oar6 is targeting one or several loci. In principle, we would favour this second scenario because data generated by us and others evidence that the size of the Oar6 region under selection is considerably large suggesting that it may have been produced by the superposition of several overlapping peaks (Fig. 4). The multiple associations with production traits observed in cattle would also favour this hypothesis, although we cannot rule out the possibility of selection acting on a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Selective sweep on Oar13. Within the Oar13 selective sweep (68?4 Mb), there are two genes related with lipid metabolism i.e. the fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FITM2, 72.3 Mb) and the acyl-CoA thioesterase 8 (ACOT8, 74.1 Mb) loci. The FITM2 protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and induces the packaging of triglycerides as lipid droplets38. This mechanism could be of importance in the mammary gland, since lipids are secreted as droplets that bud from the epithelial cells. The ACOT8 molecule hydrolyzes medium- to long-chain acyl-CoAs and its overexpression has been shown to abolish peroxisomal fatty acid -oxidation and enhance lipid accumulation in droplets39. Thus, these two loci may have effects on milk lipid content. Though Spanish sheep have not been specifically selected for milk fat content, the negative and moderate correlation of this trait with milk yield offers a possible explanation for our findings.improvement of Spanish sheep for milk traits. Latxa and Churra sheep produce around 180 kg (in 140 days) and 117 kg (in 120 days) of milk (Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment web, http://www.magrama. gob.es), respectively. Certainly, these numbers are significantly lower than milk yield registers of cosmopolitan highly specialized breeds (e.g. Lacaune sheep produce 350 kg milk in 150 days). However, in the last two decades the milk production of Spanish dairy sheep breeds has b.

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans MG-132MedChemExpress MG-132 Affairs, a National Pan-RAS-IN-1 biological activity Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in GW9662 site bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). LY317615MedChemExpress LY317615 caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the order R848 recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the Acadesine web method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 RR6MedChemExpress RR6 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA HS-173 price Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.

N scan or take a photo of the object in their

N scan or take a photo of the object in their workplace, task, or virtual case, and the real object will be integrated in MARE. GP behavior can be tracked and their skill within the knowledge level tested. For example, KS1 involves Saroglitazar Magnesium mechanism of action obtaining microbiological cultures or other relevant tests before starting treatment as necessary. A patient who has bacterial pneumonia or viral pneumonia will be shown to a GP treating in MARE. The GP will either select laboratory tests and interpret results or not. We will know whether the GP achieves KS1 or not. The KC of GPs can also be evaluated in MARE. GPs can write instant messages, comment, and annotate that they understand the rational use of antibiotics. GPs can also categorize, tag, or highlight the information that they think is correct. For example, KC2 is recognizing trade and generic names, and the class of prescribed antimicrobials. GPs can categorize the class of prescribed antimicrobials when using MARE to scan trade or generic names.Competence LevelThe competence level expected of GPs regarding rational use of antibiotics is described in Table 2. Emotions and values not only affect the application of knowledge but are also a foundation for building GP competence according to physicians’ professional competence definitions [34]. When we use MARE to evaluate GPs’ competence levels, the cases could be conducted in mixed real environments (eg, the real person and the symptom described coexist on the GP’s mobile phone in his or her workplace). The procedure for forecasting, executing, or replying can be uploaded to evaluate the GP’s CC and CS. For example, CC4 is constructing a prescription for an antimicrobial with its pharmacokinetics and knowing how this affects the choice of dosage regimen. The case condition will change when different antimicrobials are used with their pharmacokinetics. The result for the forecasting of antibiotics by the GP and the dosage regimen will be evaluated.Application of Mobile Augmented Reality Education to a Health Care ChallengeIn recent years, one of the global health threats has been the spread of antibiotic resistance. Encouraging rational antibiotic use is of paramount concern to authorities worldwide in order to minimize the development of resistance [50]. Multifaceted national and international strategies have been recommended [51]. Education is an important strategy for the rational use of antibiotics. We used the MARE framework to design GP training for the rational use of antibiotics. Implementing the MARE framework involves several steps: (1) defining the educational outcomes (based on the outcome layer), (2) defining the GP’s personal paradigm, (3) characterizing the learning environment, and (4) designing the learning activities.Performance LevelThe performance level expected of GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics is shown in Table 3. To aid GPs in get I-BRD9 assessing their workplace performance using the MARE framework, we should build a network for physicians in which they can share their work experiences; then the GPs can review, question, and validate their work performances with each other. Further, the GPs can negotiate, debate, and comment on real cases, and their performance in skills, such as PC and PS, can be tracked and estimated. For example, PS2 is mastering when to use a delayed antimicrobial prescription and how to negotiate this with the patient. One way is to evaluate the GP’s response with the patient case shared on MARE with othe.N scan or take a photo of the object in their workplace, task, or virtual case, and the real object will be integrated in MARE. GP behavior can be tracked and their skill within the knowledge level tested. For example, KS1 involves obtaining microbiological cultures or other relevant tests before starting treatment as necessary. A patient who has bacterial pneumonia or viral pneumonia will be shown to a GP treating in MARE. The GP will either select laboratory tests and interpret results or not. We will know whether the GP achieves KS1 or not. The KC of GPs can also be evaluated in MARE. GPs can write instant messages, comment, and annotate that they understand the rational use of antibiotics. GPs can also categorize, tag, or highlight the information that they think is correct. For example, KC2 is recognizing trade and generic names, and the class of prescribed antimicrobials. GPs can categorize the class of prescribed antimicrobials when using MARE to scan trade or generic names.Competence LevelThe competence level expected of GPs regarding rational use of antibiotics is described in Table 2. Emotions and values not only affect the application of knowledge but are also a foundation for building GP competence according to physicians’ professional competence definitions [34]. When we use MARE to evaluate GPs’ competence levels, the cases could be conducted in mixed real environments (eg, the real person and the symptom described coexist on the GP’s mobile phone in his or her workplace). The procedure for forecasting, executing, or replying can be uploaded to evaluate the GP’s CC and CS. For example, CC4 is constructing a prescription for an antimicrobial with its pharmacokinetics and knowing how this affects the choice of dosage regimen. The case condition will change when different antimicrobials are used with their pharmacokinetics. The result for the forecasting of antibiotics by the GP and the dosage regimen will be evaluated.Application of Mobile Augmented Reality Education to a Health Care ChallengeIn recent years, one of the global health threats has been the spread of antibiotic resistance. Encouraging rational antibiotic use is of paramount concern to authorities worldwide in order to minimize the development of resistance [50]. Multifaceted national and international strategies have been recommended [51]. Education is an important strategy for the rational use of antibiotics. We used the MARE framework to design GP training for the rational use of antibiotics. Implementing the MARE framework involves several steps: (1) defining the educational outcomes (based on the outcome layer), (2) defining the GP’s personal paradigm, (3) characterizing the learning environment, and (4) designing the learning activities.Performance LevelThe performance level expected of GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics is shown in Table 3. To aid GPs in assessing their workplace performance using the MARE framework, we should build a network for physicians in which they can share their work experiences; then the GPs can review, question, and validate their work performances with each other. Further, the GPs can negotiate, debate, and comment on real cases, and their performance in skills, such as PC and PS, can be tracked and estimated. For example, PS2 is mastering when to use a delayed antimicrobial prescription and how to negotiate this with the patient. One way is to evaluate the GP’s response with the patient case shared on MARE with othe.

Ctancy of 50, the absolute difference between the two is 20 which represents

Ctancy of 50, the absolute difference Nutlin (3a) price between the two is 20 which represents low Roc-A web similarity when compared to the United Kingdom’s life expectancy of 72 for this indicator. In Fig 9, we can observe the variations in similarity for countries with different levels of community multiplexity. What is immediately striking is that countries that share a maximal number of communities and therefore exhibit the greatest community multiplexity, have the smallest margin of difference across all indicators. This suggests that countries with the highest community multiplexity have a very similar socioeconomic profile. This is confirmed by a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test between the distributions of differences in each indicator for pairs sharing different numbers of communities. Although the KS statistic is lower between groups sharing 0 and 1 communities (apx. 0.1 for all indicators and p-value <0.01), it is very high for groups between 1 and 6 communities (0.4 and above, p-value <0.01), except for mobile phone penetration (detailed KS test results are presented in S1 Table).PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,15 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingFig 9. Socioeconomic difference margin between countries who share communities in the global flow networks. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976.gFurther to this observation, in most indicators there is a very strong significance in the level of community multiplexity–the higher the community multiplexity index between two countries, the smaller the difference between their socioeconomic profiles. There are notable exceptions to this such as the mobile phone penetration ratio, where it appears that beyond the highest level of multiplexity, all other countries are relatively similar in this aspect with low variation even for those pairs of countries which share no communities. For all other indicators such as GDP, Literacy ratio, HDI and Internet penetration, there is a dramatic increase in similarity past a community multiplexity of 3. Ultimately, these similarities can be used to estimate the wellbeing of countries for which it is unknown but can be estimated from its neighbours.DiscussionBig data is often related to real-time data captured through the Internet or social networks. However, the digital divide makes access to big data insights for development more challenging in the least developed and many developing and emerging countries. Can we rely on other networks to overcome these critical data gaps in view of better measuring and monitoring developmental progress? This is particularly important following the United Nations adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in September 2015, made of 17 goals, 169 targets and almost 200 universal indicators, each of them calling for regular and increasingly disaggregated monitoring in every country during the 2016?0 period. This commitment invites a nuanced discussion on the nature and importance of measurement, inference and triangulation of data sources. This discussion is particularly prescient in the face of complex intertwined developmental challenges in an age of increased globalisation, economic interdependence and climate change. The work presented above has clearly shown the value of measuring, comparing, and combining metrics of global connectivity across six different global networks in order to approximate socioeconomic indicators and to identify network communities.Ctancy of 50, the absolute difference between the two is 20 which represents low similarity when compared to the United Kingdom’s life expectancy of 72 for this indicator. In Fig 9, we can observe the variations in similarity for countries with different levels of community multiplexity. What is immediately striking is that countries that share a maximal number of communities and therefore exhibit the greatest community multiplexity, have the smallest margin of difference across all indicators. This suggests that countries with the highest community multiplexity have a very similar socioeconomic profile. This is confirmed by a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test between the distributions of differences in each indicator for pairs sharing different numbers of communities. Although the KS statistic is lower between groups sharing 0 and 1 communities (apx. 0.1 for all indicators and p-value <0.01), it is very high for groups between 1 and 6 communities (0.4 and above, p-value <0.01), except for mobile phone penetration (detailed KS test results are presented in S1 Table).PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,15 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingFig 9. Socioeconomic difference margin between countries who share communities in the global flow networks. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976.gFurther to this observation, in most indicators there is a very strong significance in the level of community multiplexity–the higher the community multiplexity index between two countries, the smaller the difference between their socioeconomic profiles. There are notable exceptions to this such as the mobile phone penetration ratio, where it appears that beyond the highest level of multiplexity, all other countries are relatively similar in this aspect with low variation even for those pairs of countries which share no communities. For all other indicators such as GDP, Literacy ratio, HDI and Internet penetration, there is a dramatic increase in similarity past a community multiplexity of 3. Ultimately, these similarities can be used to estimate the wellbeing of countries for which it is unknown but can be estimated from its neighbours.DiscussionBig data is often related to real-time data captured through the Internet or social networks. However, the digital divide makes access to big data insights for development more challenging in the least developed and many developing and emerging countries. Can we rely on other networks to overcome these critical data gaps in view of better measuring and monitoring developmental progress? This is particularly important following the United Nations adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in September 2015, made of 17 goals, 169 targets and almost 200 universal indicators, each of them calling for regular and increasingly disaggregated monitoring in every country during the 2016?0 period. This commitment invites a nuanced discussion on the nature and importance of measurement, inference and triangulation of data sources. This discussion is particularly prescient in the face of complex intertwined developmental challenges in an age of increased globalisation, economic interdependence and climate change. The work presented above has clearly shown the value of measuring, comparing, and combining metrics of global connectivity across six different global networks in order to approximate socioeconomic indicators and to identify network communities.

Neglect score !2 at 7 and/or 11y33y45y50yMean difference (95 CI

Neglect score !2 at 7 and/or 11y33y45y50yMean difference (95 CI) in BMI (kg/m2) 0.08 (-0.13,0.30) 0.17 (-0.01,0.35) 0.18 (-0.51,0.88) -0.33 (-0.66,0.01) -0.12 (-0.40,0.16) 1.15 (-0.03,2.33) 0.00 (-0.40,0.40) 0.03 (-0.31,0.38) 0.69 (-0.60,1.99) 0.09 (-0.29,0.47) 0.09 (-0.24,0.42) 0.93 (-0.47,2.32) 0.40 (-0.14,0.93) 0.18 (-0.27,0.63) 0.13 (-1.64,1.89) 0.36 (0.09,0.63) 0.58 (0.05,1.12) 0.23 (-0.23,0.69) -0.13 (-2.01,1.74) 0.55 (0.20,0.90) 0.97 (0.32,1.62) 0.41 (-0.14,0.97) 0.10 (-2.19,2.39) 0.69 (0.29,1.08)-0.08 (-0.18,0.02) 0.90 (0.21,3.74) 1.29 (0.46,3.66)-0.11 (-0.26,0.03)0.01 (-0.17,0.19)0.54 (0.35,0.73)OR (95 CI) obesity 0.35 (0.05,2.54) 0.76 (0.23,2.45) 5.44 (0.70,42.21) 0.33 (0.05,2.41) 1.02 (0.37,2.86) 4.11 (0.54,31.61) 1.86 (1.16,2.98) 0.45 (0.11,1.86) 1.02 (0.44,2.38) 3.54 (0.46,27.25) 2.34 (1.61,3.40) Quinoline-Val-Asp-Difluorophenoxymethylketone site females Mean difference (95 CI) in BMI (kg/m2) -0.16(-0.42,0.09) -0.15(-0.34,0.04) -0.14(-0.54,0.25) -0.29(-0.66,0.07) -0.17(-0.44,0.10) -0.36(-0.93,0.20) -0.02(-0.42,0.38) -0.07(-0.37,0.24) -0.27(-0.89,0.35) 0.11(-0.31,0.53) -0.01(-0.32,0.30) 0.27(-0.36,0.91) 0.16(-0.44,0.77) -0.20 (-0.65,0.25) -0.42 (-1.35,0.52) 0.78 (0.43,1.14) 0.99(0.31,1.66) 0.41(-0.09,0.92) 0.33(-0.67,1.32) 1.18(0.41,1.95) 0.61(0.06,1.16) 1.09(-0.06,2.24) 1.28 (0.84,1.94) 1.21 (0.84,1.74) 1.04 (0.24,4.52) 1.31 (1.00,1.71) 1.15 (0.91,1.45) 1.48 (0.59,3.67) 1.50 (1.13,1.99) 1.36 (1.06,1.74) 1.44 (0.53,3.89)0.64 (0.34,1.21)1.17 (0.70,1.95)1.17 (0.95,1.45)1.22 (1.02,1.45)1.35 (1.14,1.61)0.04 (-0.08,0.16)0.03 (-0.15,0.21)0.29 (0.07,0.51)0.65 (0.43,0.88) OR (95 CI) obesity1.15 (0.69,1.61)1.40 (0.91,1.89)0.67 (0.21,2.15) 1.35 (0.71,2.58) 0 0.99 (0.66,1.49)0.31 (0.04,2.24) 1.37 (0.64,2.92) 0 1.41 (0.87,2.28)0 0.75 (0.27,2.09) 0.88 (0.12,6.47) 2.08 (1.21,3.55)0.51 (0.16,1.62) 0.79 (0.40,1.58) 0.83 (0.20,3.42) 2.34 (1.68,3.27)1.07 (0.72,1.61) 0.93 (0.67,1.27) 0.92 (0.48,1.78) 1.48 (1.21,1.81)1.48 (1.14,1.91) 1.15 (0.94,1.42) 1.15 (0.77,1.72) 1.39 (1.16,1.66)1.73 (1.28,2.32) 1.44 (1.15,1.80) 1.75 (1.13,2.71) 1.54 (1.28,1.86)No females in these groups were obese.doi:10.1371/DactinomycinMedChemExpress Actinomycin IV journal.pone.0119985.t!2 at 7y and/or 11y (Table 1). Mean BMI increased throughout adulthood from 23.1 to 28.1kg/m2 in males and 22.1 to 26.8kg/m2 in females, ages 23 to 50y. Prevalence of obesity was <2.5 in childhood, but was much greater, at 25 in mid-adulthood, 45 to 50y (Table 1). Simple analyses of BMI at each age 7 to 50y showed a higher mean BMI in adulthood or OR for obesity in both sexes for neglect at 7/11y, physical and psychological abuse and, in females only, sexual abuse (Table 2). Pre-adolescent BMI, i.e. at 7 and 11y, was not elevated in association with abuse or neglect. Fig. 1 illustrates this pattern for physical abuse: e.g. for females, from no excess risk in childhood to an OR of 1.73 (1.28,2.32) at 50y. Thus for some maltreatments, simple analyses suggest a pattern from little difference to higher BMI with increasing age from child to mid-adulthood as seen in sensitivity analysis using !95th BMI percentile for obesity (S1 Table).PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119985 March 26,6 /Child Maltreatment and BMI TrajectoriesFig 1. Difference in mean BMI (kg/m2) and OR for obesity (95 CIs) from 7 to 50y by physical abuse in males and females. Footnotes: participant report in adulthood (45y) that they had been physically abused by a parent during their childhood before 16y, i.e. punched, kicked or hit or beaten with an object, or needed medical treatment. doi:10.1371/journal.Neglect score !2 at 7 and/or 11y33y45y50yMean difference (95 CI) in BMI (kg/m2) 0.08 (-0.13,0.30) 0.17 (-0.01,0.35) 0.18 (-0.51,0.88) -0.33 (-0.66,0.01) -0.12 (-0.40,0.16) 1.15 (-0.03,2.33) 0.00 (-0.40,0.40) 0.03 (-0.31,0.38) 0.69 (-0.60,1.99) 0.09 (-0.29,0.47) 0.09 (-0.24,0.42) 0.93 (-0.47,2.32) 0.40 (-0.14,0.93) 0.18 (-0.27,0.63) 0.13 (-1.64,1.89) 0.36 (0.09,0.63) 0.58 (0.05,1.12) 0.23 (-0.23,0.69) -0.13 (-2.01,1.74) 0.55 (0.20,0.90) 0.97 (0.32,1.62) 0.41 (-0.14,0.97) 0.10 (-2.19,2.39) 0.69 (0.29,1.08)-0.08 (-0.18,0.02) 0.90 (0.21,3.74) 1.29 (0.46,3.66)-0.11 (-0.26,0.03)0.01 (-0.17,0.19)0.54 (0.35,0.73)OR (95 CI) obesity 0.35 (0.05,2.54) 0.76 (0.23,2.45) 5.44 (0.70,42.21) 0.33 (0.05,2.41) 1.02 (0.37,2.86) 4.11 (0.54,31.61) 1.86 (1.16,2.98) 0.45 (0.11,1.86) 1.02 (0.44,2.38) 3.54 (0.46,27.25) 2.34 (1.61,3.40) Females Mean difference (95 CI) in BMI (kg/m2) -0.16(-0.42,0.09) -0.15(-0.34,0.04) -0.14(-0.54,0.25) -0.29(-0.66,0.07) -0.17(-0.44,0.10) -0.36(-0.93,0.20) -0.02(-0.42,0.38) -0.07(-0.37,0.24) -0.27(-0.89,0.35) 0.11(-0.31,0.53) -0.01(-0.32,0.30) 0.27(-0.36,0.91) 0.16(-0.44,0.77) -0.20 (-0.65,0.25) -0.42 (-1.35,0.52) 0.78 (0.43,1.14) 0.99(0.31,1.66) 0.41(-0.09,0.92) 0.33(-0.67,1.32) 1.18(0.41,1.95) 0.61(0.06,1.16) 1.09(-0.06,2.24) 1.28 (0.84,1.94) 1.21 (0.84,1.74) 1.04 (0.24,4.52) 1.31 (1.00,1.71) 1.15 (0.91,1.45) 1.48 (0.59,3.67) 1.50 (1.13,1.99) 1.36 (1.06,1.74) 1.44 (0.53,3.89)0.64 (0.34,1.21)1.17 (0.70,1.95)1.17 (0.95,1.45)1.22 (1.02,1.45)1.35 (1.14,1.61)0.04 (-0.08,0.16)0.03 (-0.15,0.21)0.29 (0.07,0.51)0.65 (0.43,0.88) OR (95 CI) obesity1.15 (0.69,1.61)1.40 (0.91,1.89)0.67 (0.21,2.15) 1.35 (0.71,2.58) 0 0.99 (0.66,1.49)0.31 (0.04,2.24) 1.37 (0.64,2.92) 0 1.41 (0.87,2.28)0 0.75 (0.27,2.09) 0.88 (0.12,6.47) 2.08 (1.21,3.55)0.51 (0.16,1.62) 0.79 (0.40,1.58) 0.83 (0.20,3.42) 2.34 (1.68,3.27)1.07 (0.72,1.61) 0.93 (0.67,1.27) 0.92 (0.48,1.78) 1.48 (1.21,1.81)1.48 (1.14,1.91) 1.15 (0.94,1.42) 1.15 (0.77,1.72) 1.39 (1.16,1.66)1.73 (1.28,2.32) 1.44 (1.15,1.80) 1.75 (1.13,2.71) 1.54 (1.28,1.86)No females in these groups were obese.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119985.t!2 at 7y and/or 11y (Table 1). Mean BMI increased throughout adulthood from 23.1 to 28.1kg/m2 in males and 22.1 to 26.8kg/m2 in females, ages 23 to 50y. Prevalence of obesity was <2.5 in childhood, but was much greater, at 25 in mid-adulthood, 45 to 50y (Table 1). Simple analyses of BMI at each age 7 to 50y showed a higher mean BMI in adulthood or OR for obesity in both sexes for neglect at 7/11y, physical and psychological abuse and, in females only, sexual abuse (Table 2). Pre-adolescent BMI, i.e. at 7 and 11y, was not elevated in association with abuse or neglect. Fig. 1 illustrates this pattern for physical abuse: e.g. for females, from no excess risk in childhood to an OR of 1.73 (1.28,2.32) at 50y. Thus for some maltreatments, simple analyses suggest a pattern from little difference to higher BMI with increasing age from child to mid-adulthood as seen in sensitivity analysis using !95th BMI percentile for obesity (S1 Table).PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119985 March 26,6 /Child Maltreatment and BMI TrajectoriesFig 1. Difference in mean BMI (kg/m2) and OR for obesity (95 CIs) from 7 to 50y by physical abuse in males and females. Footnotes: participant report in adulthood (45y) that they had been physically abused by a parent during their childhood before 16y, i.e. punched, kicked or hit or beaten with an object, or needed medical treatment. doi:10.1371/journal.

‘ coordinate is the percentage of roles (s)he accepted for each

‘ coordinate is the Chaetocin supplement Percentage of roles (s)he accepted for each category. Scatterplots are for (a) ordinary favorable roles, (b) extraordinary favorable roles, (c) ordinary unfavorable roles, and (d) extraordinary unfavorable roles. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.** ** * ** * ** **Reaction Times (ms)Percentage of accepted roles70 60 50 40 30 20 101180 1160 1140 1120 1100 1080 1060 1040 1020 1000 980 960 940 920**Ordinary FavorableOrdinary Extraordinary Unfavorable Favorable Vadadustat web category combinations High SPQ scorersExtraordinary UnfavorableOrdinary FavorableExtraordinary Ordinary Favorable Unfavorable Category combinations High extraordinary role acceptersExtraordinary UnfavorableLow SPQ scorersLow extraordinary role acceptersAcceptanceRejectionFigure 2. Percentages of social roles accepted in each category for high- and low-SPQ scorers and standard errors (vertical bars) for the 203 participants. *P o0.05, **P o0.0001. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.Figure 3. Mean reaction times and standard errors (vertical bars) for accepted (plain rectangles) and rejected (crosshatched rectangles) social roles for high and low extraordinary roles accepters. *Po 0.05.(i.e., bizarre behavior, thought disorders, unusual thoughts, poor insight, and difficulty in abstract thinking).16 In accordance with that view, the multiple regression suggested that the tendency to accept ordinary favorable roles had some protective effect againstnpj Schizophrenia (2016)schizotypal traits. Across all the categories, individuals with higher SPQ scores accepted more social roles than those with lower scores. All these results are reminiscent of the numerous anecdotes, so often published in the media, about thePublished in partnership with the Schizophrenia International Research SocietyExtraordinary roles and schizotypy AL Fernandez-Cruz et al5 disorganization of famous artists and the extraordinary roles they perform in society, now and in the past.17 On the other hand, works, such as the study of Twomey et al.,18 link psychoticism to openness to experience, sensation-seeking and creativity. Similarly, it was observed that, among writers and actors, scores for psychoticism were higher than among less `creative’ individuals19 and Andreasen noted in 1996 (ref. 20) that highly creative people had higher scores on measures of psychopathology than less creative people. In our case, this is akin to individuals who accept a lesser percentage of extraordinary social roles having lower SPQ scores. Further supporting the drive hypothesis, high accepters of extraordinary roles appeared `more enthusiast’ at accepting roles and more reluctant at rejecting them as they took less times for acceptances and more times for rejections than low accepters. This could be related to a higher baseline level of activation of the brain representations of these roles in the participants with higher SPQ scores. These results were obtained in a sample of the general population. Given the low frequency of schizotypy and of schizophrenia in that population, it is highly unlikely that those who accepted more extraordinary roles did it as a consequence of some pre-existing schizophrenia factors. One could eliminate an effect of the cognitive deficits found in the continuum going from normality to schizophrenia via schizotypy.9?3,21 In the task, these deficits would have induced longer reaction times for those who accepted more extraordinary roles or for the subgroup with higher SPQ.’ coordinate is the percentage of roles (s)he accepted for each category. Scatterplots are for (a) ordinary favorable roles, (b) extraordinary favorable roles, (c) ordinary unfavorable roles, and (d) extraordinary unfavorable roles. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.** ** * ** * ** **Reaction Times (ms)Percentage of accepted roles70 60 50 40 30 20 101180 1160 1140 1120 1100 1080 1060 1040 1020 1000 980 960 940 920**Ordinary FavorableOrdinary Extraordinary Unfavorable Favorable Category combinations High SPQ scorersExtraordinary UnfavorableOrdinary FavorableExtraordinary Ordinary Favorable Unfavorable Category combinations High extraordinary role acceptersExtraordinary UnfavorableLow SPQ scorersLow extraordinary role acceptersAcceptanceRejectionFigure 2. Percentages of social roles accepted in each category for high- and low-SPQ scorers and standard errors (vertical bars) for the 203 participants. *P o0.05, **P o0.0001. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.Figure 3. Mean reaction times and standard errors (vertical bars) for accepted (plain rectangles) and rejected (crosshatched rectangles) social roles for high and low extraordinary roles accepters. *Po 0.05.(i.e., bizarre behavior, thought disorders, unusual thoughts, poor insight, and difficulty in abstract thinking).16 In accordance with that view, the multiple regression suggested that the tendency to accept ordinary favorable roles had some protective effect againstnpj Schizophrenia (2016)schizotypal traits. Across all the categories, individuals with higher SPQ scores accepted more social roles than those with lower scores. All these results are reminiscent of the numerous anecdotes, so often published in the media, about thePublished in partnership with the Schizophrenia International Research SocietyExtraordinary roles and schizotypy AL Fernandez-Cruz et al5 disorganization of famous artists and the extraordinary roles they perform in society, now and in the past.17 On the other hand, works, such as the study of Twomey et al.,18 link psychoticism to openness to experience, sensation-seeking and creativity. Similarly, it was observed that, among writers and actors, scores for psychoticism were higher than among less `creative’ individuals19 and Andreasen noted in 1996 (ref. 20) that highly creative people had higher scores on measures of psychopathology than less creative people. In our case, this is akin to individuals who accept a lesser percentage of extraordinary social roles having lower SPQ scores. Further supporting the drive hypothesis, high accepters of extraordinary roles appeared `more enthusiast’ at accepting roles and more reluctant at rejecting them as they took less times for acceptances and more times for rejections than low accepters. This could be related to a higher baseline level of activation of the brain representations of these roles in the participants with higher SPQ scores. These results were obtained in a sample of the general population. Given the low frequency of schizotypy and of schizophrenia in that population, it is highly unlikely that those who accepted more extraordinary roles did it as a consequence of some pre-existing schizophrenia factors. One could eliminate an effect of the cognitive deficits found in the continuum going from normality to schizophrenia via schizotypy.9?3,21 In the task, these deficits would have induced longer reaction times for those who accepted more extraordinary roles or for the subgroup with higher SPQ.

Th26 and skeletal development27, respectively. Selective sweep on Oar6 . The Oar

Th26 and skeletal development27, respectively. Selective sweep on Oar6 . The Oar6 selective sweep contains several genes that may have been affected by selection i.e. the non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G (NCAPG, 37.2 Mb), the ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like (LCORL, 37.3 Mb), the leucine aminopeptidase 3 (LAP3, 37.1 Mb) and the ATP-binding cassette, order PD-148515 sub-family G (WHITE), member 2 (ABCG2, 36.5 Mb) loci. Indeed, the NCAPG/LCORL gene pair has been reported as a selection target in many genome scans. LCORL is a co-repressor of ligand-regulatable transcriptional factors, such as the estrogen and thyroid hormone receptors, and plays a fundamental role in hepatic lipogenesis28. More importantly, variation at LCORL has been associated with height in humans29 and horses30, and with vertebrae number in pigs31. Similarly, NCAPG plays a key role in mitotic cell division and affects post-natal growth32. Other genes of interest are ABCG2, a molecule transporter that has been associated with milk yield and composition33, and LAP3. This latter gene displays a selection signature in Holstein cattle and its variability is associated with diverse milk traits24. Interestingly, the bovine chromosome 6 region containing LCORL, NCAPG, LAP3 and ABCG2 overlaps with several quantitative trait loci for growth, carcass quality, feed efficiency, reproduction and milk traits34?7.Scientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/At this point, is CI-1011 price difficult to know if selection on Oar6 is targeting one or several loci. In principle, we would favour this second scenario because data generated by us and others evidence that the size of the Oar6 region under selection is considerably large suggesting that it may have been produced by the superposition of several overlapping peaks (Fig. 4). The multiple associations with production traits observed in cattle would also favour this hypothesis, although we cannot rule out the possibility of selection acting on a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Selective sweep on Oar13. Within the Oar13 selective sweep (68?4 Mb), there are two genes related with lipid metabolism i.e. the fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FITM2, 72.3 Mb) and the acyl-CoA thioesterase 8 (ACOT8, 74.1 Mb) loci. The FITM2 protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and induces the packaging of triglycerides as lipid droplets38. This mechanism could be of importance in the mammary gland, since lipids are secreted as droplets that bud from the epithelial cells. The ACOT8 molecule hydrolyzes medium- to long-chain acyl-CoAs and its overexpression has been shown to abolish peroxisomal fatty acid -oxidation and enhance lipid accumulation in droplets39. Thus, these two loci may have effects on milk lipid content. Though Spanish sheep have not been specifically selected for milk fat content, the negative and moderate correlation of this trait with milk yield offers a possible explanation for our findings.improvement of Spanish sheep for milk traits. Latxa and Churra sheep produce around 180 kg (in 140 days) and 117 kg (in 120 days) of milk (Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment web, http://www.magrama. gob.es), respectively. Certainly, these numbers are significantly lower than milk yield registers of cosmopolitan highly specialized breeds (e.g. Lacaune sheep produce 350 kg milk in 150 days). However, in the last two decades the milk production of Spanish dairy sheep breeds has b.Th26 and skeletal development27, respectively. Selective sweep on Oar6 . The Oar6 selective sweep contains several genes that may have been affected by selection i.e. the non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G (NCAPG, 37.2 Mb), the ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like (LCORL, 37.3 Mb), the leucine aminopeptidase 3 (LAP3, 37.1 Mb) and the ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 2 (ABCG2, 36.5 Mb) loci. Indeed, the NCAPG/LCORL gene pair has been reported as a selection target in many genome scans. LCORL is a co-repressor of ligand-regulatable transcriptional factors, such as the estrogen and thyroid hormone receptors, and plays a fundamental role in hepatic lipogenesis28. More importantly, variation at LCORL has been associated with height in humans29 and horses30, and with vertebrae number in pigs31. Similarly, NCAPG plays a key role in mitotic cell division and affects post-natal growth32. Other genes of interest are ABCG2, a molecule transporter that has been associated with milk yield and composition33, and LAP3. This latter gene displays a selection signature in Holstein cattle and its variability is associated with diverse milk traits24. Interestingly, the bovine chromosome 6 region containing LCORL, NCAPG, LAP3 and ABCG2 overlaps with several quantitative trait loci for growth, carcass quality, feed efficiency, reproduction and milk traits34?7.Scientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/At this point, is difficult to know if selection on Oar6 is targeting one or several loci. In principle, we would favour this second scenario because data generated by us and others evidence that the size of the Oar6 region under selection is considerably large suggesting that it may have been produced by the superposition of several overlapping peaks (Fig. 4). The multiple associations with production traits observed in cattle would also favour this hypothesis, although we cannot rule out the possibility of selection acting on a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Selective sweep on Oar13. Within the Oar13 selective sweep (68?4 Mb), there are two genes related with lipid metabolism i.e. the fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FITM2, 72.3 Mb) and the acyl-CoA thioesterase 8 (ACOT8, 74.1 Mb) loci. The FITM2 protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and induces the packaging of triglycerides as lipid droplets38. This mechanism could be of importance in the mammary gland, since lipids are secreted as droplets that bud from the epithelial cells. The ACOT8 molecule hydrolyzes medium- to long-chain acyl-CoAs and its overexpression has been shown to abolish peroxisomal fatty acid -oxidation and enhance lipid accumulation in droplets39. Thus, these two loci may have effects on milk lipid content. Though Spanish sheep have not been specifically selected for milk fat content, the negative and moderate correlation of this trait with milk yield offers a possible explanation for our findings.improvement of Spanish sheep for milk traits. Latxa and Churra sheep produce around 180 kg (in 140 days) and 117 kg (in 120 days) of milk (Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment web, http://www.magrama. gob.es), respectively. Certainly, these numbers are significantly lower than milk yield registers of cosmopolitan highly specialized breeds (e.g. Lacaune sheep produce 350 kg milk in 150 days). However, in the last two decades the milk production of Spanish dairy sheep breeds has b.

Sub-human monstrosities that bear an uncanny likeness to Tonks’ portraits and

Sub-human monstrosities that bear an uncanny likeness to Tonks’ portraits and the case photographs of the same men housed in the Gillies Archives at Queen Mary’s Hospital in Sidcup. Tonks regarded his surgical studies as “rather dreadful subjects for the public view” (n.p.) and complained of “all the more tedious visitors” to the hospital for whom the drawings were one of the “sights” (Hone, 128). In recent years, though, the portraits have found a wider audience. They have been exhibited at the Venice Biennale, Tate Britain, the Science Museum in London, the Hunterian Museum at the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the Wellcome Collection, Y-27632 chemical information University College London, and the National Army Museum in Sulfatinib msds Chelsea. In June 2007 the full series was made digitally available on the website of the Gillies Archives,4 and Pat Barker has spoken of them as a source of inspiration for her new novel Toby’s Room.5 The photographs of Gillies’ patients have entered the public domain alongside the drawings. A selection of complete case files from the Gillies Archives can be viewed online as part of the Wellcome-funded Sci-Art collaboration, Project Fa de, and case photographs have featured in several recent exhibitions including Faces of Battle at the National Army Museum and War and Medicine at the Wellcome.6 Even more than the drawings, the photographs question the limits and propriety of spectatorship. At least with the pastels, one is aware — almost physically — of Tonks’ attentiveness, the qualityM E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R EFIGURE 1 Photograph of Henry Tonks in his room at The Queen’s Hospital, Sidcup, 1917.P H OTO G R AP H I E SFIGURE 2 Horace Nicholls, Repairing War’s Ravages: Renovating facial injuries. Captain Derwent Wood painting the plate. Imperial War Museum, Q.30.457. ?IWM.M E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R Eof the artist’s touch and the duration of his gaze. His authority, as an artist and surgeon, licenses our own interest. The photographs appear unmediated by any aesthetic concerns: physically and psychologically naked. When I teach this material (usually to history of art students), I tend not to use the most harrowing images of facial injury and reconstructive surgery. Apart from my own discomfort, I worry how my students will respond: with pity? With disgust? Fascination? Should I name the patient, or protect his anonymity? Would he, or his relatives, want the photograph to be shown in a non-medical context? Is there a happy ending — a redemptive “after surgery” to counterbalance the “before”? These questions might give me pause for thought, but they generally remain unspoken. Here, though, I have chosen one image precisely because it confronts the interested, curious or appalled viewer with the problematic nature of spectatorship and empathy. In an interview with Marq Smith, W.J.T. Mitchell speculated that “the most interesting new questions for visual studies . . . will be located at the frontiers of visuality, the places where seeing approaches a limit” (36). I would suggest that medical images are one such frontier: an ethical borderland in which legal definitions of privacy, personhood and human rights compete with the contemporary politics of witnessing, memory and memorialisation; a space of fantasy where fascination and aversion are found in equal measure. The photograph in question (Figure 3) is a pre-operative record of one of Gillies’ patients, who was also draw.Sub-human monstrosities that bear an uncanny likeness to Tonks’ portraits and the case photographs of the same men housed in the Gillies Archives at Queen Mary’s Hospital in Sidcup. Tonks regarded his surgical studies as “rather dreadful subjects for the public view” (n.p.) and complained of “all the more tedious visitors” to the hospital for whom the drawings were one of the “sights” (Hone, 128). In recent years, though, the portraits have found a wider audience. They have been exhibited at the Venice Biennale, Tate Britain, the Science Museum in London, the Hunterian Museum at the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the Wellcome Collection, University College London, and the National Army Museum in Chelsea. In June 2007 the full series was made digitally available on the website of the Gillies Archives,4 and Pat Barker has spoken of them as a source of inspiration for her new novel Toby’s Room.5 The photographs of Gillies’ patients have entered the public domain alongside the drawings. A selection of complete case files from the Gillies Archives can be viewed online as part of the Wellcome-funded Sci-Art collaboration, Project Fa de, and case photographs have featured in several recent exhibitions including Faces of Battle at the National Army Museum and War and Medicine at the Wellcome.6 Even more than the drawings, the photographs question the limits and propriety of spectatorship. At least with the pastels, one is aware — almost physically — of Tonks’ attentiveness, the qualityM E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R EFIGURE 1 Photograph of Henry Tonks in his room at The Queen’s Hospital, Sidcup, 1917.P H OTO G R AP H I E SFIGURE 2 Horace Nicholls, Repairing War’s Ravages: Renovating facial injuries. Captain Derwent Wood painting the plate. Imperial War Museum, Q.30.457. ?IWM.M E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R Eof the artist’s touch and the duration of his gaze. His authority, as an artist and surgeon, licenses our own interest. The photographs appear unmediated by any aesthetic concerns: physically and psychologically naked. When I teach this material (usually to history of art students), I tend not to use the most harrowing images of facial injury and reconstructive surgery. Apart from my own discomfort, I worry how my students will respond: with pity? With disgust? Fascination? Should I name the patient, or protect his anonymity? Would he, or his relatives, want the photograph to be shown in a non-medical context? Is there a happy ending — a redemptive “after surgery” to counterbalance the “before”? These questions might give me pause for thought, but they generally remain unspoken. Here, though, I have chosen one image precisely because it confronts the interested, curious or appalled viewer with the problematic nature of spectatorship and empathy. In an interview with Marq Smith, W.J.T. Mitchell speculated that “the most interesting new questions for visual studies . . . will be located at the frontiers of visuality, the places where seeing approaches a limit” (36). I would suggest that medical images are one such frontier: an ethical borderland in which legal definitions of privacy, personhood and human rights compete with the contemporary politics of witnessing, memory and memorialisation; a space of fantasy where fascination and aversion are found in equal measure. The photograph in question (Figure 3) is a pre-operative record of one of Gillies’ patients, who was also draw.

.40, 0.45) [0.45, 0.50) [0.50, 0.55) [0.55, 0.60) [0.60, 0.65) [0.65, 0.70) [0.70, 0.75) [0.75, 0.80) [0.80, 0.85) [0.85, 0.90) [0.90, 0.95) [0.95, 1.00) 150rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org R. Soc. open sci. 3:…………………………………………top 500 broadcastersall usersFigure 4. Distribution

.40, 0.45) [0.45, 0.50) [0.50, 0.55) [0.55, 0.60) [0.60, 0.65) [0.65, 0.70) [0.70, 0.75) [0.75, 0.80) [0.80, 0.85) [0.85, 0.90) [0.90, 0.95) [0.95, 1.00) 150rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org R. Soc. open sci. 3:…………………………………………top 500 broadcastersall usersFigure 4. Distribution of positive sentiment fraction for the top 500 broadcasters (for = 0.75), and for all users, using (SS).0.50 0.45 sentiment fraction based on (SS) 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0 1 10 000 20 000 30 000 40 000 50 000 60 000 70 000 80 000 90 000 100 000 110 000 120 000 130 000 140broadcast score rank positive sentiment fraction negative sentiment fractionFigure 5. The relationship between sentiment fractions (as a moving average over a window of 1000 points) and broadcast score rank, for = 0.75 based on (SS).(SS) and = 0.15, the `negative sentiment strength’ and `negative sentiment fraction’ attributes for the top 5000 broadcasters were very nearly equal to the mean over all users. In addition to investigating the sentiment use of the top broadcasters, we looked for general trends relating sentiment use to broadcast rank. Figure 5 plots moving averages of the (SS) sentiment fraction attributes against broadcast rank, using a window of 1000 observations to smooth the noisy data. We0.8 0.7 sentiment strength based on (SS) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org R. Soc. open sci. 3:…………………………………………Figure 6. The relationship between sentiment strengths (as a moving average over a window of 1000 points) and broadcast score rank, for = 0.75 based on (SS).see that from rank 1 to about rank 9000 the positive sentiment fraction decreases sharply; after this it decreases slowly in an approximately linear way. The fraction of tweets with negative sentiment appears approximately constant at this scale. Figure 6 plots similar moving averages for the sentiment strength attributes. The average strength of positive sentiment declines sharply to begin with and then slowly, whereas the average strength of negative sentiment is approximately constant. Although the local fluctuations were different, the graphs had the same general shape for all the values of 0.3, 0.45, 0.6, 0.75, 0.9 tested.4. Sentiment and evolution of communities on TwitterIn this section, we describe how we identified meaningful communities or `sub-networks’ of Twitter users, and we Lonafarnib site present the results of our analysis of how these communities evolved over time, including how their sentiment evolved. The existence of communities has been observed in all kinds of real-world networks and identifying them has been the subject of considerable research effort in recent years, much of which can be NS-018 custom synthesis traced back to a seminal paper of Girvan Newman [14]. In the vast literature on community detection (e.g. [15]), a community is often taken to be a group of users with two characteristics: (i) The community is densely connected internally, i.e. people within the same community talk to each other a lot. (ii) There are relatively few links crossing from the community to the outside world, i.e. people talk to fellow members of their community more often than they talk to non-members.4.1. How we detected communities and selected a subset for further studyBecause we wanted to find communities that would endure over time, we needed to take a longer period of data than the 7 days we analysed in ?. We can imagine online discussions that spri..40, 0.45) [0.45, 0.50) [0.50, 0.55) [0.55, 0.60) [0.60, 0.65) [0.65, 0.70) [0.70, 0.75) [0.75, 0.80) [0.80, 0.85) [0.85, 0.90) [0.90, 0.95) [0.95, 1.00) 150rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org R. Soc. open sci. 3:…………………………………………top 500 broadcastersall usersFigure 4. Distribution of positive sentiment fraction for the top 500 broadcasters (for = 0.75), and for all users, using (SS).0.50 0.45 sentiment fraction based on (SS) 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0 1 10 000 20 000 30 000 40 000 50 000 60 000 70 000 80 000 90 000 100 000 110 000 120 000 130 000 140broadcast score rank positive sentiment fraction negative sentiment fractionFigure 5. The relationship between sentiment fractions (as a moving average over a window of 1000 points) and broadcast score rank, for = 0.75 based on (SS).(SS) and = 0.15, the `negative sentiment strength’ and `negative sentiment fraction’ attributes for the top 5000 broadcasters were very nearly equal to the mean over all users. In addition to investigating the sentiment use of the top broadcasters, we looked for general trends relating sentiment use to broadcast rank. Figure 5 plots moving averages of the (SS) sentiment fraction attributes against broadcast rank, using a window of 1000 observations to smooth the noisy data. We0.8 0.7 sentiment strength based on (SS) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org R. Soc. open sci. 3:…………………………………………Figure 6. The relationship between sentiment strengths (as a moving average over a window of 1000 points) and broadcast score rank, for = 0.75 based on (SS).see that from rank 1 to about rank 9000 the positive sentiment fraction decreases sharply; after this it decreases slowly in an approximately linear way. The fraction of tweets with negative sentiment appears approximately constant at this scale. Figure 6 plots similar moving averages for the sentiment strength attributes. The average strength of positive sentiment declines sharply to begin with and then slowly, whereas the average strength of negative sentiment is approximately constant. Although the local fluctuations were different, the graphs had the same general shape for all the values of 0.3, 0.45, 0.6, 0.75, 0.9 tested.4. Sentiment and evolution of communities on TwitterIn this section, we describe how we identified meaningful communities or `sub-networks’ of Twitter users, and we present the results of our analysis of how these communities evolved over time, including how their sentiment evolved. The existence of communities has been observed in all kinds of real-world networks and identifying them has been the subject of considerable research effort in recent years, much of which can be traced back to a seminal paper of Girvan Newman [14]. In the vast literature on community detection (e.g. [15]), a community is often taken to be a group of users with two characteristics: (i) The community is densely connected internally, i.e. people within the same community talk to each other a lot. (ii) There are relatively few links crossing from the community to the outside world, i.e. people talk to fellow members of their community more often than they talk to non-members.4.1. How we detected communities and selected a subset for further studyBecause we wanted to find communities that would endure over time, we needed to take a longer period of data than the 7 days we analysed in ?. We can imagine online discussions that spri.

Ution are rather low and many would prefer treatment outside the

Ution are rather low and many would prefer treatment outside the country when there is a need for such treatment overtreatment in the country. The health care workers are the first source of education and raising of awareness of any health procedures among the populace. The low level of this group of people MS023 chemical information therefore attests to the possible lower level still among the populace. Despite the rapid progress that has StatticMedChemExpress Stattic occurred in the field of plastic surgery, a large portion of the population is still unaware of the specialty. Therefore, they may not be taking advantage of the optimal care that is already available. If patients are to receive the best treatment available, it is essential to institute programs to educate healthcare consumers and providers about plastic surgery and its different subspecialties, especially the cosmetic procedures and their role within the healthcare system.Appendix Questionnaire: Awareness and Attitude of Health Workers to Cosmetic Surgery in Osogbo, NigeriaThis questionnaire was designed to obtain information concerning your awareness and attitude concerning cosmetic surgery. Please note that your participation is voluntary and that the information given will be treated as confidential and anonymous. Please sign below if you understand the details information given about the study and you are willing to participate in the study. Section 1: Sociodemographic Factors (1) Age . . . (2) Sex: [ ] MaleSurgery Research and Practice [ ] Female (3) Occupational Status: [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ] Medical Student ] Nursing Student ] Medical Lab Scientist ] Doctor ] Nurse ] Administrative ] Pharmacist ] Ward Maid [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ] breast reduction ] Mastopexy ] Rhinoplasty ] Face lift ] Blepharoplasty ] Liposuction ] Abdominoplasty ] Cleft Surgery(10) Do you know if cosmetic surgery is done in Nigeria? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Not sure (11) If yes, which one(s) is/are done in Nigeria? [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ] Breast Augmentation ] Breast Reduction ] Mastopexy ] Rhinoplasty ] Face lift ] Blepharoplasty ] Liposuction ] Abdominoplasty ] Cleft Surgery(4) Religious Background [ ] Christianity [ ] Islam [ ] Traditional Section 2: Knowledge and Awareness about Cosmetic Surgery. Tick an appropriate response from the following, that is, “yes”, “no”, or “not sure”, except where other options are given: (5) Are you aware of cosmetic surgery? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Not sure (6) If (6) is yes, which of the following informed you? [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ] Tv. ] radio ] friend ] posters ] medical consultation ] medical text book ] internet(12) What do you think is the price range for cosmetic surgery in Nigeria? [ [ [ [ ] 10,000?0,000 ] 25,000?0,000 ] 50,000?00,000 ] >100,(7) Did you consider the information reliable? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Not sure (8) Which of the following do you think do cosmetic surgery? [ [ [ [ [ ] general surgeon ] Maxillofacial surgeon ] plastic surgeon ] Orthopaedic surgeon ] Urology(13) Do you have any relative or friend who has undergone cosmetic surgery before? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Not sure (14) If yes, which type of cosmetic surgery? [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ] Breast Augmentation ] Breast Reduction ] Mastopexy ] Rhinoplasty ] Face lift ] Blepharoplasty ] Liposuction ] Abdominoplasty ] Cleft Surgery(9) Which of the following Cosmetic Surgery are you aware of? [ ] breast augmentation6 (15) Do you know of any risk associated with Cosmetic surgeries? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Not sure (16) If yes, which kind of risk are you aware of? [ [ [ [ [ ] Deformation of bod.Ution are rather low and many would prefer treatment outside the country when there is a need for such treatment overtreatment in the country. The health care workers are the first source of education and raising of awareness of any health procedures among the populace. The low level of this group of people therefore attests to the possible lower level still among the populace. Despite the rapid progress that has occurred in the field of plastic surgery, a large portion of the population is still unaware of the specialty. Therefore, they may not be taking advantage of the optimal care that is already available. If patients are to receive the best treatment available, it is essential to institute programs to educate healthcare consumers and providers about plastic surgery and its different subspecialties, especially the cosmetic procedures and their role within the healthcare system.Appendix Questionnaire: Awareness and Attitude of Health Workers to Cosmetic Surgery in Osogbo, NigeriaThis questionnaire was designed to obtain information concerning your awareness and attitude concerning cosmetic surgery. Please note that your participation is voluntary and that the information given will be treated as confidential and anonymous. Please sign below if you understand the details information given about the study and you are willing to participate in the study. Section 1: Sociodemographic Factors (1) Age . . . (2) Sex: [ ] MaleSurgery Research and Practice [ ] Female (3) Occupational Status: [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ] Medical Student ] Nursing Student ] Medical Lab Scientist ] Doctor ] Nurse ] Administrative ] Pharmacist ] Ward Maid [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ] breast reduction ] Mastopexy ] Rhinoplasty ] Face lift ] Blepharoplasty ] Liposuction ] Abdominoplasty ] Cleft Surgery(10) Do you know if cosmetic surgery is done in Nigeria? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Not sure (11) If yes, which one(s) is/are done in Nigeria? [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ] Breast Augmentation ] Breast Reduction ] Mastopexy ] Rhinoplasty ] Face lift ] Blepharoplasty ] Liposuction ] Abdominoplasty ] Cleft Surgery(4) Religious Background [ ] Christianity [ ] Islam [ ] Traditional Section 2: Knowledge and Awareness about Cosmetic Surgery. Tick an appropriate response from the following, that is, “yes”, “no”, or “not sure”, except where other options are given: (5) Are you aware of cosmetic surgery? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Not sure (6) If (6) is yes, which of the following informed you? [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ] Tv. ] radio ] friend ] posters ] medical consultation ] medical text book ] internet(12) What do you think is the price range for cosmetic surgery in Nigeria? [ [ [ [ ] 10,000?0,000 ] 25,000?0,000 ] 50,000?00,000 ] >100,(7) Did you consider the information reliable? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Not sure (8) Which of the following do you think do cosmetic surgery? [ [ [ [ [ ] general surgeon ] Maxillofacial surgeon ] plastic surgeon ] Orthopaedic surgeon ] Urology(13) Do you have any relative or friend who has undergone cosmetic surgery before? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Not sure (14) If yes, which type of cosmetic surgery? [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ ] Breast Augmentation ] Breast Reduction ] Mastopexy ] Rhinoplasty ] Face lift ] Blepharoplasty ] Liposuction ] Abdominoplasty ] Cleft Surgery(9) Which of the following Cosmetic Surgery are you aware of? [ ] breast augmentation6 (15) Do you know of any risk associated with Cosmetic surgeries? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Not sure (16) If yes, which kind of risk are you aware of? [ [ [ [ [ ] Deformation of bod.

Res derived from global flow networks are a proxy of socioeconomic

Res derived from global flow networks are a proxy of socioeconomic activities and therefore highly correlated with the explored indicators. It is an open question as to whether a highly central position in the network leads to favourable socio-economic outcomes or vica-versa. The structural connectedness of a country in the global network represents the number of opportunities a country has to exchange goods, information and resources with our countries–the more opportunities, the higher the exchange and therefore socioeconomic benefit. An analogous relation between the RDX5791 web social network of an individual and that individual’s poverty score supports this hypothesis [14]. A broad longitudinal study would be necessary to assert whether a country’s growth in connections precedes its economic growth or vice versa which is beyond the scope of this work. Next, we will look at the community structure of countries across networks and evaluate their community multiplexity to show that countries with similar socioeconomic profiles tend to cluster together, much like in social networks.Global Community AnalysisIn the previous section we related network measures to various socioeconomic indicators, showing that metrics such as the network degree can be used to estimate wellbeing at a national level. In this section, we further examine the connectedness between pairs of countries through community structure across network layers as a form of socioeconomic similarity. We use the Louvain modularity optimisation method [40] for community detection in each individual network,PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,14 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingFig 8. Country community membership for each network. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976.gwhich takes into account the tie strength of relationships between countries and finds the optimal split in terms of disconnectedness in the international network. This returns between 4? communities for each network, the geographical distribution of which is shown in Fig 8. Although communities naturally seem to be very driven by geography in physical flow networks, this is not the case in digital networks where communities are geographically dispersed. This is an indication of the difference in the way countries connect through post, trade, migration and flights rather than on the IP and social media networks. However, what does it mean for two countries to be both members of the same network community? Common community membership indicates a level of connectedness between two countries, which is beyond the randomly expected for the network. It is often PD98059MedChemExpress PD98059 observed that nodes in the same communities share many similar properties, therefore it can be expected that pairs of nodes which share multiple communities across networks are even more similar. In this work, we measure the overlap in pairwise membership between pairs of countries across our six networks as the community multiplexity index, a measure of socioeconomic similarity. Our hypothesis is that countries that are paired together in communities across more networks are more likely to be socioeconomically similar. We measure similarity here as the absolute difference between each indicator from the previous section for two countries and plot that against their community multiplexity. For example, the United States has an average life expectancy of 70 years, whereas Afghanistan has an average life expe.Res derived from global flow networks are a proxy of socioeconomic activities and therefore highly correlated with the explored indicators. It is an open question as to whether a highly central position in the network leads to favourable socio-economic outcomes or vica-versa. The structural connectedness of a country in the global network represents the number of opportunities a country has to exchange goods, information and resources with our countries–the more opportunities, the higher the exchange and therefore socioeconomic benefit. An analogous relation between the social network of an individual and that individual’s poverty score supports this hypothesis [14]. A broad longitudinal study would be necessary to assert whether a country’s growth in connections precedes its economic growth or vice versa which is beyond the scope of this work. Next, we will look at the community structure of countries across networks and evaluate their community multiplexity to show that countries with similar socioeconomic profiles tend to cluster together, much like in social networks.Global Community AnalysisIn the previous section we related network measures to various socioeconomic indicators, showing that metrics such as the network degree can be used to estimate wellbeing at a national level. In this section, we further examine the connectedness between pairs of countries through community structure across network layers as a form of socioeconomic similarity. We use the Louvain modularity optimisation method [40] for community detection in each individual network,PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,14 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingFig 8. Country community membership for each network. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976.gwhich takes into account the tie strength of relationships between countries and finds the optimal split in terms of disconnectedness in the international network. This returns between 4? communities for each network, the geographical distribution of which is shown in Fig 8. Although communities naturally seem to be very driven by geography in physical flow networks, this is not the case in digital networks where communities are geographically dispersed. This is an indication of the difference in the way countries connect through post, trade, migration and flights rather than on the IP and social media networks. However, what does it mean for two countries to be both members of the same network community? Common community membership indicates a level of connectedness between two countries, which is beyond the randomly expected for the network. It is often observed that nodes in the same communities share many similar properties, therefore it can be expected that pairs of nodes which share multiple communities across networks are even more similar. In this work, we measure the overlap in pairwise membership between pairs of countries across our six networks as the community multiplexity index, a measure of socioeconomic similarity. Our hypothesis is that countries that are paired together in communities across more networks are more likely to be socioeconomically similar. We measure similarity here as the absolute difference between each indicator from the previous section for two countries and plot that against their community multiplexity. For example, the United States has an average life expectancy of 70 years, whereas Afghanistan has an average life expe.

.pone.0119985.gAs expected, childhood maltreatment was associated with several covariates known

.pone.0119985.gAs expected, childhood maltreatment was associated with several covariates known to be related to BMI (Table 3). Some covariates such as unemployment and smoking have been shown in the literature to be negatively associated with BMI, e.g. on average, smokers have a lower BMI [11]. In our study such characteristics were more common among maltreated groups: e.g., prevalence of smoking and unemployment 23y to 50y was higher in the maltreated than nonmaltreated (Table 3). Potentially, these differences would lower the adult BMI among those exposed to childhood maltreatment. Allowance for such factors and their changes over time, as well as other covariates, is important for understanding associations with BMI at specific ages and BMI trajectories. Modelled lifetime ZM241385 manufacturer trajectories of zBMI and obesity risk (Table 4 and S2 Table) confirmed the patterns with age suggested by simple analyses.Childhood abuseIn both genders there was a positive ABT-737 chemical information linear association between zBMI gain with age and physical abuse, by 0.006/y (males) and 0.007/y (females) after adjustment for all covariatesPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119985 March 26,7 /Child Maltreatment and BMI TrajectoriesTable 3. Characteristics of those with no childhood maltreatment and those abused or neglected ( ). Abuse Non-maltreated Males

‘ coordinate is the percentage of roles (s)he accepted for each

‘ coordinate is the percentage of roles (s)he accepted for each category. Scatterplots are for (a) ordinary AC220MedChemExpress Quizartinib favorable roles, (b) extraordinary favorable roles, (c) ordinary unfavorable roles, and (d) extraordinary unfavorable roles. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.** ** * ** * ** **Reaction Times (ms)Percentage of accepted roles70 60 50 40 30 20 101180 1160 1140 1120 1100 1080 1060 1040 1020 1000 980 960 940 920**Ordinary FavorableOrdinary Extraordinary Unfavorable Favorable Category combinations High SPQ scorersExtraordinary UnfavorableOrdinary FavorableExtraordinary Ordinary Favorable Unfavorable Category combinations High extraordinary role acceptersExtraordinary UnfavorableLow SPQ scorersLow extraordinary role acceptersAcceptanceRejectionFigure 2. Percentages of social roles accepted in each category for high- and low-SPQ scorers and standard errors (vertical bars) for the 203 participants. *P o0.05, **P o0.0001. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.Figure 3. Mean reaction times and standard errors (vertical bars) for accepted (plain rectangles) and rejected (crosshatched rectangles) social roles for high and low extraordinary roles accepters. *Po 0.05.(i.e., bizarre behavior, thought disorders, unusual thoughts, poor insight, and difficulty in abstract thinking).16 In accordance with that view, the multiple regression suggested that the tendency to AZD0156MedChemExpress AZD0156 accept ordinary favorable roles had some protective effect againstnpj Schizophrenia (2016)schizotypal traits. Across all the categories, individuals with higher SPQ scores accepted more social roles than those with lower scores. All these results are reminiscent of the numerous anecdotes, so often published in the media, about thePublished in partnership with the Schizophrenia International Research SocietyExtraordinary roles and schizotypy AL Fernandez-Cruz et al5 disorganization of famous artists and the extraordinary roles they perform in society, now and in the past.17 On the other hand, works, such as the study of Twomey et al.,18 link psychoticism to openness to experience, sensation-seeking and creativity. Similarly, it was observed that, among writers and actors, scores for psychoticism were higher than among less `creative’ individuals19 and Andreasen noted in 1996 (ref. 20) that highly creative people had higher scores on measures of psychopathology than less creative people. In our case, this is akin to individuals who accept a lesser percentage of extraordinary social roles having lower SPQ scores. Further supporting the drive hypothesis, high accepters of extraordinary roles appeared `more enthusiast’ at accepting roles and more reluctant at rejecting them as they took less times for acceptances and more times for rejections than low accepters. This could be related to a higher baseline level of activation of the brain representations of these roles in the participants with higher SPQ scores. These results were obtained in a sample of the general population. Given the low frequency of schizotypy and of schizophrenia in that population, it is highly unlikely that those who accepted more extraordinary roles did it as a consequence of some pre-existing schizophrenia factors. One could eliminate an effect of the cognitive deficits found in the continuum going from normality to schizophrenia via schizotypy.9?3,21 In the task, these deficits would have induced longer reaction times for those who accepted more extraordinary roles or for the subgroup with higher SPQ.’ coordinate is the percentage of roles (s)he accepted for each category. Scatterplots are for (a) ordinary favorable roles, (b) extraordinary favorable roles, (c) ordinary unfavorable roles, and (d) extraordinary unfavorable roles. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.** ** * ** * ** **Reaction Times (ms)Percentage of accepted roles70 60 50 40 30 20 101180 1160 1140 1120 1100 1080 1060 1040 1020 1000 980 960 940 920**Ordinary FavorableOrdinary Extraordinary Unfavorable Favorable Category combinations High SPQ scorersExtraordinary UnfavorableOrdinary FavorableExtraordinary Ordinary Favorable Unfavorable Category combinations High extraordinary role acceptersExtraordinary UnfavorableLow SPQ scorersLow extraordinary role acceptersAcceptanceRejectionFigure 2. Percentages of social roles accepted in each category for high- and low-SPQ scorers and standard errors (vertical bars) for the 203 participants. *P o0.05, **P o0.0001. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.Figure 3. Mean reaction times and standard errors (vertical bars) for accepted (plain rectangles) and rejected (crosshatched rectangles) social roles for high and low extraordinary roles accepters. *Po 0.05.(i.e., bizarre behavior, thought disorders, unusual thoughts, poor insight, and difficulty in abstract thinking).16 In accordance with that view, the multiple regression suggested that the tendency to accept ordinary favorable roles had some protective effect againstnpj Schizophrenia (2016)schizotypal traits. Across all the categories, individuals with higher SPQ scores accepted more social roles than those with lower scores. All these results are reminiscent of the numerous anecdotes, so often published in the media, about thePublished in partnership with the Schizophrenia International Research SocietyExtraordinary roles and schizotypy AL Fernandez-Cruz et al5 disorganization of famous artists and the extraordinary roles they perform in society, now and in the past.17 On the other hand, works, such as the study of Twomey et al.,18 link psychoticism to openness to experience, sensation-seeking and creativity. Similarly, it was observed that, among writers and actors, scores for psychoticism were higher than among less `creative’ individuals19 and Andreasen noted in 1996 (ref. 20) that highly creative people had higher scores on measures of psychopathology than less creative people. In our case, this is akin to individuals who accept a lesser percentage of extraordinary social roles having lower SPQ scores. Further supporting the drive hypothesis, high accepters of extraordinary roles appeared `more enthusiast’ at accepting roles and more reluctant at rejecting them as they took less times for acceptances and more times for rejections than low accepters. This could be related to a higher baseline level of activation of the brain representations of these roles in the participants with higher SPQ scores. These results were obtained in a sample of the general population. Given the low frequency of schizotypy and of schizophrenia in that population, it is highly unlikely that those who accepted more extraordinary roles did it as a consequence of some pre-existing schizophrenia factors. One could eliminate an effect of the cognitive deficits found in the continuum going from normality to schizophrenia via schizotypy.9?3,21 In the task, these deficits would have induced longer reaction times for those who accepted more extraordinary roles or for the subgroup with higher SPQ.

– less real (20). Regarding the Pain of Others is not easy

– less real (20). Regarding the Pain of Others is not easy to pr is. Despite its urgency and brevity it is a book in which conclusions proliferate. Here are just a few of Sontag’s arguments, each one a serviceable truism: No “we” should be taken for granted when the subject is looking at other people’s pain. (6) Being a spectator of calamities taking place in another country is a quintessential modern experience. (16) The problem is not that people remember through photographs, but that they remember only the photographs. (79) Harrowing photographs do not inevitably lose their power to shock. But they are not much help if the task is to understand. (80) Our sympathy proclaims our innocence as well as our impotence. (91) Sontag at first seems to be making a case against the SCIO-469 web photographic portrayal of suffering (interestingly, she is less sceptical about art). Ultimately, however, she defends photography. “Let the atrocious images haunt us” is one of the most unequivocal statements in the book: “No one after a certain age”, she argues, “has the right to this kind of innocence, or superficiality, to this degree of ignorance or amnesia” (102).10 She is talking about atrocity and “human wickedness” at this point, rather than pain and tragedy in a broader sense, but perhaps troubling reminders (and unpalatable histories) are preferable to the comforts of forgetfulness. Photographs — whether personal mementos or public archives — might be mute or misleading guides to history, but they are better than nothing. I don’t think Sontag is advocating the use of photographs as aides-memoire here, as Jeremy Harding suggests in his review of Regarding the Pain of Others. The term she uses is “secular icons” (107).11 Approached as objects of contemplation, some photographs have the capacity, she insists, to “deepen one’s sense of reality”. Physical context is crucial, though: pursuing the analogy with religious art and ritual, she despairs of the “ambience of distraction” that pervades contemporary museums. She wonders if it is “exploitative to look at harrowing photographs of other people’s pain in an art gallery” (107). Instead, she advocates more intimate, quieter settings, “the equivalent of a sacred or meditative space” (107). Materiality is important, too: the feel of “rough newsprint”, the ritualP H OTO G R AP H I E Sof looking through an album. Even a book of photographs affords an immediacy and intimacy that transform the disembodied “image” into a material trace: a relic. There is, however, a caveat. Some photographs are so horrific, Sontag reasons, that it is almost impossible to look at them (74). They seem immune to sentimentality and spectacle. The three examples she gives are historically disparate: photographs taken in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 that record men, women and children with their faces burned — like Lumley’s — beyond recognition; photographs of the Rwandan genocide, displaying the ALS-008176MedChemExpress ALS-008176 mutilated faces of Tutsi victims of machete attacks; and the faces in Ernst Friedrich’s 1924 anarcho-pacifist album, Krieg dem Kriege! (War Against War!).12 Friedrich reproduced restricted First World War medical photographs, including 23 images of German soldiers with severe facial injuries: the exact equivalent of the material in the Gillies archives. By confronting the public with these Schreckensbilder — horror pictures — he hoped to stem the rising tide of German militarism (hence “War Against War”). There is, Sontag insists: sha.- less real (20). Regarding the Pain of Others is not easy to pr is. Despite its urgency and brevity it is a book in which conclusions proliferate. Here are just a few of Sontag’s arguments, each one a serviceable truism: No “we” should be taken for granted when the subject is looking at other people’s pain. (6) Being a spectator of calamities taking place in another country is a quintessential modern experience. (16) The problem is not that people remember through photographs, but that they remember only the photographs. (79) Harrowing photographs do not inevitably lose their power to shock. But they are not much help if the task is to understand. (80) Our sympathy proclaims our innocence as well as our impotence. (91) Sontag at first seems to be making a case against the photographic portrayal of suffering (interestingly, she is less sceptical about art). Ultimately, however, she defends photography. “Let the atrocious images haunt us” is one of the most unequivocal statements in the book: “No one after a certain age”, she argues, “has the right to this kind of innocence, or superficiality, to this degree of ignorance or amnesia” (102).10 She is talking about atrocity and “human wickedness” at this point, rather than pain and tragedy in a broader sense, but perhaps troubling reminders (and unpalatable histories) are preferable to the comforts of forgetfulness. Photographs — whether personal mementos or public archives — might be mute or misleading guides to history, but they are better than nothing. I don’t think Sontag is advocating the use of photographs as aides-memoire here, as Jeremy Harding suggests in his review of Regarding the Pain of Others. The term she uses is “secular icons” (107).11 Approached as objects of contemplation, some photographs have the capacity, she insists, to “deepen one’s sense of reality”. Physical context is crucial, though: pursuing the analogy with religious art and ritual, she despairs of the “ambience of distraction” that pervades contemporary museums. She wonders if it is “exploitative to look at harrowing photographs of other people’s pain in an art gallery” (107). Instead, she advocates more intimate, quieter settings, “the equivalent of a sacred or meditative space” (107). Materiality is important, too: the feel of “rough newsprint”, the ritualP H OTO G R AP H I E Sof looking through an album. Even a book of photographs affords an immediacy and intimacy that transform the disembodied “image” into a material trace: a relic. There is, however, a caveat. Some photographs are so horrific, Sontag reasons, that it is almost impossible to look at them (74). They seem immune to sentimentality and spectacle. The three examples she gives are historically disparate: photographs taken in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 that record men, women and children with their faces burned — like Lumley’s — beyond recognition; photographs of the Rwandan genocide, displaying the mutilated faces of Tutsi victims of machete attacks; and the faces in Ernst Friedrich’s 1924 anarcho-pacifist album, Krieg dem Kriege! (War Against War!).12 Friedrich reproduced restricted First World War medical photographs, including 23 images of German soldiers with severe facial injuries: the exact equivalent of the material in the Gillies archives. By confronting the public with these Schreckensbilder — horror pictures — he hoped to stem the rising tide of German militarism (hence “War Against War”). There is, Sontag insists: sha.

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that 3-MA web influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers GSK343 mechanism of action approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.

E the ways in which negotiations for the care of AIDS

E the ways in which negotiations for the care of AIDS orphans utilizes the cultural logics of bridewealth and patrilineality in order to justify a range of configurations of care.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptSituating caregiving: fostering, migrant labour, and marriageLike many of the grandmothers I spoke with, ‘M’e Matau lived with her own maternal grandmother from early childhood until she was 15 years old. She was sent by her parents to provide companionship and to assist her grandmother with household chores. Basotho like ‘M’e Matau use what they know about fostering from their own experiences and adapt it to accommodate shifting domestic arrangements stemming from the increase in the number of orphans. While this recent increase is perhaps more dramatic owing to the severity and scale of the AIDS pandemic, caregiving practices, including child fostering, have always been in flux, shifting in response to historical and political-economic circumstances. In this section, I situate long-standing child fostering practices that serve as the basis for the contemporary movement of AIDS orphans, and trace the legal and historical processes that have impacted these practices, with a focus on migrant labour and marriage. Child fostering has been widely studied across the African continent (Bledsoe 1989; Goody 1982; Madhavan 2004; Renne 1993). It is typically characterized by the movement of children for a variety of purposes related to health, fertility, social responsibility, caregiving relationships, apprenticeship, and educational opportunities. Despite numerous characterizations of fostering as fundamentally reciprocal in nature (Bledsoe 1989), such practices are not always beneficial or voluntary. Several scholars have highlighted the role that poverty plays in the circulation of children, often transferring the productive contributions of children from one household to another (Goody 1982; Leinaweaver 2007; Schrauwers 1999). Thus, processes that shape social relationships are not always unambiguously positive, alliance-building strategies, but may also be necessitated by poverty, inequality, and disease. Child fostering has a long history in Lesotho as a regular strategy for sharing responsibility and supporting and connecting kin (Murray 1981; Page 1989). In Lesotho, HIV/AIDS has been a major factor in changing fostering patterns, as it has elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. 4 Household migration has been an important coping strategy employed by children and families impacted by AIDS (Ansell van Blerk 2004). Although orphans are still predominantly cared for within the family, researchers worry that family and communitybased networks of care are becoming saturated (Abebe Aase 2007; Courtney Iwaniec 2009; L. Townsend Dawes 2004). Others also note that increased pressure on caregivers has resulted in some children receiving inadequate care, as caregivers struggle to meet these children’s needs, whether financial (Ansell van Blerk 2004; Kidman, Petrow Heymann 2007) or emotional and psycho-social (Ansell Young 2004; Nyesigomwe 2005). The emergence and uncertainty of matrilocal care must be CBIC2 mechanism of action understood as embedded in a context4UNICEF (2010) Enzastaurin cancer estimates that there are 110,000?20,000 AIDS orphans in Lesotho; of these children, 12,000 are HIV-positive. J R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPagethat is constrained not only by AIDS and poverty but also by a varie.E the ways in which negotiations for the care of AIDS orphans utilizes the cultural logics of bridewealth and patrilineality in order to justify a range of configurations of care.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptSituating caregiving: fostering, migrant labour, and marriageLike many of the grandmothers I spoke with, ‘M’e Matau lived with her own maternal grandmother from early childhood until she was 15 years old. She was sent by her parents to provide companionship and to assist her grandmother with household chores. Basotho like ‘M’e Matau use what they know about fostering from their own experiences and adapt it to accommodate shifting domestic arrangements stemming from the increase in the number of orphans. While this recent increase is perhaps more dramatic owing to the severity and scale of the AIDS pandemic, caregiving practices, including child fostering, have always been in flux, shifting in response to historical and political-economic circumstances. In this section, I situate long-standing child fostering practices that serve as the basis for the contemporary movement of AIDS orphans, and trace the legal and historical processes that have impacted these practices, with a focus on migrant labour and marriage. Child fostering has been widely studied across the African continent (Bledsoe 1989; Goody 1982; Madhavan 2004; Renne 1993). It is typically characterized by the movement of children for a variety of purposes related to health, fertility, social responsibility, caregiving relationships, apprenticeship, and educational opportunities. Despite numerous characterizations of fostering as fundamentally reciprocal in nature (Bledsoe 1989), such practices are not always beneficial or voluntary. Several scholars have highlighted the role that poverty plays in the circulation of children, often transferring the productive contributions of children from one household to another (Goody 1982; Leinaweaver 2007; Schrauwers 1999). Thus, processes that shape social relationships are not always unambiguously positive, alliance-building strategies, but may also be necessitated by poverty, inequality, and disease. Child fostering has a long history in Lesotho as a regular strategy for sharing responsibility and supporting and connecting kin (Murray 1981; Page 1989). In Lesotho, HIV/AIDS has been a major factor in changing fostering patterns, as it has elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. 4 Household migration has been an important coping strategy employed by children and families impacted by AIDS (Ansell van Blerk 2004). Although orphans are still predominantly cared for within the family, researchers worry that family and communitybased networks of care are becoming saturated (Abebe Aase 2007; Courtney Iwaniec 2009; L. Townsend Dawes 2004). Others also note that increased pressure on caregivers has resulted in some children receiving inadequate care, as caregivers struggle to meet these children’s needs, whether financial (Ansell van Blerk 2004; Kidman, Petrow Heymann 2007) or emotional and psycho-social (Ansell Young 2004; Nyesigomwe 2005). The emergence and uncertainty of matrilocal care must be understood as embedded in a context4UNICEF (2010) estimates that there are 110,000?20,000 AIDS orphans in Lesotho; of these children, 12,000 are HIV-positive. J R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPagethat is constrained not only by AIDS and poverty but also by a varie.

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents Deslorelin price examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower PNB-0408 manufacturer methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.

Preservation (butylated hydroxytoluene).112 The coverage in this section is not intended

Preservation (butylated Beclabuvir cancer hydroxytoluene).112 The coverage in this MG516MedChemExpress MG516 section is not intended to be complete, but is rather focused on representative cases where there are extensive pKa, E, and bond strength data. A reader interested in a particular substituted derivative that does not appear in Table 4 is encouraged to check the references cited there, and reference 56, as many of the primary papers cover a range of substituents.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Page5.2.1 Phenol (PhOH)–Phenol has been widely studied as the simplest of the aromatic hydroxylic compounds. The gas-phase O BDE in phenol has been a subject of much discussion.62,113,114 Heats of formation from the NIST Chemistry WebBook, Hf as(PhO? = 13 ?1 kcal mol- and Hf as(PhOH =-23.03 ?0.14 kcal mol-1, give BDEg(PhOH) = 88.0 ?1 kcal mol-1.49,70 This value is in between alternative values of 86.7 kcal mol-1 114 and 88.7 kcal mol-1.62 A clearer value for this important benchmark compound would be valuable. A wealth of thermochemical data is available for phenols, in particular their acidity [pKa(ArOH)] and the phenoxyl radical/phenoxide reduction [E?ArO?-)]. Protonated phenoxyl radicals are typically high energy species with aqueous pKa values > 0.115 The most extensive studies of E?ArO?-) are by Bordwell et al. for DMSO solutions116 and by Lind et al. and Steenken and Neta in aqueous media.117,118 The aqueous measurements take advantage of the phenol potential becoming independent of pH above its pKa (see Section 3.2 above). Phenols readily react by hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and this pathway is implicated in the antioxidant properties of phenols both in vivo and in vitro (see below).119 For the more acidic phenols, or under basic conditions, a mechanism of sequential proton loss then electron transfer (SPLET) can occur.11?213 It is less common for phenols to react by initial outer-sphere electron transfer because of the high E?PhOH?/0) potentials. The ArO? ArOH potentials (or, better, BDFEs) are often above the thermodynamic requirement for water oxidation, as is necessary for the function of Tyrosine Z in photosystem II, mediating hole transfer from the chlorophyll radical cation to the oxygen evolving complex. 5.2.2 2,4,6-Tri-tert-butylphenol (tBu3PhOH)–4-Substituted-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenols are widely used in the research lab and as food preservatives, especially `butylated hydroxytoluene’ (BHT, 4-Me) and `butylated hydroxyanisole’ (BHA, 4-MeO). 2,4,6-tBu3PhOH is an especially interesting and useful reagent for studies of PCET reactions because of the exceptional stability of the phenoxyl radical (tBu3PhO?.120 The radical is easily prepared from the corresponding phenol using NaOH and K3Fe(CN)6, and can be isolated as dark blue crystals.120 As discussed for TEMPOH above, we have recently reevaluated the solution BDE of tBu3PhO?in C6H6 to account for recent revision of the thermochemistry of the originally used diphenylhydrazine/azobenzene couple.40 Our preferred value is 81.6 ?0.4 kcal mol-1. The tBu3PhO(?H) PCET couple is a very useful benchmark for the determination of bonds strengths in other phenols. The clearest example is Pedulli and co-workers’ EPR method to measure equilibrium constants for ArOH + tBu3PhO?121 Please note that here and in Table 4, we have slightly adjusted Pedulli’s reported BDEs to reflect our recent critical evaluation of the BDE.Preservation (butylated hydroxytoluene).112 The coverage in this section is not intended to be complete, but is rather focused on representative cases where there are extensive pKa, E, and bond strength data. A reader interested in a particular substituted derivative that does not appear in Table 4 is encouraged to check the references cited there, and reference 56, as many of the primary papers cover a range of substituents.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Page5.2.1 Phenol (PhOH)–Phenol has been widely studied as the simplest of the aromatic hydroxylic compounds. The gas-phase O BDE in phenol has been a subject of much discussion.62,113,114 Heats of formation from the NIST Chemistry WebBook, Hf as(PhO? = 13 ?1 kcal mol- and Hf as(PhOH =-23.03 ?0.14 kcal mol-1, give BDEg(PhOH) = 88.0 ?1 kcal mol-1.49,70 This value is in between alternative values of 86.7 kcal mol-1 114 and 88.7 kcal mol-1.62 A clearer value for this important benchmark compound would be valuable. A wealth of thermochemical data is available for phenols, in particular their acidity [pKa(ArOH)] and the phenoxyl radical/phenoxide reduction [E?ArO?-)]. Protonated phenoxyl radicals are typically high energy species with aqueous pKa values > 0.115 The most extensive studies of E?ArO?-) are by Bordwell et al. for DMSO solutions116 and by Lind et al. and Steenken and Neta in aqueous media.117,118 The aqueous measurements take advantage of the phenol potential becoming independent of pH above its pKa (see Section 3.2 above). Phenols readily react by hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and this pathway is implicated in the antioxidant properties of phenols both in vivo and in vitro (see below).119 For the more acidic phenols, or under basic conditions, a mechanism of sequential proton loss then electron transfer (SPLET) can occur.11?213 It is less common for phenols to react by initial outer-sphere electron transfer because of the high E?PhOH?/0) potentials. The ArO? ArOH potentials (or, better, BDFEs) are often above the thermodynamic requirement for water oxidation, as is necessary for the function of Tyrosine Z in photosystem II, mediating hole transfer from the chlorophyll radical cation to the oxygen evolving complex. 5.2.2 2,4,6-Tri-tert-butylphenol (tBu3PhOH)–4-Substituted-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenols are widely used in the research lab and as food preservatives, especially `butylated hydroxytoluene’ (BHT, 4-Me) and `butylated hydroxyanisole’ (BHA, 4-MeO). 2,4,6-tBu3PhOH is an especially interesting and useful reagent for studies of PCET reactions because of the exceptional stability of the phenoxyl radical (tBu3PhO?.120 The radical is easily prepared from the corresponding phenol using NaOH and K3Fe(CN)6, and can be isolated as dark blue crystals.120 As discussed for TEMPOH above, we have recently reevaluated the solution BDE of tBu3PhO?in C6H6 to account for recent revision of the thermochemistry of the originally used diphenylhydrazine/azobenzene couple.40 Our preferred value is 81.6 ?0.4 kcal mol-1. The tBu3PhO(?H) PCET couple is a very useful benchmark for the determination of bonds strengths in other phenols. The clearest example is Pedulli and co-workers’ EPR method to measure equilibrium constants for ArOH + tBu3PhO?121 Please note that here and in Table 4, we have slightly adjusted Pedulli’s reported BDEs to reflect our recent critical evaluation of the BDE.

N scan or take a photo of the object in their

N scan or take a photo of the SCR7 site object in their workplace, task, or virtual case, and the real object will be integrated in MARE. GP behavior can be tracked and their skill within the knowledge level tested. For example, KS1 involves obtaining microbiological cultures or other relevant tests before starting treatment as necessary. A patient who has bacterial pneumonia or viral pneumonia will be shown to a GP treating in MARE. The GP will either select laboratory tests and interpret results or not. We will know whether the GP achieves KS1 or not. The KC of GPs can also be evaluated in MARE. GPs can write instant messages, comment, and annotate that they understand the rational use of antibiotics. GPs can also categorize, tag, or highlight the information that they think is correct. For example, KC2 is recognizing trade and generic names, and the class of prescribed antimicrobials. GPs can categorize the class of prescribed antimicrobials when using MARE to scan trade or generic names.Competence LevelThe competence level expected of GPs regarding rational use of antibiotics is described in Table 2. Emotions and values not only affect the application of knowledge but are also a foundation for building GP competence according to physicians’ professional competence definitions [34]. When we use MARE to evaluate GPs’ competence levels, the cases could be conducted in mixed real environments (eg, the real person and the symptom described coexist on the GP’s mobile phone in his or her workplace). The procedure for forecasting, executing, or replying can be uploaded to evaluate the GP’s CC and CS. For example, CC4 is constructing a prescription for an antimicrobial with its pharmacokinetics and knowing how this affects the choice of dosage regimen. The case condition will change when different antimicrobials are used with their pharmacokinetics. The result for the forecasting of antibiotics by the GP and the dosage PP58 manufacturer regimen will be evaluated.Application of Mobile Augmented Reality Education to a Health Care ChallengeIn recent years, one of the global health threats has been the spread of antibiotic resistance. Encouraging rational antibiotic use is of paramount concern to authorities worldwide in order to minimize the development of resistance [50]. Multifaceted national and international strategies have been recommended [51]. Education is an important strategy for the rational use of antibiotics. We used the MARE framework to design GP training for the rational use of antibiotics. Implementing the MARE framework involves several steps: (1) defining the educational outcomes (based on the outcome layer), (2) defining the GP’s personal paradigm, (3) characterizing the learning environment, and (4) designing the learning activities.Performance LevelThe performance level expected of GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics is shown in Table 3. To aid GPs in assessing their workplace performance using the MARE framework, we should build a network for physicians in which they can share their work experiences; then the GPs can review, question, and validate their work performances with each other. Further, the GPs can negotiate, debate, and comment on real cases, and their performance in skills, such as PC and PS, can be tracked and estimated. For example, PS2 is mastering when to use a delayed antimicrobial prescription and how to negotiate this with the patient. One way is to evaluate the GP’s response with the patient case shared on MARE with othe.N scan or take a photo of the object in their workplace, task, or virtual case, and the real object will be integrated in MARE. GP behavior can be tracked and their skill within the knowledge level tested. For example, KS1 involves obtaining microbiological cultures or other relevant tests before starting treatment as necessary. A patient who has bacterial pneumonia or viral pneumonia will be shown to a GP treating in MARE. The GP will either select laboratory tests and interpret results or not. We will know whether the GP achieves KS1 or not. The KC of GPs can also be evaluated in MARE. GPs can write instant messages, comment, and annotate that they understand the rational use of antibiotics. GPs can also categorize, tag, or highlight the information that they think is correct. For example, KC2 is recognizing trade and generic names, and the class of prescribed antimicrobials. GPs can categorize the class of prescribed antimicrobials when using MARE to scan trade or generic names.Competence LevelThe competence level expected of GPs regarding rational use of antibiotics is described in Table 2. Emotions and values not only affect the application of knowledge but are also a foundation for building GP competence according to physicians’ professional competence definitions [34]. When we use MARE to evaluate GPs’ competence levels, the cases could be conducted in mixed real environments (eg, the real person and the symptom described coexist on the GP’s mobile phone in his or her workplace). The procedure for forecasting, executing, or replying can be uploaded to evaluate the GP’s CC and CS. For example, CC4 is constructing a prescription for an antimicrobial with its pharmacokinetics and knowing how this affects the choice of dosage regimen. The case condition will change when different antimicrobials are used with their pharmacokinetics. The result for the forecasting of antibiotics by the GP and the dosage regimen will be evaluated.Application of Mobile Augmented Reality Education to a Health Care ChallengeIn recent years, one of the global health threats has been the spread of antibiotic resistance. Encouraging rational antibiotic use is of paramount concern to authorities worldwide in order to minimize the development of resistance [50]. Multifaceted national and international strategies have been recommended [51]. Education is an important strategy for the rational use of antibiotics. We used the MARE framework to design GP training for the rational use of antibiotics. Implementing the MARE framework involves several steps: (1) defining the educational outcomes (based on the outcome layer), (2) defining the GP’s personal paradigm, (3) characterizing the learning environment, and (4) designing the learning activities.Performance LevelThe performance level expected of GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics is shown in Table 3. To aid GPs in assessing their workplace performance using the MARE framework, we should build a network for physicians in which they can share their work experiences; then the GPs can review, question, and validate their work performances with each other. Further, the GPs can negotiate, debate, and comment on real cases, and their performance in skills, such as PC and PS, can be tracked and estimated. For example, PS2 is mastering when to use a delayed antimicrobial prescription and how to negotiate this with the patient. One way is to evaluate the GP’s response with the patient case shared on MARE with othe.

1.29 1.47 1.52 1.36 1.30 1.26 1.28 1.40 1.63 1.45 1.28 1.40 1.81 1.43 1.35 1.25 1.52 1.50 1.37 1.27 2.04 1.23 1.44 1.47 1.37 1.50 1.46 1.43 1.q-value 0.033 0.038 0.043 0.006 0.010 0.017 0.020 0.021 0.028 0.031 0.036 0.007 0.005 0.023 0.034 0.041 0.040 0.018 0.001 0.011 0.047 0.014 0.003 0.012 0.025 0.045 0.004 0.008 0.015 0.050 0.000 0.048 0.010 0.009 0.026 0.006 0.008 0.013 0.N SNPsGuti rez-Gil et al.8 ???????52.3?2.5 Mb ?52.3?2.5 Mb ??18.9?9.3 MbFariello et al.

1.29 1.47 1.52 1.36 1.30 1.26 1.28 1.40 1.63 1.45 1.28 1.40 1.81 1.43 1.35 1.25 1.52 1.50 1.37 1.27 2.04 1.23 1.44 1.47 1.37 1.50 1.46 1.43 1.q-value 0.033 0.038 0.043 0.006 0.010 0.017 0.020 0.021 0.028 0.031 0.036 0.007 0.005 0.023 0.034 0.041 0.040 0.018 0.001 0.011 0.047 0.014 0.003 0.012 0.025 0.045 0.004 0.008 0.015 0.050 0.000 0.048 0.010 0.009 0.026 0.006 0.008 0.013 0.N SNPsGuti rez-Gil et al.8 ???????52.3?2.5 Mb ?52.3?2.5 Mb ??18.9?9.3 MbFariello et al.7 ???????51.4?3.4 Mb ?51.4?3.4 Mb ??151.4?56.9 Mb ??35.9?8.3Mb ??????24.02?4.91 ??????6.3?3.6 ???30.4?5.09 ???OAR3_164170826.1 s38388.1 s19983.153.4?54.5 Mb ??OAR6_44123475_X.1 OAR7_30772408.1 s68972.1 s11241.1 OAR7_1827930.1 OAR9_14653377.1 OAR10_90168545.1 OAR10_23129120.1 OAR10_79676247.1 s34065.1 s56762.1 s38696.1 s05603.1 s19740.1 OAR14_9498278.1 s45350.1 OAR17_33487124.1 OAR17_23200636.1 s18836.1 OAR19_33355170.1 s06827.1 s67158.1 OAR25_23589759.39.3?9.5 Mb ?????????????16.6?0.6 Mb ???????9 10114 15 17 19 241 1 2 2 1Table 1. Outlier SNPs found with the FST-based method implemented in BayeScan. In the two columns at the right part of the table, we show evidence of positional PD173074 web concordance with selective DM-3189 web sweeps detected with an FST-outlier approach and other methods8 as well as with the FLK and hapFLK metrics7. CHR = chromosome, N SNPs = Number of outlier SNPs.coincident selective sweep in the 37?8 Mb interval of Oar6 was previously found by analysing a set of Alpine ovine breeds with the hapFLK statistic2. As shown in Table 2, there was a substantial positional concordance between the set of selective sweeps detected with hapFLK and those described in previous reports7,8. This level of coincidence also exceeded what would be expected just by chance (bootstrapped P-value < 0.05) based on a circular permutation test. The set of Spanish populations analysed in our study is considerably different to those employed by other authors i.e.10 European breeds (2 of them with a Spanish origin)8, and 29 international breeds (only 1 Spanish breed)7. Although drift and migration can generate local signatures that can be confounded with those produced by selection, in principle we do not expect distantly related sets of populations to share such demographic signals. Moreover, the coincident FST-outlier signals found by us and others2,7,8 suggest that at least part of the selective sweeps detected with BayeScan are true positives (despite the fact that they were not detected with hapFLK).Three selective sweeps are consistently detected with BayeScan and hapFLK. When we consid-ered the BayeScan data set and the selective sweeps detected with hapFLK that are significant at the nominal levelScientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/Figure 3. Whole-genome scan for selective sweeps. The two analyses were based on either the FST-outlier method implemented in BayeScan (a) or the hapFLK statistic (b). In the BayeScan analysis, the red and blue lines indicate the thresholds of significance set at 0.05 and 0.01 after correction for multiple testing (q-values), respectively. In the hapFLK analysis, the red and blue lines indicate the thresholds of significance set at 0.05 before (nominal P-value) and after (q-value) correction for multiple testing, respectively. Genomic coordinates and statistical significance (-log10 P-values) are plotted in the x- and y-axis, respectively.CHR 2 3Reg (Mb) 82.8?7.7 150.5?54.2 46.5?9.1 4.3?9.9 52.3?2.6 64.5?4.3 112.1?15.6 29.1?9.3.1.29 1.47 1.52 1.36 1.30 1.26 1.28 1.40 1.63 1.45 1.28 1.40 1.81 1.43 1.35 1.25 1.52 1.50 1.37 1.27 2.04 1.23 1.44 1.47 1.37 1.50 1.46 1.43 1.q-value 0.033 0.038 0.043 0.006 0.010 0.017 0.020 0.021 0.028 0.031 0.036 0.007 0.005 0.023 0.034 0.041 0.040 0.018 0.001 0.011 0.047 0.014 0.003 0.012 0.025 0.045 0.004 0.008 0.015 0.050 0.000 0.048 0.010 0.009 0.026 0.006 0.008 0.013 0.N SNPsGuti rez-Gil et al.8 ???????52.3?2.5 Mb ?52.3?2.5 Mb ??18.9?9.3 MbFariello et al.7 ???????51.4?3.4 Mb ?51.4?3.4 Mb ??151.4?56.9 Mb ??35.9?8.3Mb ??????24.02?4.91 ??????6.3?3.6 ???30.4?5.09 ???OAR3_164170826.1 s38388.1 s19983.153.4?54.5 Mb ??OAR6_44123475_X.1 OAR7_30772408.1 s68972.1 s11241.1 OAR7_1827930.1 OAR9_14653377.1 OAR10_90168545.1 OAR10_23129120.1 OAR10_79676247.1 s34065.1 s56762.1 s38696.1 s05603.1 s19740.1 OAR14_9498278.1 s45350.1 OAR17_33487124.1 OAR17_23200636.1 s18836.1 OAR19_33355170.1 s06827.1 s67158.1 OAR25_23589759.39.3?9.5 Mb ?????????????16.6?0.6 Mb ???????9 10114 15 17 19 241 1 2 2 1Table 1. Outlier SNPs found with the FST-based method implemented in BayeScan. In the two columns at the right part of the table, we show evidence of positional concordance with selective sweeps detected with an FST-outlier approach and other methods8 as well as with the FLK and hapFLK metrics7. CHR = chromosome, N SNPs = Number of outlier SNPs.coincident selective sweep in the 37?8 Mb interval of Oar6 was previously found by analysing a set of Alpine ovine breeds with the hapFLK statistic2. As shown in Table 2, there was a substantial positional concordance between the set of selective sweeps detected with hapFLK and those described in previous reports7,8. This level of coincidence also exceeded what would be expected just by chance (bootstrapped P-value < 0.05) based on a circular permutation test. The set of Spanish populations analysed in our study is considerably different to those employed by other authors i.e.10 European breeds (2 of them with a Spanish origin)8, and 29 international breeds (only 1 Spanish breed)7. Although drift and migration can generate local signatures that can be confounded with those produced by selection, in principle we do not expect distantly related sets of populations to share such demographic signals. Moreover, the coincident FST-outlier signals found by us and others2,7,8 suggest that at least part of the selective sweeps detected with BayeScan are true positives (despite the fact that they were not detected with hapFLK).Three selective sweeps are consistently detected with BayeScan and hapFLK. When we consid-ered the BayeScan data set and the selective sweeps detected with hapFLK that are significant at the nominal levelScientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/Figure 3. Whole-genome scan for selective sweeps. The two analyses were based on either the FST-outlier method implemented in BayeScan (a) or the hapFLK statistic (b). In the BayeScan analysis, the red and blue lines indicate the thresholds of significance set at 0.05 and 0.01 after correction for multiple testing (q-values), respectively. In the hapFLK analysis, the red and blue lines indicate the thresholds of significance set at 0.05 before (nominal P-value) and after (q-value) correction for multiple testing, respectively. Genomic coordinates and statistical significance (-log10 P-values) are plotted in the x- and y-axis, respectively.CHR 2 3Reg (Mb) 82.8?7.7 150.5?54.2 46.5?9.1 4.3?9.9 52.3?2.6 64.5?4.3 112.1?15.6 29.1?9.3.

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in PD150606MedChemExpress PD150606 hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong PM01183 clinical trials desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that LY317615MedChemExpress Enzastaurin negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, Valsartan/sacubitril supplement government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.

E chain, characteristically rich in alanine, proline and charged amino acids

E chain, characteristically rich in alanine, proline and charged amino acids that form flexible but extended linkers (143). The numbers of PDH lipoyl domains per E2 subunit varies from one to three. In the PDH complexes of Gram-negative bacteria, the number is usually three (e.g., E. coli and Azotobacter vinelandii) or two (e.g. Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Alcaligenes eutrophus, and Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) (9). All of the 2-OGDH E2o subunits described to date contain a single lipoyl domain, as is also the case for the E2b GS-5816 msds chains of all BCDH complexes (9, 141, 143, 166). A generally applicable explanation for the variation in the number of lipoyl domains has not yet been worked out. Protein engineering experiments have eliminated the straightforward explanations. In E. coli PDH, selective deletion of one or two lipoyl domains has no detectable effect on the overall catalytic activity, the system of active site coupling or the ability to complement pyruvate dehydrogenase complex mutants (167). As expected the catalytic activity is abolished when all three lipoyl domains are deleted or when the lipoyl domains are rendered unlipoylatable by conversion of the lipoylated lysine residue to glutamine (167, 168). There is no mandatory order of reductive acetylation of the repeated lipoyl domains within E2p polypeptide chains because complexes containing mixtures of wild-type and mutant lipoyl domains (+/-; -/+; +/+/-) are fully active, although the complex containing the -/-/+ version of the E2p polypeptide chain showed a 50 reduction in specific activity (168). Activity is also impaired (but not abolished) by increasing the lipoyl domain content to four to nine per E2p chain, possibly due to under-lipoylation of the domains participating in catalysis and interference from unlipoylated domains (169). High-field NMR studies were carried out with variants containing zero to nine lipoyl domains per E2p subunit. These studies suggest an explanation for the presence of three lipoyl domains per E2p subunit in the wild-type PDH complex that is based on the greater inherent mobility and thus potentially more efficient active-site coupling of this arrangement (170). The superiority of the three lipoyl domainPDH complex has since been confirmed by physiological studies from which it was concluded that decreased lipoyl domain contents adversely affect growth rate and growth yield (171). The physiological consequences of increasing the number of lipoyl domains from three to nine per E2p chain, and the effects of inserting up to seven unlipoylatedCrotaline site Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptEcoSal Plus. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 January 06.CronanPage(mutant) domains between a wild-type N-terminal lipoyl domain and the E3-binding domain were also investigated and indicate that three lipoyl domains per E2p chain are optimal and that only the outermost lipoyl domain needs to be lipoylated to obtain full catalytic activity (172). It was concluded that the reason for retention of three lipoyl domains is to extend the reach of the outermost lipoyl cofactor rather than to provide extra cofactors for catalysis (172). However, given this advantage why then do many lipoylated proteins contain only a single lipoyl domain? The conserved structure of lipoyl domains (Fig. 8A) is directly related to catalytic functions of the domain in substrate channeling and active-site coupling. First of all, although free.E chain, characteristically rich in alanine, proline and charged amino acids that form flexible but extended linkers (143). The numbers of PDH lipoyl domains per E2 subunit varies from one to three. In the PDH complexes of Gram-negative bacteria, the number is usually three (e.g., E. coli and Azotobacter vinelandii) or two (e.g. Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Alcaligenes eutrophus, and Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) (9). All of the 2-OGDH E2o subunits described to date contain a single lipoyl domain, as is also the case for the E2b chains of all BCDH complexes (9, 141, 143, 166). A generally applicable explanation for the variation in the number of lipoyl domains has not yet been worked out. Protein engineering experiments have eliminated the straightforward explanations. In E. coli PDH, selective deletion of one or two lipoyl domains has no detectable effect on the overall catalytic activity, the system of active site coupling or the ability to complement pyruvate dehydrogenase complex mutants (167). As expected the catalytic activity is abolished when all three lipoyl domains are deleted or when the lipoyl domains are rendered unlipoylatable by conversion of the lipoylated lysine residue to glutamine (167, 168). There is no mandatory order of reductive acetylation of the repeated lipoyl domains within E2p polypeptide chains because complexes containing mixtures of wild-type and mutant lipoyl domains (+/-; -/+; +/+/-) are fully active, although the complex containing the -/-/+ version of the E2p polypeptide chain showed a 50 reduction in specific activity (168). Activity is also impaired (but not abolished) by increasing the lipoyl domain content to four to nine per E2p chain, possibly due to under-lipoylation of the domains participating in catalysis and interference from unlipoylated domains (169). High-field NMR studies were carried out with variants containing zero to nine lipoyl domains per E2p subunit. These studies suggest an explanation for the presence of three lipoyl domains per E2p subunit in the wild-type PDH complex that is based on the greater inherent mobility and thus potentially more efficient active-site coupling of this arrangement (170). The superiority of the three lipoyl domainPDH complex has since been confirmed by physiological studies from which it was concluded that decreased lipoyl domain contents adversely affect growth rate and growth yield (171). The physiological consequences of increasing the number of lipoyl domains from three to nine per E2p chain, and the effects of inserting up to seven unlipoylatedAuthor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptEcoSal Plus. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 January 06.CronanPage(mutant) domains between a wild-type N-terminal lipoyl domain and the E3-binding domain were also investigated and indicate that three lipoyl domains per E2p chain are optimal and that only the outermost lipoyl domain needs to be lipoylated to obtain full catalytic activity (172). It was concluded that the reason for retention of three lipoyl domains is to extend the reach of the outermost lipoyl cofactor rather than to provide extra cofactors for catalysis (172). However, given this advantage why then do many lipoylated proteins contain only a single lipoyl domain? The conserved structure of lipoyl domains (Fig. 8A) is directly related to catalytic functions of the domain in substrate channeling and active-site coupling. First of all, although free.

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the Chloroquine (diphosphate) supplier adjusted DS5565 site Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.

Ent was developed using various sources [39-43]. Mobile augmented reality education

Ent was developed using various sources [39-43]. Mobile augmented reality education (MARE). Augmented reality (AR).b cThe Functional Level Design OverviewMARE provides a prompt, portable tool for medical Linaprazan site student learning within the clinical setting in order to transform knowledge into practice. The flexible personal paradigm, which is “more inclusive, discriminating, open, reflective, and emotionally able to change,” is more appropriate for guiding action [43]. The most important function of AR is mixing aspects of the real environment with virtual objects to create different learning environments. As backed by the learning theories previously discussed, these mixed environments willhttp://mededu.jmir.org/2015/2/e10/be useful for the medical student to form a flexible personal paradigm. We propose the following function structure shown in Figure 3 for developing MARE. The personal paradigm is the starting point of design learning and must transform to become flexible. A physician’s personal paradigm includes his or her personal style of diagnosis, treatment, prescription, and drugs (P-diagnosis, P-treatment, LIMKI 3 web P-prescription and P-drugs, which are four related processes) [13]. The physician’s personal paradigm could be analyzed through observation and deep interviews.XSL?FORenderXJMIR Medical Education 2015 | vol. 1 | iss. 2 | e10 | p.8 (page number not for citation purposes)JMIR MEDICAL EDUCATION Second, by comparing the learners’ personal paradigms with professional expectations, we can describe the learning objectives and check their problematic reference. The learning activities cycle, which focuses on improving one’s personal paradigm from feeling, watching, and thinking to doing, will help learners reflect on their practice and change the problematic frames of reference. After identifying the learning objectives, an AR environment of MARE framework should be designed. Four oriented learning environments, which can add different virtual objects to the real clinical environment, create multiple sensory channels for learning [45]. Affective-oriented environments affect health care learners’ feelings. Perception-oriented environments are beneficial for observation. Symbol-oriented environments are particularly useful for thinking, and behavior-oriented environments are beneficial for doing [42]. The real clinical environments are the immediate context in which a connection is needed between learning and practice. The real clinical environment is the anchor and scaffold upon which learners are encouraged to learn. The real clinical environment includes physical environments and social environments. The content in physical environments, such as patients and their disease, microbiological samples, documentation and clinical notes, medical equipment, drugs,Figure 3. MARE function structure.Zhu et al and consequences of bacterial resistance, can be the anchor to trigger a learning activity, which then aims to fulfill a learning outcome within the appropriate therapeutic stage. The social environment (ie, local culture and customs, organizational norms, and policy) shapes the content and forms of learning, which should be more instrumental or communicative. Virtual environments, which are simulated with computers, extend the real-world environment with an assurance of safety and enable or increase opportunities for engagement. Although it may be necessary or attractive for medical learners to learn in the clinical context, observing a real-wo.Ent was developed using various sources [39-43]. Mobile augmented reality education (MARE). Augmented reality (AR).b cThe Functional Level Design OverviewMARE provides a prompt, portable tool for medical student learning within the clinical setting in order to transform knowledge into practice. The flexible personal paradigm, which is “more inclusive, discriminating, open, reflective, and emotionally able to change,” is more appropriate for guiding action [43]. The most important function of AR is mixing aspects of the real environment with virtual objects to create different learning environments. As backed by the learning theories previously discussed, these mixed environments willhttp://mededu.jmir.org/2015/2/e10/be useful for the medical student to form a flexible personal paradigm. We propose the following function structure shown in Figure 3 for developing MARE. The personal paradigm is the starting point of design learning and must transform to become flexible. A physician’s personal paradigm includes his or her personal style of diagnosis, treatment, prescription, and drugs (P-diagnosis, P-treatment, P-prescription and P-drugs, which are four related processes) [13]. The physician’s personal paradigm could be analyzed through observation and deep interviews.XSL?FORenderXJMIR Medical Education 2015 | vol. 1 | iss. 2 | e10 | p.8 (page number not for citation purposes)JMIR MEDICAL EDUCATION Second, by comparing the learners’ personal paradigms with professional expectations, we can describe the learning objectives and check their problematic reference. The learning activities cycle, which focuses on improving one’s personal paradigm from feeling, watching, and thinking to doing, will help learners reflect on their practice and change the problematic frames of reference. After identifying the learning objectives, an AR environment of MARE framework should be designed. Four oriented learning environments, which can add different virtual objects to the real clinical environment, create multiple sensory channels for learning [45]. Affective-oriented environments affect health care learners’ feelings. Perception-oriented environments are beneficial for observation. Symbol-oriented environments are particularly useful for thinking, and behavior-oriented environments are beneficial for doing [42]. The real clinical environments are the immediate context in which a connection is needed between learning and practice. The real clinical environment is the anchor and scaffold upon which learners are encouraged to learn. The real clinical environment includes physical environments and social environments. The content in physical environments, such as patients and their disease, microbiological samples, documentation and clinical notes, medical equipment, drugs,Figure 3. MARE function structure.Zhu et al and consequences of bacterial resistance, can be the anchor to trigger a learning activity, which then aims to fulfill a learning outcome within the appropriate therapeutic stage. The social environment (ie, local culture and customs, organizational norms, and policy) shapes the content and forms of learning, which should be more instrumental or communicative. Virtual environments, which are simulated with computers, extend the real-world environment with an assurance of safety and enable or increase opportunities for engagement. Although it may be necessary or attractive for medical learners to learn in the clinical context, observing a real-wo.

Neglect score !2 at 7 and/or 11y33y45y50yMean difference (95 CI

Neglect score !2 at 7 and/or 11y33y45y50yMean difference (95 CI) in BMI (kg/m2) 0.08 (-0.13,0.30) 0.17 (-0.01,0.35) 0.18 (-0.51,0.88) -0.33 (-0.66,0.01) -0.12 (-0.40,0.16) 1.15 (-0.03,2.33) 0.00 (-0.40,0.40) 0.03 (-0.31,0.38) 0.69 (-0.60,1.99) 0.09 (-0.29,0.47) 0.09 (-0.24,0.42) 0.93 (-0.47,2.32) 0.40 (-0.14,0.93) 0.18 (-0.27,0.63) 0.13 (-1.64,1.89) 0.36 (0.09,0.63) 0.58 (0.05,1.12) 0.23 (-0.23,0.69) -0.13 (-2.01,1.74) 0.55 (0.20,0.90) 0.97 (0.32,1.62) 0.41 (-0.14,0.97) 0.10 (-2.19,2.39) 0.69 (0.29,1.08)-0.08 (-0.18,0.02) 0.90 (0.21,3.74) 1.29 (0.46,3.66)-0.11 (-0.26,0.03)0.01 (-0.17,0.19)0.54 (0.35,0.73)OR (95 CI) obesity 0.35 (0.05,2.54) 0.76 (0.23,2.45) 5.44 (0.70,42.21) 0.33 (0.05,2.41) 1.02 (0.37,2.86) 4.11 (0.54,31.61) 1.86 (1.16,2.98) 0.45 (0.11,1.86) 1.02 (0.44,2.38) 3.54 (0.46,27.25) 2.34 (1.61,3.40) order FT011 Females Mean difference (95 CI) in BMI (kg/m2) -0.16(-0.42,0.09) -0.15(-0.34,0.04) -0.14(-0.54,0.25) -0.29(-0.66,0.07) -0.17(-0.44,0.10) -0.36(-0.93,0.20) -0.02(-0.42,0.38) -0.07(-0.37,0.24) -0.27(-0.89,0.35) 0.11(-0.31,0.53) -0.01(-0.32,0.30) 0.27(-0.36,0.91) 0.16(-0.44,0.77) -0.20 (-0.65,0.25) -0.42 (-1.35,0.52) 0.78 (0.43,1.14) 0.99(0.31,1.66) 0.41(-0.09,0.92) 0.33(-0.67,1.32) 1.18(0.41,1.95) 0.61(0.06,1.16) 1.09(-0.06,2.24) 1.28 (0.84,1.94) 1.21 (0.84,1.74) 1.04 (0.24,4.52) 1.31 (1.00,1.71) 1.15 (0.91,1.45) 1.48 (0.59,3.67) 1.50 (1.13,1.99) 1.36 (1.06,1.74) 1.44 (0.53,3.89)0.64 (0.34,1.21)1.17 (0.70,1.95)1.17 (0.95,1.45)1.22 (1.02,1.45)1.35 (1.14,1.61)0.04 (-0.08,0.16)0.03 (-0.15,0.21)0.29 (0.07,0.51)0.65 (0.43,0.88) OR (95 CI) obesity1.15 (0.69,1.61)1.40 (0.91,1.89)0.67 (0.21,2.15) 1.35 (0.71,2.58) 0 0.99 (0.66,1.49)0.31 (0.04,2.24) 1.37 (0.64,2.92) 0 1.41 (0.87,2.28)0 0.75 (0.27,2.09) 0.88 (0.12,6.47) 2.08 (1.21,3.55)0.51 (0.16,1.62) 0.79 (0.40,1.58) 0.83 (0.20,3.42) 2.34 (1.68,3.27)1.07 (0.72,1.61) 0.93 (0.67,1.27) 0.92 (0.48,1.78) 1.48 (1.21,1.81)1.48 (1.14,1.91) 1.15 (0.94,1.42) 1.15 (0.77,1.72) 1.39 (1.16,1.66)1.73 (1.28,2.32) 1.44 (1.15,1.80) 1.75 (1.13,2.71) 1.54 (1.28,1.86)No females in these groups were obese.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119985.t!2 at 7y and/or 11y (Table 1). Mean BMI TSA price increased throughout adulthood from 23.1 to 28.1kg/m2 in males and 22.1 to 26.8kg/m2 in females, ages 23 to 50y. Prevalence of obesity was <2.5 in childhood, but was much greater, at 25 in mid-adulthood, 45 to 50y (Table 1). Simple analyses of BMI at each age 7 to 50y showed a higher mean BMI in adulthood or OR for obesity in both sexes for neglect at 7/11y, physical and psychological abuse and, in females only, sexual abuse (Table 2). Pre-adolescent BMI, i.e. at 7 and 11y, was not elevated in association with abuse or neglect. Fig. 1 illustrates this pattern for physical abuse: e.g. for females, from no excess risk in childhood to an OR of 1.73 (1.28,2.32) at 50y. Thus for some maltreatments, simple analyses suggest a pattern from little difference to higher BMI with increasing age from child to mid-adulthood as seen in sensitivity analysis using !95th BMI percentile for obesity (S1 Table).PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119985 March 26,6 /Child Maltreatment and BMI TrajectoriesFig 1. Difference in mean BMI (kg/m2) and OR for obesity (95 CIs) from 7 to 50y by physical abuse in males and females. Footnotes: participant report in adulthood (45y) that they had been physically abused by a parent during their childhood before 16y, i.e. punched, kicked or hit or beaten with an object, or needed medical treatment. doi:10.1371/journal.Neglect score !2 at 7 and/or 11y33y45y50yMean difference (95 CI) in BMI (kg/m2) 0.08 (-0.13,0.30) 0.17 (-0.01,0.35) 0.18 (-0.51,0.88) -0.33 (-0.66,0.01) -0.12 (-0.40,0.16) 1.15 (-0.03,2.33) 0.00 (-0.40,0.40) 0.03 (-0.31,0.38) 0.69 (-0.60,1.99) 0.09 (-0.29,0.47) 0.09 (-0.24,0.42) 0.93 (-0.47,2.32) 0.40 (-0.14,0.93) 0.18 (-0.27,0.63) 0.13 (-1.64,1.89) 0.36 (0.09,0.63) 0.58 (0.05,1.12) 0.23 (-0.23,0.69) -0.13 (-2.01,1.74) 0.55 (0.20,0.90) 0.97 (0.32,1.62) 0.41 (-0.14,0.97) 0.10 (-2.19,2.39) 0.69 (0.29,1.08)-0.08 (-0.18,0.02) 0.90 (0.21,3.74) 1.29 (0.46,3.66)-0.11 (-0.26,0.03)0.01 (-0.17,0.19)0.54 (0.35,0.73)OR (95 CI) obesity 0.35 (0.05,2.54) 0.76 (0.23,2.45) 5.44 (0.70,42.21) 0.33 (0.05,2.41) 1.02 (0.37,2.86) 4.11 (0.54,31.61) 1.86 (1.16,2.98) 0.45 (0.11,1.86) 1.02 (0.44,2.38) 3.54 (0.46,27.25) 2.34 (1.61,3.40) Females Mean difference (95 CI) in BMI (kg/m2) -0.16(-0.42,0.09) -0.15(-0.34,0.04) -0.14(-0.54,0.25) -0.29(-0.66,0.07) -0.17(-0.44,0.10) -0.36(-0.93,0.20) -0.02(-0.42,0.38) -0.07(-0.37,0.24) -0.27(-0.89,0.35) 0.11(-0.31,0.53) -0.01(-0.32,0.30) 0.27(-0.36,0.91) 0.16(-0.44,0.77) -0.20 (-0.65,0.25) -0.42 (-1.35,0.52) 0.78 (0.43,1.14) 0.99(0.31,1.66) 0.41(-0.09,0.92) 0.33(-0.67,1.32) 1.18(0.41,1.95) 0.61(0.06,1.16) 1.09(-0.06,2.24) 1.28 (0.84,1.94) 1.21 (0.84,1.74) 1.04 (0.24,4.52) 1.31 (1.00,1.71) 1.15 (0.91,1.45) 1.48 (0.59,3.67) 1.50 (1.13,1.99) 1.36 (1.06,1.74) 1.44 (0.53,3.89)0.64 (0.34,1.21)1.17 (0.70,1.95)1.17 (0.95,1.45)1.22 (1.02,1.45)1.35 (1.14,1.61)0.04 (-0.08,0.16)0.03 (-0.15,0.21)0.29 (0.07,0.51)0.65 (0.43,0.88) OR (95 CI) obesity1.15 (0.69,1.61)1.40 (0.91,1.89)0.67 (0.21,2.15) 1.35 (0.71,2.58) 0 0.99 (0.66,1.49)0.31 (0.04,2.24) 1.37 (0.64,2.92) 0 1.41 (0.87,2.28)0 0.75 (0.27,2.09) 0.88 (0.12,6.47) 2.08 (1.21,3.55)0.51 (0.16,1.62) 0.79 (0.40,1.58) 0.83 (0.20,3.42) 2.34 (1.68,3.27)1.07 (0.72,1.61) 0.93 (0.67,1.27) 0.92 (0.48,1.78) 1.48 (1.21,1.81)1.48 (1.14,1.91) 1.15 (0.94,1.42) 1.15 (0.77,1.72) 1.39 (1.16,1.66)1.73 (1.28,2.32) 1.44 (1.15,1.80) 1.75 (1.13,2.71) 1.54 (1.28,1.86)No females in these groups were obese.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119985.t!2 at 7y and/or 11y (Table 1). Mean BMI increased throughout adulthood from 23.1 to 28.1kg/m2 in males and 22.1 to 26.8kg/m2 in females, ages 23 to 50y. Prevalence of obesity was <2.5 in childhood, but was much greater, at 25 in mid-adulthood, 45 to 50y (Table 1). Simple analyses of BMI at each age 7 to 50y showed a higher mean BMI in adulthood or OR for obesity in both sexes for neglect at 7/11y, physical and psychological abuse and, in females only, sexual abuse (Table 2). Pre-adolescent BMI, i.e. at 7 and 11y, was not elevated in association with abuse or neglect. Fig. 1 illustrates this pattern for physical abuse: e.g. for females, from no excess risk in childhood to an OR of 1.73 (1.28,2.32) at 50y. Thus for some maltreatments, simple analyses suggest a pattern from little difference to higher BMI with increasing age from child to mid-adulthood as seen in sensitivity analysis using !95th BMI percentile for obesity (S1 Table).PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119985 March 26,6 /Child Maltreatment and BMI TrajectoriesFig 1. Difference in mean BMI (kg/m2) and OR for obesity (95 CIs) from 7 to 50y by physical abuse in males and females. Footnotes: participant report in adulthood (45y) that they had been physically abused by a parent during their childhood before 16y, i.e. punched, kicked or hit or beaten with an object, or needed medical treatment. doi:10.1371/journal.

Res derived from global flow networks are a proxy of socioeconomic

Res derived from global flow networks are a proxy of socioeconomic activities and therefore highly correlated with the explored indicators. It is an open question as to whether a highly central position in the network leads to favourable socio-economic outcomes or vica-versa. The structural connectedness of a country in the global network represents the number of opportunities a country has to exchange goods, information and resources with our countries–the more opportunities, the higher the exchange and therefore socioeconomic benefit. An analogous relation between the social network of an individual and that individual’s poverty score supports this hypothesis [14]. A broad longitudinal study would be necessary to assert whether a country’s growth in connections precedes its economic growth or vice versa which is beyond the scope of this work. Next, we will look at the community structure of countries across networks and evaluate their community Bay 41-4109 solubility multiplexity to show that countries with similar socioeconomic profiles tend to cluster together, much like in social networks.Global Community AnalysisIn the previous section we related network measures to various socioeconomic indicators, showing that metrics such as the network degree can be used to estimate wellbeing at a national level. In this section, we further examine the connectedness between pairs of countries through community structure across network layers as a form of socioeconomic similarity. We use the Louvain modularity optimisation method [40] for community detection in each individual network,PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,14 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingFig 8. Country community membership for each network. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976.gwhich takes into account the tie strength of relationships between countries and finds the optimal split in terms of disconnectedness in the international network. This returns between 4? communities for each network, the geographical distribution of which is shown in Fig 8. Although communities naturally seem to be very driven by geography in physical flow networks, this is not the case in digital networks where communities are geographically dispersed. This is an indication of the difference in the way countries connect through post, trade, migration and flights rather than on the IP and social media networks. However, what does it mean for two countries to be both members of the same network community? Common community membership indicates a level of connectedness between two countries, which is beyond the randomly expected for the network. It is often observed that nodes in the same communities share many similar properties, therefore it can be expected that pairs of nodes which share multiple communities across networks are even more similar. In this work, we measure the overlap in pairwise membership between pairs of countries across our six networks as the community multiplexity index, a measure of socioeconomic similarity. Our hypothesis is that countries that are paired together in communities across more networks are more likely to be socioeconomically similar. We measure similarity here as the absolute difference between each indicator from the previous section for two countries and plot that against their community multiplexity. For example, the United States has an Roc-A cost average life expectancy of 70 years, whereas Afghanistan has an average life expe.Res derived from global flow networks are a proxy of socioeconomic activities and therefore highly correlated with the explored indicators. It is an open question as to whether a highly central position in the network leads to favourable socio-economic outcomes or vica-versa. The structural connectedness of a country in the global network represents the number of opportunities a country has to exchange goods, information and resources with our countries–the more opportunities, the higher the exchange and therefore socioeconomic benefit. An analogous relation between the social network of an individual and that individual’s poverty score supports this hypothesis [14]. A broad longitudinal study would be necessary to assert whether a country’s growth in connections precedes its economic growth or vice versa which is beyond the scope of this work. Next, we will look at the community structure of countries across networks and evaluate their community multiplexity to show that countries with similar socioeconomic profiles tend to cluster together, much like in social networks.Global Community AnalysisIn the previous section we related network measures to various socioeconomic indicators, showing that metrics such as the network degree can be used to estimate wellbeing at a national level. In this section, we further examine the connectedness between pairs of countries through community structure across network layers as a form of socioeconomic similarity. We use the Louvain modularity optimisation method [40] for community detection in each individual network,PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,14 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingFig 8. Country community membership for each network. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976.gwhich takes into account the tie strength of relationships between countries and finds the optimal split in terms of disconnectedness in the international network. This returns between 4? communities for each network, the geographical distribution of which is shown in Fig 8. Although communities naturally seem to be very driven by geography in physical flow networks, this is not the case in digital networks where communities are geographically dispersed. This is an indication of the difference in the way countries connect through post, trade, migration and flights rather than on the IP and social media networks. However, what does it mean for two countries to be both members of the same network community? Common community membership indicates a level of connectedness between two countries, which is beyond the randomly expected for the network. It is often observed that nodes in the same communities share many similar properties, therefore it can be expected that pairs of nodes which share multiple communities across networks are even more similar. In this work, we measure the overlap in pairwise membership between pairs of countries across our six networks as the community multiplexity index, a measure of socioeconomic similarity. Our hypothesis is that countries that are paired together in communities across more networks are more likely to be socioeconomically similar. We measure similarity here as the absolute difference between each indicator from the previous section for two countries and plot that against their community multiplexity. For example, the United States has an average life expectancy of 70 years, whereas Afghanistan has an average life expe.

‘ coordinate is the percentage of roles (s)he accepted for each

‘ coordinate is the percentage of roles (s)he accepted for each category. Scatterplots are for (a) ordinary favorable roles, (b) AC220MedChemExpress AC220 Extraordinary favorable roles, (c) ordinary unfavorable roles, and (d) extraordinary unfavorable roles. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.** ** * ** * ** **Reaction Times (ms)Percentage of accepted roles70 60 50 40 30 20 101180 1160 1140 1120 1100 1080 1060 1040 1020 1000 980 960 940 920**Ordinary FavorableOrdinary Extraordinary Unfavorable Favorable Category combinations High SPQ scorersExtraordinary UnfavorableOrdinary FavorableExtraordinary Ordinary Favorable Unfavorable Category combinations High extraordinary role acceptersExtraordinary UnfavorableLow SPQ scorersLow extraordinary role acceptersAcceptanceRejectionFigure 2. Percentages of social roles accepted in each category for high- and low-SPQ scorers and standard errors (vertical bars) for the 203 participants. *P o0.05, **P o0.0001. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.Figure 3. Mean reaction times and standard errors (vertical bars) for accepted (plain rectangles) and rejected (crosshatched rectangles) social roles for high and low extraordinary roles accepters. *Po 0.05.(i.e., bizarre behavior, thought disorders, unusual thoughts, poor insight, and difficulty in abstract thinking).16 In accordance with that view, the multiple regression suggested that the tendency to accept ordinary favorable roles had some protective effect againstnpj Schizophrenia (2016)schizotypal traits. Across all the categories, individuals with higher SPQ scores accepted more social roles than those with lower scores. All these results are reminiscent of the numerous anecdotes, so often published in the media, about thePublished in partnership with the Schizophrenia International Research SocietyExtraordinary roles and schizotypy AL Fernandez-Cruz et al5 disorganization of famous artists and the extraordinary roles they perform in society, now and in the past.17 On the other hand, works, such as the study of Twomey et al.,18 link psychoticism to openness to experience, sensation-seeking and creativity. Similarly, it was observed that, among writers and actors, scores for psychoticism were higher than among less `creative’ individuals19 and Andreasen noted in 1996 (ref. 20) that highly creative people had higher scores on measures of psychopathology than less creative people. In our case, this is akin to individuals who accept a lesser percentage of extraordinary social roles having lower SPQ scores. Further supporting the drive hypothesis, high AUY922 biological activity accepters of extraordinary roles appeared `more enthusiast’ at accepting roles and more reluctant at rejecting them as they took less times for acceptances and more times for rejections than low accepters. This could be related to a higher baseline level of activation of the brain representations of these roles in the participants with higher SPQ scores. These results were obtained in a sample of the general population. Given the low frequency of schizotypy and of schizophrenia in that population, it is highly unlikely that those who accepted more extraordinary roles did it as a consequence of some pre-existing schizophrenia factors. One could eliminate an effect of the cognitive deficits found in the continuum going from normality to schizophrenia via schizotypy.9?3,21 In the task, these deficits would have induced longer reaction times for those who accepted more extraordinary roles or for the subgroup with higher SPQ.’ coordinate is the percentage of roles (s)he accepted for each category. Scatterplots are for (a) ordinary favorable roles, (b) extraordinary favorable roles, (c) ordinary unfavorable roles, and (d) extraordinary unfavorable roles. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.** ** * ** * ** **Reaction Times (ms)Percentage of accepted roles70 60 50 40 30 20 101180 1160 1140 1120 1100 1080 1060 1040 1020 1000 980 960 940 920**Ordinary FavorableOrdinary Extraordinary Unfavorable Favorable Category combinations High SPQ scorersExtraordinary UnfavorableOrdinary FavorableExtraordinary Ordinary Favorable Unfavorable Category combinations High extraordinary role acceptersExtraordinary UnfavorableLow SPQ scorersLow extraordinary role acceptersAcceptanceRejectionFigure 2. Percentages of social roles accepted in each category for high- and low-SPQ scorers and standard errors (vertical bars) for the 203 participants. *P o0.05, **P o0.0001. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.Figure 3. Mean reaction times and standard errors (vertical bars) for accepted (plain rectangles) and rejected (crosshatched rectangles) social roles for high and low extraordinary roles accepters. *Po 0.05.(i.e., bizarre behavior, thought disorders, unusual thoughts, poor insight, and difficulty in abstract thinking).16 In accordance with that view, the multiple regression suggested that the tendency to accept ordinary favorable roles had some protective effect againstnpj Schizophrenia (2016)schizotypal traits. Across all the categories, individuals with higher SPQ scores accepted more social roles than those with lower scores. All these results are reminiscent of the numerous anecdotes, so often published in the media, about thePublished in partnership with the Schizophrenia International Research SocietyExtraordinary roles and schizotypy AL Fernandez-Cruz et al5 disorganization of famous artists and the extraordinary roles they perform in society, now and in the past.17 On the other hand, works, such as the study of Twomey et al.,18 link psychoticism to openness to experience, sensation-seeking and creativity. Similarly, it was observed that, among writers and actors, scores for psychoticism were higher than among less `creative’ individuals19 and Andreasen noted in 1996 (ref. 20) that highly creative people had higher scores on measures of psychopathology than less creative people. In our case, this is akin to individuals who accept a lesser percentage of extraordinary social roles having lower SPQ scores. Further supporting the drive hypothesis, high accepters of extraordinary roles appeared `more enthusiast’ at accepting roles and more reluctant at rejecting them as they took less times for acceptances and more times for rejections than low accepters. This could be related to a higher baseline level of activation of the brain representations of these roles in the participants with higher SPQ scores. These results were obtained in a sample of the general population. Given the low frequency of schizotypy and of schizophrenia in that population, it is highly unlikely that those who accepted more extraordinary roles did it as a consequence of some pre-existing schizophrenia factors. One could eliminate an effect of the cognitive deficits found in the continuum going from normality to schizophrenia via schizotypy.9?3,21 In the task, these deficits would have induced longer reaction times for those who accepted more extraordinary roles or for the subgroup with higher SPQ.

A six-min incubation with Gentle Cell Dissociation Reagent followed by complete

A six-min incubation with Gentle Cell Dissociation Reagent followed by complete physical dispersions by MS023 msds repeated pipetting. Large cells (>70 m) were then collected by passing the suspension successively through a series of nylon cell strainers (70 m and 40 m, Fisher Scientific) to generate three cell size AZD3759MedChemExpress AZD3759 fractions (>70 m, 40?0 m, and <40 m). The captured cells on the strainer were recovered by inverting the strainer and rinsing with culture medium. Similarly, middle size cells (40?0 m) were obtained from the <70-m fraction by collection on a 40-m cell strainer after removal of <70-m cells. The three size fractions were used in all subsequent analyses. Portions of the size-fractioned cells were fixed in 4 (vol/vol) paraformaldehyde/PBS solution for 15 min and resuspended (5.0 ?102 and 1.0 ?105 cells/100 L PBS). The suspensions were loaded into a Shandon single cytofunnel and centrifuged for 5 min at 1,000 ?g in a Shandon CytoSpin 4 cytocentrifuge (Thermo Scientific). Derivation Primary Human PHTu and PHTd. Placental tissue samples were collected by the Obstetrical Specimen Procurement Unit at Magee-Womens Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The work was performed under an exempt protocol approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Pittsburgh. Under the protocol, patients provided written consent for the use of deidentified discarded tissues for research upon admittance to the hospital. Primary villous PHTs were derived and cultured according to published procedures (12, 49, 50) from three term human placentas (one female and two males). Multiple primary cultures were established from each placenta at a density of 3.5 ?105 cells/cm2 in DMEM supplemented with 10 (vol/vol) FBS and antibiotics under a 5 (vol/vol) CO2/air atmosphere at 37 . Triplicate cultures from each placenta were harvested at 9 h (PHTu) before syncytium formation and subsequently at 48 h (PHTd) when syncytium formation had occurred. The sieving technique used for the hESC-derived cells was thus unnecessary for the term placental STB. Total RNA was extracted from each sample (3 ?3 at 9 h and 48 h, respectively) to provide a total of 18 samples for RNA-seq analysis. Additional methods are described in SI Appendix, SI Materials and Methods. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank L. C. Schulz for her critical reading of the manuscript and her helpful comments; N. J. Bivens for RNA-seq; W. Spollen, C. Bottoms, and S. Givan for their sequence data analysis; Y. Tian for immunoassays; A. Jurkevich for technical assistance; M. Schauflinger, D. Grant, and T. A. White for sharing equipment; and D. F. Reith for his editorial assistance and administrative support. This study was supported by NIH Grant R01HD077108 (to T.E. and D.J.S.) and Grant R01HD067759 (to R.M.R.).7. Loke YW, King A (1995) Human Implantation: Cell Biology and Immunology (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge). 8. Miller RK, et al. (2005) Human placental explants in culture: Approaches and assessments. Placenta 26(6):439?48. 9. Sim CM, Sibley CP, Jones CJ, Turner MA, Greenwood SL (2001) The functional regeneration of syncytiotrophoblast in cultured explants of term placenta. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 280(4):R1116 1122. 10. Wice B, Menton D, Geuze H, Schwartz AL (1990) Modulators of cyclic AMP metabolism induce syncytiotrophoblast formation in vitro. Exp Cell Res 186(2):306?16. 11. Orendi K, Gauster M, Moser G, Meiri H, Huppertz B (2010) The choriocarcinoma cell line BeW.A six-min incubation with Gentle Cell Dissociation Reagent followed by complete physical dispersions by repeated pipetting. Large cells (>70 m) were then collected by passing the suspension successively through a series of nylon cell strainers (70 m and 40 m, Fisher Scientific) to generate three cell size fractions (>70 m, 40?0 m, and <40 m). The captured cells on the strainer were recovered by inverting the strainer and rinsing with culture medium. Similarly, middle size cells (40?0 m) were obtained from the <70-m fraction by collection on a 40-m cell strainer after removal of <70-m cells. The three size fractions were used in all subsequent analyses. Portions of the size-fractioned cells were fixed in 4 (vol/vol) paraformaldehyde/PBS solution for 15 min and resuspended (5.0 ?102 and 1.0 ?105 cells/100 L PBS). The suspensions were loaded into a Shandon single cytofunnel and centrifuged for 5 min at 1,000 ?g in a Shandon CytoSpin 4 cytocentrifuge (Thermo Scientific). Derivation Primary Human PHTu and PHTd. Placental tissue samples were collected by the Obstetrical Specimen Procurement Unit at Magee-Womens Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The work was performed under an exempt protocol approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Pittsburgh. Under the protocol, patients provided written consent for the use of deidentified discarded tissues for research upon admittance to the hospital. Primary villous PHTs were derived and cultured according to published procedures (12, 49, 50) from three term human placentas (one female and two males). Multiple primary cultures were established from each placenta at a density of 3.5 ?105 cells/cm2 in DMEM supplemented with 10 (vol/vol) FBS and antibiotics under a 5 (vol/vol) CO2/air atmosphere at 37 . Triplicate cultures from each placenta were harvested at 9 h (PHTu) before syncytium formation and subsequently at 48 h (PHTd) when syncytium formation had occurred. The sieving technique used for the hESC-derived cells was thus unnecessary for the term placental STB. Total RNA was extracted from each sample (3 ?3 at 9 h and 48 h, respectively) to provide a total of 18 samples for RNA-seq analysis. Additional methods are described in SI Appendix, SI Materials and Methods. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank L. C. Schulz for her critical reading of the manuscript and her helpful comments; N. J. Bivens for RNA-seq; W. Spollen, C. Bottoms, and S. Givan for their sequence data analysis; Y. Tian for immunoassays; A. Jurkevich for technical assistance; M. Schauflinger, D. Grant, and T. A. White for sharing equipment; and D. F. Reith for his editorial assistance and administrative support. This study was supported by NIH Grant R01HD077108 (to T.E. and D.J.S.) and Grant R01HD067759 (to R.M.R.).7. Loke YW, King A (1995) Human Implantation: Cell Biology and Immunology (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge). 8. Miller RK, et al. (2005) Human placental explants in culture: Approaches and assessments. Placenta 26(6):439?48. 9. Sim CM, Sibley CP, Jones CJ, Turner MA, Greenwood SL (2001) The functional regeneration of syncytiotrophoblast in cultured explants of term placenta. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 280(4):R1116 1122. 10. Wice B, Menton D, Geuze H, Schwartz AL (1990) Modulators of cyclic AMP metabolism induce syncytiotrophoblast formation in vitro. Exp Cell Res 186(2):306?16. 11. Orendi K, Gauster M, Moser G, Meiri H, Huppertz B (2010) The choriocarcinoma cell line BeW.

Th26 and skeletal development27, respectively. Selective sweep on Oar6 . The Oar

Th26 and buy AZD3759 skeletal development27, respectively. Selective sweep on Oar6 . The Oar6 selective sweep contains several genes that may have been affected by selection i.e. the non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G (NCAPG, 37.2 Mb), the ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like (LCORL, 37.3 Mb), the leucine aminopeptidase 3 (LAP3, 37.1 Mb) and the ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 2 (ABCG2, 36.5 Mb) loci. Indeed, the NCAPG/LCORL gene pair has been reported as a selection target in many genome scans. LCORL is a co-repressor of ligand-regulatable transcriptional factors, such as the estrogen and thyroid hormone receptors, and plays a fundamental role in hepatic lipogenesis28. More importantly, variation at LCORL has been associated with height in humans29 and horses30, and with vertebrae number in pigs31. Similarly, NCAPG plays a key role in mitotic cell division and affects post-natal growth32. Other genes of interest are ABCG2, a molecule transporter that has been associated with milk yield and composition33, and LAP3. This latter gene displays a selection signature in Holstein cattle and its variability is associated with diverse milk traits24. Interestingly, the bovine chromosome 6 region containing LCORL, NCAPG, LAP3 and ABCG2 overlaps with several quantitative trait loci for growth, carcass quality, feed efficiency, reproduction and milk traits34?7.Scientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/At this point, is difficult to know if selection on Oar6 is targeting one or several loci. In principle, we would favour this second scenario because data generated by us and Necrosulfonamide biological activity others evidence that the size of the Oar6 region under selection is considerably large suggesting that it may have been produced by the superposition of several overlapping peaks (Fig. 4). The multiple associations with production traits observed in cattle would also favour this hypothesis, although we cannot rule out the possibility of selection acting on a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Selective sweep on Oar13. Within the Oar13 selective sweep (68?4 Mb), there are two genes related with lipid metabolism i.e. the fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FITM2, 72.3 Mb) and the acyl-CoA thioesterase 8 (ACOT8, 74.1 Mb) loci. The FITM2 protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and induces the packaging of triglycerides as lipid droplets38. This mechanism could be of importance in the mammary gland, since lipids are secreted as droplets that bud from the epithelial cells. The ACOT8 molecule hydrolyzes medium- to long-chain acyl-CoAs and its overexpression has been shown to abolish peroxisomal fatty acid -oxidation and enhance lipid accumulation in droplets39. Thus, these two loci may have effects on milk lipid content. Though Spanish sheep have not been specifically selected for milk fat content, the negative and moderate correlation of this trait with milk yield offers a possible explanation for our findings.improvement of Spanish sheep for milk traits. Latxa and Churra sheep produce around 180 kg (in 140 days) and 117 kg (in 120 days) of milk (Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment web, http://www.magrama. gob.es), respectively. Certainly, these numbers are significantly lower than milk yield registers of cosmopolitan highly specialized breeds (e.g. Lacaune sheep produce 350 kg milk in 150 days). However, in the last two decades the milk production of Spanish dairy sheep breeds has b.Th26 and skeletal development27, respectively. Selective sweep on Oar6 . The Oar6 selective sweep contains several genes that may have been affected by selection i.e. the non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G (NCAPG, 37.2 Mb), the ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like (LCORL, 37.3 Mb), the leucine aminopeptidase 3 (LAP3, 37.1 Mb) and the ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 2 (ABCG2, 36.5 Mb) loci. Indeed, the NCAPG/LCORL gene pair has been reported as a selection target in many genome scans. LCORL is a co-repressor of ligand-regulatable transcriptional factors, such as the estrogen and thyroid hormone receptors, and plays a fundamental role in hepatic lipogenesis28. More importantly, variation at LCORL has been associated with height in humans29 and horses30, and with vertebrae number in pigs31. Similarly, NCAPG plays a key role in mitotic cell division and affects post-natal growth32. Other genes of interest are ABCG2, a molecule transporter that has been associated with milk yield and composition33, and LAP3. This latter gene displays a selection signature in Holstein cattle and its variability is associated with diverse milk traits24. Interestingly, the bovine chromosome 6 region containing LCORL, NCAPG, LAP3 and ABCG2 overlaps with several quantitative trait loci for growth, carcass quality, feed efficiency, reproduction and milk traits34?7.Scientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/At this point, is difficult to know if selection on Oar6 is targeting one or several loci. In principle, we would favour this second scenario because data generated by us and others evidence that the size of the Oar6 region under selection is considerably large suggesting that it may have been produced by the superposition of several overlapping peaks (Fig. 4). The multiple associations with production traits observed in cattle would also favour this hypothesis, although we cannot rule out the possibility of selection acting on a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Selective sweep on Oar13. Within the Oar13 selective sweep (68?4 Mb), there are two genes related with lipid metabolism i.e. the fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FITM2, 72.3 Mb) and the acyl-CoA thioesterase 8 (ACOT8, 74.1 Mb) loci. The FITM2 protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and induces the packaging of triglycerides as lipid droplets38. This mechanism could be of importance in the mammary gland, since lipids are secreted as droplets that bud from the epithelial cells. The ACOT8 molecule hydrolyzes medium- to long-chain acyl-CoAs and its overexpression has been shown to abolish peroxisomal fatty acid -oxidation and enhance lipid accumulation in droplets39. Thus, these two loci may have effects on milk lipid content. Though Spanish sheep have not been specifically selected for milk fat content, the negative and moderate correlation of this trait with milk yield offers a possible explanation for our findings.improvement of Spanish sheep for milk traits. Latxa and Churra sheep produce around 180 kg (in 140 days) and 117 kg (in 120 days) of milk (Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment web, http://www.magrama. gob.es), respectively. Certainly, these numbers are significantly lower than milk yield registers of cosmopolitan highly specialized breeds (e.g. Lacaune sheep produce 350 kg milk in 150 days). However, in the last two decades the milk production of Spanish dairy sheep breeds has b.

Sub-human monstrosities that bear an uncanny likeness to Tonks’ portraits and

Sub-human monstrosities that bear an uncanny likeness to Tonks’ portraits and the case photographs of the same men housed in the Gillies Archives at Queen Mary’s Hospital in Sidcup. Tonks regarded his surgical studies as “rather dreadful subjects for the public view” (n.p.) and complained of “all the more tedious visitors” to the hospital for whom the drawings were one of the “sights” (Hone, 128). In recent years, though, the portraits have found a wider audience. They have been exhibited at the Venice Biennale, Tate Britain, the Science Museum in London, the Hunterian Museum at the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the Wellcome Collection, University College London, and the National Army Museum in Chelsea. In June 2007 the full series was made digitally available on the website of the Gillies Archives,4 and Pat Barker has spoken of them as a source of inspiration for her new novel Toby’s Room.5 The photographs of Gillies’ patients have entered the public domain alongside the drawings. A selection of complete case files from the Gillies Archives can be viewed online as part of the Wellcome-funded Sci-Art collaboration, Project Fa de, and case photographs have featured in several recent exhibitions including Faces of Battle at the National Army Museum and War and Medicine at the Wellcome.6 Even more than the drawings, the photographs question the limits and propriety of spectatorship. At least with the pastels, one is aware — almost physically — of Tonks’ attentiveness, the qualityM E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R EFIGURE 1 Photograph of Henry Tonks in his room at The Queen’s Hospital, Sidcup, 1917.P H OTO G R AP H I E SFIGURE 2 Horace Nicholls, Repairing War’s Ravages: Renovating facial injuries. Captain Derwent Wood painting the plate. Imperial War Museum, Q.30.457. ?IWM.M E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R Eof the artist’s touch and the duration of his gaze. His authority, as an HMPL-012 chemical information artist and surgeon, licenses our own interest. The photographs appear unmediated by any aesthetic concerns: physically and psychologically naked. When I teach this material (usually to history of art students), I tend not to use the most harrowing GSK2256098 molecular weight images of facial injury and reconstructive surgery. Apart from my own discomfort, I worry how my students will respond: with pity? With disgust? Fascination? Should I name the patient, or protect his anonymity? Would he, or his relatives, want the photograph to be shown in a non-medical context? Is there a happy ending — a redemptive “after surgery” to counterbalance the “before”? These questions might give me pause for thought, but they generally remain unspoken. Here, though, I have chosen one image precisely because it confronts the interested, curious or appalled viewer with the problematic nature of spectatorship and empathy. In an interview with Marq Smith, W.J.T. Mitchell speculated that “the most interesting new questions for visual studies . . . will be located at the frontiers of visuality, the places where seeing approaches a limit” (36). I would suggest that medical images are one such frontier: an ethical borderland in which legal definitions of privacy, personhood and human rights compete with the contemporary politics of witnessing, memory and memorialisation; a space of fantasy where fascination and aversion are found in equal measure. The photograph in question (Figure 3) is a pre-operative record of one of Gillies’ patients, who was also draw.Sub-human monstrosities that bear an uncanny likeness to Tonks’ portraits and the case photographs of the same men housed in the Gillies Archives at Queen Mary’s Hospital in Sidcup. Tonks regarded his surgical studies as “rather dreadful subjects for the public view” (n.p.) and complained of “all the more tedious visitors” to the hospital for whom the drawings were one of the “sights” (Hone, 128). In recent years, though, the portraits have found a wider audience. They have been exhibited at the Venice Biennale, Tate Britain, the Science Museum in London, the Hunterian Museum at the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the Wellcome Collection, University College London, and the National Army Museum in Chelsea. In June 2007 the full series was made digitally available on the website of the Gillies Archives,4 and Pat Barker has spoken of them as a source of inspiration for her new novel Toby’s Room.5 The photographs of Gillies’ patients have entered the public domain alongside the drawings. A selection of complete case files from the Gillies Archives can be viewed online as part of the Wellcome-funded Sci-Art collaboration, Project Fa de, and case photographs have featured in several recent exhibitions including Faces of Battle at the National Army Museum and War and Medicine at the Wellcome.6 Even more than the drawings, the photographs question the limits and propriety of spectatorship. At least with the pastels, one is aware — almost physically — of Tonks’ attentiveness, the qualityM E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R EFIGURE 1 Photograph of Henry Tonks in his room at The Queen’s Hospital, Sidcup, 1917.P H OTO G R AP H I E SFIGURE 2 Horace Nicholls, Repairing War’s Ravages: Renovating facial injuries. Captain Derwent Wood painting the plate. Imperial War Museum, Q.30.457. ?IWM.M E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R Eof the artist’s touch and the duration of his gaze. His authority, as an artist and surgeon, licenses our own interest. The photographs appear unmediated by any aesthetic concerns: physically and psychologically naked. When I teach this material (usually to history of art students), I tend not to use the most harrowing images of facial injury and reconstructive surgery. Apart from my own discomfort, I worry how my students will respond: with pity? With disgust? Fascination? Should I name the patient, or protect his anonymity? Would he, or his relatives, want the photograph to be shown in a non-medical context? Is there a happy ending — a redemptive “after surgery” to counterbalance the “before”? These questions might give me pause for thought, but they generally remain unspoken. Here, though, I have chosen one image precisely because it confronts the interested, curious or appalled viewer with the problematic nature of spectatorship and empathy. In an interview with Marq Smith, W.J.T. Mitchell speculated that “the most interesting new questions for visual studies . . . will be located at the frontiers of visuality, the places where seeing approaches a limit” (36). I would suggest that medical images are one such frontier: an ethical borderland in which legal definitions of privacy, personhood and human rights compete with the contemporary politics of witnessing, memory and memorialisation; a space of fantasy where fascination and aversion are found in equal measure. The photograph in question (Figure 3) is a pre-operative record of one of Gillies’ patients, who was also draw.

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that order AZD4547 concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the purchase GSK343 treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core BMS-214662 web support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing Ornipressin clinical trials epidemics of HI.His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also 1-Deoxynojirimycin web reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the Olumacostat glasaretil solubility original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.

Hips between immigration status and indicators of organizational, non-organization and subjective

Hips between immigration status and indicators of organizational, non-organization and subjective religiosity is consistent withNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptRev Relig Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 1.Taylor et al.Pageresearch which indicates that religious involvement would be of greater importance for first generation immigrants vs. second or third generation, T0901317 site native-born Caribbean Blacks (Foley Hoge, 2007; Herberg, 1960; Kurien, 2006). However, the nature of these relationships is neither simple nor straightforward. In some cases, there were no differences between immigration status and religious participation, while in others significant effects were different depending on years since immigration. When significant differences did emerge (with the exception of church membership) they were in the anticipated direction indicating that first generation immigrants as compared to native-born Caribbean Blacks had higher levels of religiosity. The overall pattern of relationships between immigration status and religiosity is consistent with observations by Herberg (1960) and others (Connor, 2008) about the salience of religion for first generation immigrants and suggests that a number of issues (e.g., the role of broader social influences and community institutions such as the church) are deserving of further study. Country of origin was significant in 6 instances. Persons from Trinidad-Tobago (compared to Jamaicans) attended religious services less frequently, but were more likely to be church members. Respondents from Spanish speaking countries more strongly endorsed the view that it is important to take children to religious services. Haitians engaged in other activities at their place of worship more frequently, prayed more frequently, were more likely to be church members, and attached greater importance to taking children to religious services than respondents from Jamaica. We argued that persons from non-English-speaking countries, who are triple minorities by virtue of being Black, foreign and non-English speakers (XR9576 web Boswell, 1982), would rely upon and invest in religious behaviors, attitudes and formal religious settings to a greater degree than those from Anglophone countries. For nonEnglish speaking immigrants, religious commitments and activities are important for reinforcing a sense of cultural and language identity and providing access to a variety of social networks and concrete resources located within worship communities. The social and civic functions of Caribbean churches (Foley Hoge, 2007; McAlister, 1998; Stepick et al., 2009) are especially salient for those Haitian immigrants whose primary or only language is not English (Haitian Creole), and who, as a consequence, have limited access to health and social welfare services and information that are provided in English (Stepick, 1998). Haiti’s ongoing experiences of political upheaval, military subjugation, and economic underdevelopment has resulted in successive waves of large number of immigrants seeking better life conditions and opportunities in the U.S. (Stepick, 1998). The most recent immigrants (beginning in the early 1970s), including the so-called Haitian boat people, were a particularly disadvantaged group (e.g., poorer, undocumented status, unskilled urban workers and rural peasantry) as compared to earlier cohorts. Upon entry to the U.S., these latest Haitian immigrants experienced extraord.Hips between immigration status and indicators of organizational, non-organization and subjective religiosity is consistent withNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptRev Relig Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 1.Taylor et al.Pageresearch which indicates that religious involvement would be of greater importance for first generation immigrants vs. second or third generation, native-born Caribbean Blacks (Foley Hoge, 2007; Herberg, 1960; Kurien, 2006). However, the nature of these relationships is neither simple nor straightforward. In some cases, there were no differences between immigration status and religious participation, while in others significant effects were different depending on years since immigration. When significant differences did emerge (with the exception of church membership) they were in the anticipated direction indicating that first generation immigrants as compared to native-born Caribbean Blacks had higher levels of religiosity. The overall pattern of relationships between immigration status and religiosity is consistent with observations by Herberg (1960) and others (Connor, 2008) about the salience of religion for first generation immigrants and suggests that a number of issues (e.g., the role of broader social influences and community institutions such as the church) are deserving of further study. Country of origin was significant in 6 instances. Persons from Trinidad-Tobago (compared to Jamaicans) attended religious services less frequently, but were more likely to be church members. Respondents from Spanish speaking countries more strongly endorsed the view that it is important to take children to religious services. Haitians engaged in other activities at their place of worship more frequently, prayed more frequently, were more likely to be church members, and attached greater importance to taking children to religious services than respondents from Jamaica. We argued that persons from non-English-speaking countries, who are triple minorities by virtue of being Black, foreign and non-English speakers (Boswell, 1982), would rely upon and invest in religious behaviors, attitudes and formal religious settings to a greater degree than those from Anglophone countries. For nonEnglish speaking immigrants, religious commitments and activities are important for reinforcing a sense of cultural and language identity and providing access to a variety of social networks and concrete resources located within worship communities. The social and civic functions of Caribbean churches (Foley Hoge, 2007; McAlister, 1998; Stepick et al., 2009) are especially salient for those Haitian immigrants whose primary or only language is not English (Haitian Creole), and who, as a consequence, have limited access to health and social welfare services and information that are provided in English (Stepick, 1998). Haiti’s ongoing experiences of political upheaval, military subjugation, and economic underdevelopment has resulted in successive waves of large number of immigrants seeking better life conditions and opportunities in the U.S. (Stepick, 1998). The most recent immigrants (beginning in the early 1970s), including the so-called Haitian boat people, were a particularly disadvantaged group (e.g., poorer, undocumented status, unskilled urban workers and rural peasantry) as compared to earlier cohorts. Upon entry to the U.S., these latest Haitian immigrants experienced extraord.

Tobal, Rio Blanco Abajo, 04.iv.2002, 500m, 10.90037, -85.37254, DHJPAR0002960. Paratypes. 40 , 6 (BMNH, CNC

Tobal, Rio Blanco Abajo, 04.iv.2002, 500m, 10.90037, -85.37254, DHJPAR0002960. Paratypes. 40 , 6 (BMNH, CNC, INBIO, INHS, NMNH). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: See Appendix 2 for detailed label data. Description. Female. Body color: body mostly dark except for some sternites which may be pale. Antenna color: scape, pedicel, and flagellum dark. Coxae color (pro-, meso, metacoxa): dark, dark, dark. Femora color (pro-, meso-, metafemur): anteriorly dark/ posteriorly pale, dark, dark. Tibiae color (pro-, meso-, metatibia): pale, pale, anteriorly pale/posteriorly dark. Tegula and humeral complex color: tegula pale, humeral complex half pale/half dark. AZD0865 solubility pterostigma color: mostly pale and/or transparent, with thin dark borders. Fore wing veins color: partially pigmented (a few veins may be dark but most are pale). Antenna length/body length: antenna about as long as body (head to apex of metasoma); if slightly shorter, at least extending beyond anterior 0.7 metasoma length. Body in lateral view: not distinctly flattened dorso entrally. Body NVP-QAW039 site length (head to apex of metasoma): 2.9?.0 mm, 3.1?.2 mm, rarely 2.0 mm or less or 3.3?.4 mm. Fore wing length: 2.9?.0 mm, 3.1?.2 mm, rarely 2.0 mm or less or 3.3?.4 mm. Ocular cellar line/posterior ocellus diameter: 2.3?.5, rarely 2.0?.2. Interocellar distance/ posterior ocellus diameter: 1.7?.9. Antennal flagellomerus 2 length/width: 2.6?.8. Antennal flagellomerus 14 length/width: 1.4?.6. Length of flagellomerus 2/length of flagellomerus 14: 2.0?.2. Tarsal claws: with single basal spine ike seta. Metafemur length/width: 3.2?.3. Metatibia inner spur length/metabasitarsus length: 0.4?.5. Anteromesoscutum: mostly with deep, dense punctures (separated by less than 2.0 ?its maximum diameter). Mesoscutellar disc: with punctures near margins, central part mostly smooth. Number of pits in scutoscutellar sulcus: 5 or 6 or 7 or 8. Maximum height of mesoscutellum lunules/maximum height of lateral face of mesoscutellum: 0.4?0.5. Propodeum areola: completely defined by carinae, including transverse carina extending to spiracle. Propodeum background sculpture: mostly sculptured. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin: 2.0?.2. Mediotergite 1 shape: mostly parallel ided for 0.5?.7 of its length, then narrowing posteriorly so mediotergite anterior width >1.1 ?posterior width. Mediotergite 1 sculpture: mostly sculptured, excavated area centrally with transverse striation inside and/or a polished knob centrally on posterior margin of mediotergite. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 2.8?.1. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: mostly smooth. Outer margin of hypopygium: with a wide, medially folded,Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae)…transparent, semi esclerotized area; usually with 4 or more pleats. Ovipositor thickness: about same width throughout its length. Ovipositor sheaths length/metatibial length: 1.6?.7, rarely 1.2?.3. Length of fore wing veins r/2RS: 1.7?.9. Length of fore wing veins 2RS/2M: 0.9?.0. Length of fore wing veins 2M/(RS+M)b: 0.9?.0. Pterostigma length/width: 3.6 or more. Point of insertion of vein r in pterostigma: clearly beyond half way point length of pterostigma. Angle of vein r with fore wing anterior margin: clearly outwards, inclined towards fore wing apex. Shape of junction of veins r and 2RS in fore wing: distinctly but not strongly angled. Male. As in female but with darker legs and smoother mediotergite 1. Molecular data. Sequences in BOLD:.Tobal, Rio Blanco Abajo, 04.iv.2002, 500m, 10.90037, -85.37254, DHJPAR0002960. Paratypes. 40 , 6 (BMNH, CNC, INBIO, INHS, NMNH). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: See Appendix 2 for detailed label data. Description. Female. Body color: body mostly dark except for some sternites which may be pale. Antenna color: scape, pedicel, and flagellum dark. Coxae color (pro-, meso, metacoxa): dark, dark, dark. Femora color (pro-, meso-, metafemur): anteriorly dark/ posteriorly pale, dark, dark. Tibiae color (pro-, meso-, metatibia): pale, pale, anteriorly pale/posteriorly dark. Tegula and humeral complex color: tegula pale, humeral complex half pale/half dark. Pterostigma color: mostly pale and/or transparent, with thin dark borders. Fore wing veins color: partially pigmented (a few veins may be dark but most are pale). Antenna length/body length: antenna about as long as body (head to apex of metasoma); if slightly shorter, at least extending beyond anterior 0.7 metasoma length. Body in lateral view: not distinctly flattened dorso entrally. Body length (head to apex of metasoma): 2.9?.0 mm, 3.1?.2 mm, rarely 2.0 mm or less or 3.3?.4 mm. Fore wing length: 2.9?.0 mm, 3.1?.2 mm, rarely 2.0 mm or less or 3.3?.4 mm. Ocular cellar line/posterior ocellus diameter: 2.3?.5, rarely 2.0?.2. Interocellar distance/ posterior ocellus diameter: 1.7?.9. Antennal flagellomerus 2 length/width: 2.6?.8. Antennal flagellomerus 14 length/width: 1.4?.6. Length of flagellomerus 2/length of flagellomerus 14: 2.0?.2. Tarsal claws: with single basal spine ike seta. Metafemur length/width: 3.2?.3. Metatibia inner spur length/metabasitarsus length: 0.4?.5. Anteromesoscutum: mostly with deep, dense punctures (separated by less than 2.0 ?its maximum diameter). Mesoscutellar disc: with punctures near margins, central part mostly smooth. Number of pits in scutoscutellar sulcus: 5 or 6 or 7 or 8. Maximum height of mesoscutellum lunules/maximum height of lateral face of mesoscutellum: 0.4?0.5. Propodeum areola: completely defined by carinae, including transverse carina extending to spiracle. Propodeum background sculpture: mostly sculptured. Mediotergite 1 length/width at posterior margin: 2.0?.2. Mediotergite 1 shape: mostly parallel ided for 0.5?.7 of its length, then narrowing posteriorly so mediotergite anterior width >1.1 ?posterior width. Mediotergite 1 sculpture: mostly sculptured, excavated area centrally with transverse striation inside and/or a polished knob centrally on posterior margin of mediotergite. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 2.8?.1. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: mostly smooth. Outer margin of hypopygium: with a wide, medially folded,Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae)…transparent, semi esclerotized area; usually with 4 or more pleats. Ovipositor thickness: about same width throughout its length. Ovipositor sheaths length/metatibial length: 1.6?.7, rarely 1.2?.3. Length of fore wing veins r/2RS: 1.7?.9. Length of fore wing veins 2RS/2M: 0.9?.0. Length of fore wing veins 2M/(RS+M)b: 0.9?.0. Pterostigma length/width: 3.6 or more. Point of insertion of vein r in pterostigma: clearly beyond half way point length of pterostigma. Angle of vein r with fore wing anterior margin: clearly outwards, inclined towards fore wing apex. Shape of junction of veins r and 2RS in fore wing: distinctly but not strongly angled. Male. As in female but with darker legs and smoother mediotergite 1. Molecular data. Sequences in BOLD:.

43.6?0.9 68.8?4.9 24.7?5.2 61.2?7.1 6.9?1.0 24.8?5.3 0.16?.Flanking SNPs of SNPs OAR2_88062818.1 35257.1 s26286.1 AR3_165050963.1 s59995.1 AR5_53435489.1 OAR6_6402059.1?OAR

43.6?0.9 68.8?4.9 24.7?5.2 61.2?7.1 6.9?1.0 24.8?5.3 0.16?.Flanking SNPs of SNPs OAR2_88062818.1 35257.1 s26286.1 AR3_165050963.1 s59995.1 AR5_53435489.1 OAR6_6402059.1?OAR6_55087517_X.1 OAR6_57796972.1 AR6_58069886.1 OAR6_70844973.1 AR6_81183719.1 OAR6_127397796.1 33220.1 OAR10_29159858.1 AR10_29381795.1 GW0742 cost s39429.1 AR13_55448085.1 OAR13_74074760.1 AR13_80614774_X.1 s59907.1 AR16_27501072.1 s25636.1 73670.1 OAR24_8063846.1 18520.1 OAR25_25923466.1 AR25_48288071_X.1 OAR26_222715_X.1 54858.Number 97 68 48 860 7 180 58 7 104 97 13 34 44 353Raw P-value 0.034 0.029 0.007 0.000 0.049 0.016 0.026 0.044 0.006 0.025 0.043 0.039 0.042 0.008 0.q-value 0.574 0.545 0.213 0.000 0.604 0.389 0.52 0.598 0.192 0.524 0.598 0.591 0.598 0.249 0.Guti rez-Gil et al.8 83.1?5.3 Mb 153.4?54.5 Mb ?39.3?9.5 Mb ?69.9?0.5 Mb ??48.9?2.0 Mb ??????Fariello et al.7 81.2?7.3 Mb 151.4?56.9 Mb 47.3?9.3 Mb 35.9?8.3 Mb ?67.9?0.3 Mb ?29.4?9.7 Mb 43.3?1.2 ??????10 13 16 17 24 25Table 2. Putative selective sweeps identified in the CEP-37440 supplement hapFLK-based analysis. Those sweeps consistently found with BayeScan are shown in bold. In the two columns at the right part of the table, we show evidence of positional concordance with previously reported selective sweeps7,8. CHR = chromosome. (Table 2, Fig. 4), positional coincidences were identified on Oar3 (150?54 Mb), Oar6 (4.3?9.9 Mb), and Oar13 (68.8?4.9 Mb). Next, we will examine more thoroughly a set of physiological and positional candidate genes whose patterns of variation could have been potentially modified by selection. Selective sweep on Oar3. The Oar3 (150?54 Mb) region co-localizes with a pleiotropic bovine quantitative trait locus (QTL) for birth weight, calving ease direct, marbling and ribeye muscle area20 as well as with a second bovine QTL for fat yield21. There are several genes that may explain the existence of a selective sweep in this genomic region. The high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2, 153.7 Mb) gene is particularly relevant becauseScientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/Figure 4. A detailed view of the putative selective sweeps on Oar3, Oar6 and Oar13 detected with the HapFLK statistic and confirmed with BayeScan. The red and blue lines indicate the thresholds of significance set at 0.05 before (nominal P-value) and after (q-value) correction for multiple testing, respectively. Genomic coordinates and statistical significance (-log10 P-values) are plotted in the x- and y-axis, respectively. The approximate location of the candidate genes discussed in the current work is indicated (in Mb).polymorphism at this transcriptional regulator has been associated with height in humans and body size in horses and dogs20. Moreover, the inactivation of HMGA2 in mouse leads to the pygmy phenotype, characterized by a substantial decrease in body size and adiposity and defective spermatogenesis22,23. Another gene of interest is the WNT Inhibitory Factor 1 (WIF1, 154.5 Mb) locus, that encodes a molecule inhibiting extracellular WNT signaling, and that has been identified as positively selected in domestic cattle24. Interestingly, the WNT effector pathway is essential for the initiation of embryonic mammary organogenesis and the maintenance of stem cells, and it may also regulate post-natal ductal and alveolar development25. Finally, it is worth to mention the methionine sulfoxide reductase B3 (MSRB3, 154.2 Mb) and the LEM domain containing 3 (LEMD3, 154.4 Mb) loci, that are involved in cell grow.43.6?0.9 68.8?4.9 24.7?5.2 61.2?7.1 6.9?1.0 24.8?5.3 0.16?.Flanking SNPs of SNPs OAR2_88062818.1 35257.1 s26286.1 AR3_165050963.1 s59995.1 AR5_53435489.1 OAR6_6402059.1?OAR6_55087517_X.1 OAR6_57796972.1 AR6_58069886.1 OAR6_70844973.1 AR6_81183719.1 OAR6_127397796.1 33220.1 OAR10_29159858.1 AR10_29381795.1 s39429.1 AR13_55448085.1 OAR13_74074760.1 AR13_80614774_X.1 s59907.1 AR16_27501072.1 s25636.1 73670.1 OAR24_8063846.1 18520.1 OAR25_25923466.1 AR25_48288071_X.1 OAR26_222715_X.1 54858.Number 97 68 48 860 7 180 58 7 104 97 13 34 44 353Raw P-value 0.034 0.029 0.007 0.000 0.049 0.016 0.026 0.044 0.006 0.025 0.043 0.039 0.042 0.008 0.q-value 0.574 0.545 0.213 0.000 0.604 0.389 0.52 0.598 0.192 0.524 0.598 0.591 0.598 0.249 0.Guti rez-Gil et al.8 83.1?5.3 Mb 153.4?54.5 Mb ?39.3?9.5 Mb ?69.9?0.5 Mb ??48.9?2.0 Mb ??????Fariello et al.7 81.2?7.3 Mb 151.4?56.9 Mb 47.3?9.3 Mb 35.9?8.3 Mb ?67.9?0.3 Mb ?29.4?9.7 Mb 43.3?1.2 ??????10 13 16 17 24 25Table 2. Putative selective sweeps identified in the hapFLK-based analysis. Those sweeps consistently found with BayeScan are shown in bold. In the two columns at the right part of the table, we show evidence of positional concordance with previously reported selective sweeps7,8. CHR = chromosome. (Table 2, Fig. 4), positional coincidences were identified on Oar3 (150?54 Mb), Oar6 (4.3?9.9 Mb), and Oar13 (68.8?4.9 Mb). Next, we will examine more thoroughly a set of physiological and positional candidate genes whose patterns of variation could have been potentially modified by selection. Selective sweep on Oar3. The Oar3 (150?54 Mb) region co-localizes with a pleiotropic bovine quantitative trait locus (QTL) for birth weight, calving ease direct, marbling and ribeye muscle area20 as well as with a second bovine QTL for fat yield21. There are several genes that may explain the existence of a selective sweep in this genomic region. The high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2, 153.7 Mb) gene is particularly relevant becauseScientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/Figure 4. A detailed view of the putative selective sweeps on Oar3, Oar6 and Oar13 detected with the HapFLK statistic and confirmed with BayeScan. The red and blue lines indicate the thresholds of significance set at 0.05 before (nominal P-value) and after (q-value) correction for multiple testing, respectively. Genomic coordinates and statistical significance (-log10 P-values) are plotted in the x- and y-axis, respectively. The approximate location of the candidate genes discussed in the current work is indicated (in Mb).polymorphism at this transcriptional regulator has been associated with height in humans and body size in horses and dogs20. Moreover, the inactivation of HMGA2 in mouse leads to the pygmy phenotype, characterized by a substantial decrease in body size and adiposity and defective spermatogenesis22,23. Another gene of interest is the WNT Inhibitory Factor 1 (WIF1, 154.5 Mb) locus, that encodes a molecule inhibiting extracellular WNT signaling, and that has been identified as positively selected in domestic cattle24. Interestingly, the WNT effector pathway is essential for the initiation of embryonic mammary organogenesis and the maintenance of stem cells, and it may also regulate post-natal ductal and alveolar development25. Finally, it is worth to mention the methionine sulfoxide reductase B3 (MSRB3, 154.2 Mb) and the LEM domain containing 3 (LEMD3, 154.4 Mb) loci, that are involved in cell grow.

T, or have not been until very recently (for a reassessment

T, or have not been until very recently (for a reassessment, see Lanchester). Jordanova mentions the “huge impact of photography in making widely available a disturbing literalism”: literalism being one of the attributes most often associated with “dangerous” images (101). Game designers are equally invested in the production of reality effects through computer graphics and sound. In the case explored here, the use of medical records as source material was intended to enhance the game’s realism, and hence its potential to frighten (or “unsettle” to use the term preferred by contemporary critics). But there is another reason to begin an article on medical archives and digital culture with a discussion of artists and anatomists. One of the achievements of The Quick and the Dead was to dislodge the idea of order ALS-8176 historical context as something singular (as in “it must be seen in context”) and to suggest, instead, the multiplicity of contexts and audiences. “For each image”, Jordanova reminds us, “there are innumerable contexts, since they are constantly being transplanted and transformed, re-viewed by each generation” (112).Photographies Vol. 5, No. 2, September 2012, pp. 179?02 ISSN 1754-0763 print/ISSN 1754-0771 online ?2012 Taylor Francis http://www.tandfonline.com http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17540763.2012.P H OTO G R AP H I E SRather dreadful subjects for the public viewOver the last few years my research has focused on medical images from the First World War. Some of the most intriguing examples are those in which art and medicine converge, as in Henry Tonks’ delicate pastel portraits of British servicemen with severe facial injuries and the equally exquisite — and unsettling — prosthetic masks made by the sculptor Francis Derwent Wood for some of these patients to conceal their disfigurement when surgical reconstruction was impossible (Figures 1 and 2; Biernoff “Flesh Poems” and “Rhetoric”). In both of these examples, art could be said to ameliorate the horrors of war, and to humanise men who had suffered what were considered at the time to be the most dehumanising of injuries. They are, to use Jordanova’s expression, examples of the happy marriage of art and medical science: collaborations defined by mutual regard and a common goal. In both cases, however, the sources that have survived contain assumptions about how, where and by whom the injured body may be seen — assumptions that have changed over time. This article considers the afterlives of some of these sources. When we encounter medical images in a museum or art gallery, or on a website like Morbid Anatomy, what kind of cultural and imaginative work do they get RRx-001 perform?1 Are there ethical considerations raised by their redeployment or appropriation within the contexts of art and entertainment, education and academic research? I started thinking about these questions when I discovered that case photographs from First World War medical archives had been used in BioShock, a computer game designed by Ken Levine and released in August 2007. It won the BAFTA for Best Game that year, among a constellation of other awards, and is ranked in the top five Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 games to date.2 Over 4 million copies of the game have been sold, BioShock II was released in February 2010, and Universal Studios has plans for a film.3 Without giving the plot away, this is a spectacularly gory game, and some of the most memorable encounters are with genetic mutants known as splicers. It is these.T, or have not been until very recently (for a reassessment, see Lanchester). Jordanova mentions the “huge impact of photography in making widely available a disturbing literalism”: literalism being one of the attributes most often associated with “dangerous” images (101). Game designers are equally invested in the production of reality effects through computer graphics and sound. In the case explored here, the use of medical records as source material was intended to enhance the game’s realism, and hence its potential to frighten (or “unsettle” to use the term preferred by contemporary critics). But there is another reason to begin an article on medical archives and digital culture with a discussion of artists and anatomists. One of the achievements of The Quick and the Dead was to dislodge the idea of historical context as something singular (as in “it must be seen in context”) and to suggest, instead, the multiplicity of contexts and audiences. “For each image”, Jordanova reminds us, “there are innumerable contexts, since they are constantly being transplanted and transformed, re-viewed by each generation” (112).Photographies Vol. 5, No. 2, September 2012, pp. 179?02 ISSN 1754-0763 print/ISSN 1754-0771 online ?2012 Taylor Francis http://www.tandfonline.com http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17540763.2012.P H OTO G R AP H I E SRather dreadful subjects for the public viewOver the last few years my research has focused on medical images from the First World War. Some of the most intriguing examples are those in which art and medicine converge, as in Henry Tonks’ delicate pastel portraits of British servicemen with severe facial injuries and the equally exquisite — and unsettling — prosthetic masks made by the sculptor Francis Derwent Wood for some of these patients to conceal their disfigurement when surgical reconstruction was impossible (Figures 1 and 2; Biernoff “Flesh Poems” and “Rhetoric”). In both of these examples, art could be said to ameliorate the horrors of war, and to humanise men who had suffered what were considered at the time to be the most dehumanising of injuries. They are, to use Jordanova’s expression, examples of the happy marriage of art and medical science: collaborations defined by mutual regard and a common goal. In both cases, however, the sources that have survived contain assumptions about how, where and by whom the injured body may be seen — assumptions that have changed over time. This article considers the afterlives of some of these sources. When we encounter medical images in a museum or art gallery, or on a website like Morbid Anatomy, what kind of cultural and imaginative work do they perform?1 Are there ethical considerations raised by their redeployment or appropriation within the contexts of art and entertainment, education and academic research? I started thinking about these questions when I discovered that case photographs from First World War medical archives had been used in BioShock, a computer game designed by Ken Levine and released in August 2007. It won the BAFTA for Best Game that year, among a constellation of other awards, and is ranked in the top five Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 games to date.2 Over 4 million copies of the game have been sold, BioShock II was released in February 2010, and Universal Studios has plans for a film.3 Without giving the plot away, this is a spectacularly gory game, and some of the most memorable encounters are with genetic mutants known as splicers. It is these.

Generated by paraquat, we also measured expression of oxyS, a small

FT011 chemical information Generated by paraquat, we also measured expression of oxyS, a small regulatory RNA in E. coli that has previously been shown to be upregulated in response to hydrogen peroxide, control expression of several stress response genes, and protect E. coli from peroxide-induced DNA damage[32]. We observed a consistent dose- and time-dependent increase of oxyS mRNA in E. coli treated with WP1066MedChemExpress WP1066 paraquat (Fig. 3C). Interestingly, the oxyS upregulation slightly precedes ibpABFig 3. E. coli upregulate ibpAB in the presence of the superoxide generator, paraquat. E. coli ibpA (A), ibpB (B), and oxyS (C) mRNA was measured by real-time PCR in mid-log phase bacterial cultures that were stimulated for the indicated times with the indicated concentrations of paraquat. Data are presented as means ?sd (n = 3, *p<0.05 vs. 0mM paraquat). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120249.gPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120249 March 23,6 /IbpAB Protect Commensal E. coli against ROSFig 4. E. coli ibpAB upregulation in response to paraquat treatment and phagocytosis by macrophages is mediated in-part by oxyS. A) E. coli ibpA and ibpB mRNA was measured using real-time PCR in mid-log phase cultures of E. coli NC101 or E. coli NC101oxyS 5 min after exposure to vehicle control (0mM) or 10mM paraquat. B and C) Intracellular ibpA and ibpB mRNA was measured using real-time PCR in wt BMDMs incubated with E. coli NC101 or E. coli NC101oxyS for the indicated times. Data are presented as means ?sd (n = at least 3 wells/timepoint, *p<0.05 vs. E. coli NC101). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120249.gupregulation. These data indicate that superoxides transiently induce ibpAB expression in E. coli and suggest the possibility that oxyS mediates the superoxide-induced upregulation of ibpAB.E. coli ibpAB expression is positively controlled by the oxyS small regulatory RNAUsing a reporter-gene screen, others have previously shown that oxyS expression up- or downregulates 20 genes in E. coli, several of which are stress response genes[32]. However, oxyS has not previously been described to regulate expression of the ibpAB operon. Since we determined that superoxides induce oxyS expression shortly before ibpAB expression (Fig. 3), we hypothesized that oxyS may upregulate ibpAB expression. To test this, we measured ibpAB expression in paraquat-treated E. coli NC101 or oxyS-deficient E. coli (NC101oxyS) and found that ibpAB expression was significantly attenuated in unstimulated as well as paraquat-stimulated NC101oxyS (Fig. 4A). To determine whether upregulation of ibpAB in macrophages was also dependent on oxyS, we incubated BMDMs with E. coli NC101 or NC101oxyS for the indicated times and measured ibpAB mRNA levels in intracellular bacteria. At one hour after the addition of bacteria, ibpAB mRNA was significantly lower in NC101oxyS compared with NC101 (Fig. 4B and C). However, this difference was absent by 6 hours. Therefore, oxyS-dependent factors mediate ibpAB expression in intra-macrophage E. coli at early, but not late, stages of intracellular survival. The mechanisms by which the oxyS small regulatory RNA controls ibpAB mRNA levels are still unknown.Expression of ibpAB is associated with enhanced E. coli survival within macrophagesHaving determined that E. coli upregulate ibpAB in response to ROS in culture and in macrophages, we hypothesized that ibpAB expression protects E. coli from killing by ROS in macrophages. In order to address this hypothesis, we incubated BMDMs from wt or gp91phox-/- mice w.Generated by paraquat, we also measured expression of oxyS, a small regulatory RNA in E. coli that has previously been shown to be upregulated in response to hydrogen peroxide, control expression of several stress response genes, and protect E. coli from peroxide-induced DNA damage[32]. We observed a consistent dose- and time-dependent increase of oxyS mRNA in E. coli treated with paraquat (Fig. 3C). Interestingly, the oxyS upregulation slightly precedes ibpABFig 3. E. coli upregulate ibpAB in the presence of the superoxide generator, paraquat. E. coli ibpA (A), ibpB (B), and oxyS (C) mRNA was measured by real-time PCR in mid-log phase bacterial cultures that were stimulated for the indicated times with the indicated concentrations of paraquat. Data are presented as means ?sd (n = 3, *p<0.05 vs. 0mM paraquat). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120249.gPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120249 March 23,6 /IbpAB Protect Commensal E. coli against ROSFig 4. E. coli ibpAB upregulation in response to paraquat treatment and phagocytosis by macrophages is mediated in-part by oxyS. A) E. coli ibpA and ibpB mRNA was measured using real-time PCR in mid-log phase cultures of E. coli NC101 or E. coli NC101oxyS 5 min after exposure to vehicle control (0mM) or 10mM paraquat. B and C) Intracellular ibpA and ibpB mRNA was measured using real-time PCR in wt BMDMs incubated with E. coli NC101 or E. coli NC101oxyS for the indicated times. Data are presented as means ?sd (n = at least 3 wells/timepoint, *p<0.05 vs. E. coli NC101). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120249.gupregulation. These data indicate that superoxides transiently induce ibpAB expression in E. coli and suggest the possibility that oxyS mediates the superoxide-induced upregulation of ibpAB.E. coli ibpAB expression is positively controlled by the oxyS small regulatory RNAUsing a reporter-gene screen, others have previously shown that oxyS expression up- or downregulates 20 genes in E. coli, several of which are stress response genes[32]. However, oxyS has not previously been described to regulate expression of the ibpAB operon. Since we determined that superoxides induce oxyS expression shortly before ibpAB expression (Fig. 3), we hypothesized that oxyS may upregulate ibpAB expression. To test this, we measured ibpAB expression in paraquat-treated E. coli NC101 or oxyS-deficient E. coli (NC101oxyS) and found that ibpAB expression was significantly attenuated in unstimulated as well as paraquat-stimulated NC101oxyS (Fig. 4A). To determine whether upregulation of ibpAB in macrophages was also dependent on oxyS, we incubated BMDMs with E. coli NC101 or NC101oxyS for the indicated times and measured ibpAB mRNA levels in intracellular bacteria. At one hour after the addition of bacteria, ibpAB mRNA was significantly lower in NC101oxyS compared with NC101 (Fig. 4B and C). However, this difference was absent by 6 hours. Therefore, oxyS-dependent factors mediate ibpAB expression in intra-macrophage E. coli at early, but not late, stages of intracellular survival. The mechanisms by which the oxyS small regulatory RNA controls ibpAB mRNA levels are still unknown.Expression of ibpAB is associated with enhanced E. coli survival within macrophagesHaving determined that E. coli upregulate ibpAB in response to ROS in culture and in macrophages, we hypothesized that ibpAB expression protects E. coli from killing by ROS in macrophages. In order to address this hypothesis, we incubated BMDMs from wt or gp91phox-/- mice w.

‘ coordinate is the percentage of roles (s)he accepted for each

‘ coordinate is the percentage of roles (s)he order Baicalein 6-methyl ether accepted for each category. Scatterplots are for (a) ordinary favorable roles, (b) extraordinary favorable roles, (c) ordinary unfavorable roles, and (d) extraordinary unfavorable roles. SPQ, VP 63843MedChemExpress Win 63843 schizotypal personality questionnaire.** ** * ** * ** **Reaction Times (ms)Percentage of accepted roles70 60 50 40 30 20 101180 1160 1140 1120 1100 1080 1060 1040 1020 1000 980 960 940 920**Ordinary FavorableOrdinary Extraordinary Unfavorable Favorable Category combinations High SPQ scorersExtraordinary UnfavorableOrdinary FavorableExtraordinary Ordinary Favorable Unfavorable Category combinations High extraordinary role acceptersExtraordinary UnfavorableLow SPQ scorersLow extraordinary role acceptersAcceptanceRejectionFigure 2. Percentages of social roles accepted in each category for high- and low-SPQ scorers and standard errors (vertical bars) for the 203 participants. *P o0.05, **P o0.0001. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.Figure 3. Mean reaction times and standard errors (vertical bars) for accepted (plain rectangles) and rejected (crosshatched rectangles) social roles for high and low extraordinary roles accepters. *Po 0.05.(i.e., bizarre behavior, thought disorders, unusual thoughts, poor insight, and difficulty in abstract thinking).16 In accordance with that view, the multiple regression suggested that the tendency to accept ordinary favorable roles had some protective effect againstnpj Schizophrenia (2016)schizotypal traits. Across all the categories, individuals with higher SPQ scores accepted more social roles than those with lower scores. All these results are reminiscent of the numerous anecdotes, so often published in the media, about thePublished in partnership with the Schizophrenia International Research SocietyExtraordinary roles and schizotypy AL Fernandez-Cruz et al5 disorganization of famous artists and the extraordinary roles they perform in society, now and in the past.17 On the other hand, works, such as the study of Twomey et al.,18 link psychoticism to openness to experience, sensation-seeking and creativity. Similarly, it was observed that, among writers and actors, scores for psychoticism were higher than among less `creative’ individuals19 and Andreasen noted in 1996 (ref. 20) that highly creative people had higher scores on measures of psychopathology than less creative people. In our case, this is akin to individuals who accept a lesser percentage of extraordinary social roles having lower SPQ scores. Further supporting the drive hypothesis, high accepters of extraordinary roles appeared `more enthusiast’ at accepting roles and more reluctant at rejecting them as they took less times for acceptances and more times for rejections than low accepters. This could be related to a higher baseline level of activation of the brain representations of these roles in the participants with higher SPQ scores. These results were obtained in a sample of the general population. Given the low frequency of schizotypy and of schizophrenia in that population, it is highly unlikely that those who accepted more extraordinary roles did it as a consequence of some pre-existing schizophrenia factors. One could eliminate an effect of the cognitive deficits found in the continuum going from normality to schizophrenia via schizotypy.9?3,21 In the task, these deficits would have induced longer reaction times for those who accepted more extraordinary roles or for the subgroup with higher SPQ.’ coordinate is the percentage of roles (s)he accepted for each category. Scatterplots are for (a) ordinary favorable roles, (b) extraordinary favorable roles, (c) ordinary unfavorable roles, and (d) extraordinary unfavorable roles. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.** ** * ** * ** **Reaction Times (ms)Percentage of accepted roles70 60 50 40 30 20 101180 1160 1140 1120 1100 1080 1060 1040 1020 1000 980 960 940 920**Ordinary FavorableOrdinary Extraordinary Unfavorable Favorable Category combinations High SPQ scorersExtraordinary UnfavorableOrdinary FavorableExtraordinary Ordinary Favorable Unfavorable Category combinations High extraordinary role acceptersExtraordinary UnfavorableLow SPQ scorersLow extraordinary role acceptersAcceptanceRejectionFigure 2. Percentages of social roles accepted in each category for high- and low-SPQ scorers and standard errors (vertical bars) for the 203 participants. *P o0.05, **P o0.0001. SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire.Figure 3. Mean reaction times and standard errors (vertical bars) for accepted (plain rectangles) and rejected (crosshatched rectangles) social roles for high and low extraordinary roles accepters. *Po 0.05.(i.e., bizarre behavior, thought disorders, unusual thoughts, poor insight, and difficulty in abstract thinking).16 In accordance with that view, the multiple regression suggested that the tendency to accept ordinary favorable roles had some protective effect againstnpj Schizophrenia (2016)schizotypal traits. Across all the categories, individuals with higher SPQ scores accepted more social roles than those with lower scores. All these results are reminiscent of the numerous anecdotes, so often published in the media, about thePublished in partnership with the Schizophrenia International Research SocietyExtraordinary roles and schizotypy AL Fernandez-Cruz et al5 disorganization of famous artists and the extraordinary roles they perform in society, now and in the past.17 On the other hand, works, such as the study of Twomey et al.,18 link psychoticism to openness to experience, sensation-seeking and creativity. Similarly, it was observed that, among writers and actors, scores for psychoticism were higher than among less `creative’ individuals19 and Andreasen noted in 1996 (ref. 20) that highly creative people had higher scores on measures of psychopathology than less creative people. In our case, this is akin to individuals who accept a lesser percentage of extraordinary social roles having lower SPQ scores. Further supporting the drive hypothesis, high accepters of extraordinary roles appeared `more enthusiast’ at accepting roles and more reluctant at rejecting them as they took less times for acceptances and more times for rejections than low accepters. This could be related to a higher baseline level of activation of the brain representations of these roles in the participants with higher SPQ scores. These results were obtained in a sample of the general population. Given the low frequency of schizotypy and of schizophrenia in that population, it is highly unlikely that those who accepted more extraordinary roles did it as a consequence of some pre-existing schizophrenia factors. One could eliminate an effect of the cognitive deficits found in the continuum going from normality to schizophrenia via schizotypy.9?3,21 In the task, these deficits would have induced longer reaction times for those who accepted more extraordinary roles or for the subgroup with higher SPQ.

To decrease eosinophils in BALF and similar decreased levels of eosinophils

To decrease eosinophils in BALF and similar decreased levels of eosinophils to TLR4-/- in blood, with evidence of AHR. Administration of KSpn had similar effects to those in TLR4-/- mice. MyD88-/- mice treated with OVA had decreased eosinophils in BALF (trend) and blood, suggesting additional MyD88 actions that were independent of TLR2/4. MyD88-/- mice with AAD also had a small but significant decrease in IL-13 release from MLN T cells compared to Wt. They also had reduced IL-5 in splenocytes, contrasting with large increases in IL-13 release by splenocytes, and reduced AHR. This provides strong evidence that MyD88 is involved in the Nutlin-3a chiralMedChemExpress Nutlin-3a chiral control of systemic IL-13 responses. In KSpn-mediated suppression MyD88 was implicated in protection against blood and BALF (partial) eosinophil levels. Our findings are consistent with a similar study that administered LPS/OVA to MyD88-/- mice and showed similar levels of eosinophils to MyD88-/-/OVA mice alone [45]. Given that S. pneumoniae has been shown to activate TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9, the protective effects of KSpn on AAD could be partly driven by a TLR9-MyD88 axis. Our results with factor deficient mice highlight the differential involvement of TLRs in the development of OVA-induced AAD. Interestingly, the dependence on TLR2 for the induction of IL-5 release from MLN T cells and IL-5 and IL-13 from splenocytes were eliminated with the additional absence of TLR4 (i.e. in TLR2/4-/- mice). The reasons underlying this latter observation are unknown, however, it is likely that redundancy in signaling pathways may be occurring, which is revealed by the absence of both TLRs. Alternate signaling pathways may also be involved. TLR2 and TLR4 can use alternative adaptor proteins such as Toll/interleukin receptor domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN- (TRIF) or MyD88 adaptor-like (Mal) [46, 47]. We showed further evidence for alternative signaling pathways when the induction of eosinophils in the BALF involved TLR4, but not TLR2 or MyD88. In the absence of MyD88, TLR4 signaling may occur through TRIF or Mal, although there have not as yet been any studies of the links between these other adaptor proteins and IL-5 or IL-13. Our data indicate that other factors may also be involved. In the absence of TLR2, MLN T cell and Mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 web splenocyte release of IL-5 were reduced but there was no impact on eosinophilia in the BALF or blood. Also, generally in the TLR deficient mice MLN T cell IL-13 levels were increased but splenocyte IL-13 was decreased except for in MyD88-/- mice. This highlights the complexity of TLR responses, and indicates that they have overlapping or unique functions in different situations.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0156402 June 16,13 /TLRs in Suppression of Allergic Airways DiseaseThe use of isolated TLR agonists could be used to define their roles in AAD/asthma. Consistent with our findings that KSPn/OVA decreases eosinophils in a TLR2-dependent manner, a single study administered the TLR2/6 agonist, S-[2,3-bispalmitoyiloxy-(2R)-propyl]-Rcysteinyl-amido-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol, conjugated with the antigen peptide (OVA) and challenged in a similar model, which reduced levels of IL-5 in the lung and eosinophils in BALF [48]. Others showed that lipoproteins from pathogenic S. pneumoniae induces TLR2 to promote the release of TNF from macrophages during infection [49]. Another study demonstrated that administration of the TLR4 agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in a mouse model of OVA-induced A.To decrease eosinophils in BALF and similar decreased levels of eosinophils to TLR4-/- in blood, with evidence of AHR. Administration of KSpn had similar effects to those in TLR4-/- mice. MyD88-/- mice treated with OVA had decreased eosinophils in BALF (trend) and blood, suggesting additional MyD88 actions that were independent of TLR2/4. MyD88-/- mice with AAD also had a small but significant decrease in IL-13 release from MLN T cells compared to Wt. They also had reduced IL-5 in splenocytes, contrasting with large increases in IL-13 release by splenocytes, and reduced AHR. This provides strong evidence that MyD88 is involved in the control of systemic IL-13 responses. In KSpn-mediated suppression MyD88 was implicated in protection against blood and BALF (partial) eosinophil levels. Our findings are consistent with a similar study that administered LPS/OVA to MyD88-/- mice and showed similar levels of eosinophils to MyD88-/-/OVA mice alone [45]. Given that S. pneumoniae has been shown to activate TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9, the protective effects of KSpn on AAD could be partly driven by a TLR9-MyD88 axis. Our results with factor deficient mice highlight the differential involvement of TLRs in the development of OVA-induced AAD. Interestingly, the dependence on TLR2 for the induction of IL-5 release from MLN T cells and IL-5 and IL-13 from splenocytes were eliminated with the additional absence of TLR4 (i.e. in TLR2/4-/- mice). The reasons underlying this latter observation are unknown, however, it is likely that redundancy in signaling pathways may be occurring, which is revealed by the absence of both TLRs. Alternate signaling pathways may also be involved. TLR2 and TLR4 can use alternative adaptor proteins such as Toll/interleukin receptor domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN- (TRIF) or MyD88 adaptor-like (Mal) [46, 47]. We showed further evidence for alternative signaling pathways when the induction of eosinophils in the BALF involved TLR4, but not TLR2 or MyD88. In the absence of MyD88, TLR4 signaling may occur through TRIF or Mal, although there have not as yet been any studies of the links between these other adaptor proteins and IL-5 or IL-13. Our data indicate that other factors may also be involved. In the absence of TLR2, MLN T cell and splenocyte release of IL-5 were reduced but there was no impact on eosinophilia in the BALF or blood. Also, generally in the TLR deficient mice MLN T cell IL-13 levels were increased but splenocyte IL-13 was decreased except for in MyD88-/- mice. This highlights the complexity of TLR responses, and indicates that they have overlapping or unique functions in different situations.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0156402 June 16,13 /TLRs in Suppression of Allergic Airways DiseaseThe use of isolated TLR agonists could be used to define their roles in AAD/asthma. Consistent with our findings that KSPn/OVA decreases eosinophils in a TLR2-dependent manner, a single study administered the TLR2/6 agonist, S-[2,3-bispalmitoyiloxy-(2R)-propyl]-Rcysteinyl-amido-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol, conjugated with the antigen peptide (OVA) and challenged in a similar model, which reduced levels of IL-5 in the lung and eosinophils in BALF [48]. Others showed that lipoproteins from pathogenic S. pneumoniae induces TLR2 to promote the release of TNF from macrophages during infection [49]. Another study demonstrated that administration of the TLR4 agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in a mouse model of OVA-induced A.

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
GSK343 web Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers AprotininMedChemExpress Aprotinin groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering OrnipressinMedChemExpress POR-8 allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over Mangafodipir (trisodium) site relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For ML390 web mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Acadesine site Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation Thonzonium (bromide) clinical trials products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a Tariquidar site result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.

N scan or take a photo of the object in their

N scan or take a photo of the object in their workplace, task, or virtual case, and the real object will be integrated in MARE. GP behavior can be tracked and their skill within the knowledge level tested. For example, KS1 involves obtaining microbiological cultures or other relevant tests before starting treatment as necessary. A patient who has bacterial QAW039 chemical information pneumonia or viral pneumonia will be shown to a GP treating in MARE. The GP will either select laboratory tests and interpret results or not. We will know whether the GP achieves KS1 or not. The KC of GPs can also be evaluated in MARE. GPs can write instant messages, comment, and annotate that they understand the rational use of antibiotics. GPs can also categorize, tag, or highlight the information that they think is correct. For example, KC2 is recognizing trade and generic names, and the class of prescribed antimicrobials. GPs can categorize the class of prescribed antimicrobials when using MARE to scan trade or generic names.Competence LevelThe competence level expected of GPs regarding rational use of antibiotics is described in Table 2. Emotions and values not only affect the application of knowledge but are also a foundation for building GP competence according to physicians’ professional competence definitions [34]. When we use MARE to evaluate GPs’ competence levels, the cases could be conducted in mixed real environments (eg, the real person and the symptom described coexist on the GP’s mobile phone in his or her workplace). The procedure for forecasting, executing, or replying can be uploaded to evaluate the GP’s CC and CS. For example, CC4 is constructing a prescription for an antimicrobial with its pharmacokinetics and knowing how this affects the choice of dosage regimen. The case condition will change when different antimicrobials are used with their pharmacokinetics. The result for the forecasting of antibiotics by the GP and the dosage regimen will be evaluated.Application of Mobile Augmented Reality Education to a Health Care ChallengeIn recent years, one of the global health threats has been the spread of antibiotic resistance. Encouraging rational antibiotic use is of paramount concern to authorities worldwide in order to minimize the development of resistance [50]. Multifaceted national and international strategies have been recommended [51]. Education is an important strategy for the rational use of antibiotics. We used the MARE framework to design GP training for the rational use of antibiotics. Implementing the MARE framework involves several steps: (1) defining the educational outcomes (based on the outcome layer), (2) defining the GP’s personal paradigm, (3) characterizing the learning environment, and (4) designing the learning activities.Performance LevelThe performance level expected of GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics is shown in Table 3. To aid GPs in assessing their Sinensetin site workplace performance using the MARE framework, we should build a network for physicians in which they can share their work experiences; then the GPs can review, question, and validate their work performances with each other. Further, the GPs can negotiate, debate, and comment on real cases, and their performance in skills, such as PC and PS, can be tracked and estimated. For example, PS2 is mastering when to use a delayed antimicrobial prescription and how to negotiate this with the patient. One way is to evaluate the GP’s response with the patient case shared on MARE with othe.N scan or take a photo of the object in their workplace, task, or virtual case, and the real object will be integrated in MARE. GP behavior can be tracked and their skill within the knowledge level tested. For example, KS1 involves obtaining microbiological cultures or other relevant tests before starting treatment as necessary. A patient who has bacterial pneumonia or viral pneumonia will be shown to a GP treating in MARE. The GP will either select laboratory tests and interpret results or not. We will know whether the GP achieves KS1 or not. The KC of GPs can also be evaluated in MARE. GPs can write instant messages, comment, and annotate that they understand the rational use of antibiotics. GPs can also categorize, tag, or highlight the information that they think is correct. For example, KC2 is recognizing trade and generic names, and the class of prescribed antimicrobials. GPs can categorize the class of prescribed antimicrobials when using MARE to scan trade or generic names.Competence LevelThe competence level expected of GPs regarding rational use of antibiotics is described in Table 2. Emotions and values not only affect the application of knowledge but are also a foundation for building GP competence according to physicians’ professional competence definitions [34]. When we use MARE to evaluate GPs’ competence levels, the cases could be conducted in mixed real environments (eg, the real person and the symptom described coexist on the GP’s mobile phone in his or her workplace). The procedure for forecasting, executing, or replying can be uploaded to evaluate the GP’s CC and CS. For example, CC4 is constructing a prescription for an antimicrobial with its pharmacokinetics and knowing how this affects the choice of dosage regimen. The case condition will change when different antimicrobials are used with their pharmacokinetics. The result for the forecasting of antibiotics by the GP and the dosage regimen will be evaluated.Application of Mobile Augmented Reality Education to a Health Care ChallengeIn recent years, one of the global health threats has been the spread of antibiotic resistance. Encouraging rational antibiotic use is of paramount concern to authorities worldwide in order to minimize the development of resistance [50]. Multifaceted national and international strategies have been recommended [51]. Education is an important strategy for the rational use of antibiotics. We used the MARE framework to design GP training for the rational use of antibiotics. Implementing the MARE framework involves several steps: (1) defining the educational outcomes (based on the outcome layer), (2) defining the GP’s personal paradigm, (3) characterizing the learning environment, and (4) designing the learning activities.Performance LevelThe performance level expected of GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics is shown in Table 3. To aid GPs in assessing their workplace performance using the MARE framework, we should build a network for physicians in which they can share their work experiences; then the GPs can review, question, and validate their work performances with each other. Further, the GPs can negotiate, debate, and comment on real cases, and their performance in skills, such as PC and PS, can be tracked and estimated. For example, PS2 is mastering when to use a delayed antimicrobial prescription and how to negotiate this with the patient. One way is to evaluate the GP’s response with the patient case shared on MARE with othe.

Th26 and skeletal development27, respectively. Selective sweep on Oar6 . The Oar

Th26 and skeletal development27, XAV-939 site respectively. Selective sweep on Oar6 . The Oar6 selective sweep contains several genes that may have been affected by selection i.e. the non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G (NCAPG, 37.2 Mb), the ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like (LCORL, 37.3 Mb), the leucine aminopeptidase 3 (LAP3, 37.1 Mb) and the ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 2 (ABCG2, 36.5 Mb) loci. Indeed, the NCAPG/LCORL gene pair has been reported as a selection target in many genome scans. LCORL is a co-repressor of ligand-regulatable transcriptional factors, such as the estrogen and thyroid hormone receptors, and plays a fundamental role in hepatic lipogenesis28. More importantly, order SB 202190 variation at LCORL has been associated with height in humans29 and horses30, and with vertebrae number in pigs31. Similarly, NCAPG plays a key role in mitotic cell division and affects post-natal growth32. Other genes of interest are ABCG2, a molecule transporter that has been associated with milk yield and composition33, and LAP3. This latter gene displays a selection signature in Holstein cattle and its variability is associated with diverse milk traits24. Interestingly, the bovine chromosome 6 region containing LCORL, NCAPG, LAP3 and ABCG2 overlaps with several quantitative trait loci for growth, carcass quality, feed efficiency, reproduction and milk traits34?7.Scientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/At this point, is difficult to know if selection on Oar6 is targeting one or several loci. In principle, we would favour this second scenario because data generated by us and others evidence that the size of the Oar6 region under selection is considerably large suggesting that it may have been produced by the superposition of several overlapping peaks (Fig. 4). The multiple associations with production traits observed in cattle would also favour this hypothesis, although we cannot rule out the possibility of selection acting on a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Selective sweep on Oar13. Within the Oar13 selective sweep (68?4 Mb), there are two genes related with lipid metabolism i.e. the fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FITM2, 72.3 Mb) and the acyl-CoA thioesterase 8 (ACOT8, 74.1 Mb) loci. The FITM2 protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and induces the packaging of triglycerides as lipid droplets38. This mechanism could be of importance in the mammary gland, since lipids are secreted as droplets that bud from the epithelial cells. The ACOT8 molecule hydrolyzes medium- to long-chain acyl-CoAs and its overexpression has been shown to abolish peroxisomal fatty acid -oxidation and enhance lipid accumulation in droplets39. Thus, these two loci may have effects on milk lipid content. Though Spanish sheep have not been specifically selected for milk fat content, the negative and moderate correlation of this trait with milk yield offers a possible explanation for our findings.improvement of Spanish sheep for milk traits. Latxa and Churra sheep produce around 180 kg (in 140 days) and 117 kg (in 120 days) of milk (Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment web, http://www.magrama. gob.es), respectively. Certainly, these numbers are significantly lower than milk yield registers of cosmopolitan highly specialized breeds (e.g. Lacaune sheep produce 350 kg milk in 150 days). However, in the last two decades the milk production of Spanish dairy sheep breeds has b.Th26 and skeletal development27, respectively. Selective sweep on Oar6 . The Oar6 selective sweep contains several genes that may have been affected by selection i.e. the non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G (NCAPG, 37.2 Mb), the ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like (LCORL, 37.3 Mb), the leucine aminopeptidase 3 (LAP3, 37.1 Mb) and the ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 2 (ABCG2, 36.5 Mb) loci. Indeed, the NCAPG/LCORL gene pair has been reported as a selection target in many genome scans. LCORL is a co-repressor of ligand-regulatable transcriptional factors, such as the estrogen and thyroid hormone receptors, and plays a fundamental role in hepatic lipogenesis28. More importantly, variation at LCORL has been associated with height in humans29 and horses30, and with vertebrae number in pigs31. Similarly, NCAPG plays a key role in mitotic cell division and affects post-natal growth32. Other genes of interest are ABCG2, a molecule transporter that has been associated with milk yield and composition33, and LAP3. This latter gene displays a selection signature in Holstein cattle and its variability is associated with diverse milk traits24. Interestingly, the bovine chromosome 6 region containing LCORL, NCAPG, LAP3 and ABCG2 overlaps with several quantitative trait loci for growth, carcass quality, feed efficiency, reproduction and milk traits34?7.Scientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/At this point, is difficult to know if selection on Oar6 is targeting one or several loci. In principle, we would favour this second scenario because data generated by us and others evidence that the size of the Oar6 region under selection is considerably large suggesting that it may have been produced by the superposition of several overlapping peaks (Fig. 4). The multiple associations with production traits observed in cattle would also favour this hypothesis, although we cannot rule out the possibility of selection acting on a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Selective sweep on Oar13. Within the Oar13 selective sweep (68?4 Mb), there are two genes related with lipid metabolism i.e. the fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FITM2, 72.3 Mb) and the acyl-CoA thioesterase 8 (ACOT8, 74.1 Mb) loci. The FITM2 protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and induces the packaging of triglycerides as lipid droplets38. This mechanism could be of importance in the mammary gland, since lipids are secreted as droplets that bud from the epithelial cells. The ACOT8 molecule hydrolyzes medium- to long-chain acyl-CoAs and its overexpression has been shown to abolish peroxisomal fatty acid -oxidation and enhance lipid accumulation in droplets39. Thus, these two loci may have effects on milk lipid content. Though Spanish sheep have not been specifically selected for milk fat content, the negative and moderate correlation of this trait with milk yield offers a possible explanation for our findings.improvement of Spanish sheep for milk traits. Latxa and Churra sheep produce around 180 kg (in 140 days) and 117 kg (in 120 days) of milk (Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment web, http://www.magrama. gob.es), respectively. Certainly, these numbers are significantly lower than milk yield registers of cosmopolitan highly specialized breeds (e.g. Lacaune sheep produce 350 kg milk in 150 days). However, in the last two decades the milk production of Spanish dairy sheep breeds has b.

Nless my colleague clearly makes a larger contribution. In these cases

Nless my colleague clearly makes a larger contribution. In these cases, their name is placed first in the publication. That is the case in the paper you cited in your e-mail. The authors are put in the order of the number of hours they spent on it. Although The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICJME) also has specific criteria when dealing with authorship issues [53], honorary authorship (where the author becomes part of the author list without providing significant contribution), is still a major issue. As some respondents expressed: “I did not benefit much from joint works in the past, as I had to do almost all aspects of research and publication. Unlike the past, I now work with my PhD students, who do the research work, and I help to generate ideas, share models and techniques, improve writing, undertake editing, publishing and so on. Now I like to work with others who, in my view, are not ‘free riders’ but are prepared to spend time and to share analytical skills where I have weaknesses to raise the quality of my papers. Most of my publications are sole authored; my future joint works should be genuinely collaborative”. “Based on what I see in the literature, it seems that for junior academics, co-authorship with senior academics is a way to get published in higher ranking journals. Additionally, what is even more GS-9620 web common is that you see senior academics publish in high-ranking journals mentioning in the footnote “excellent research assistance from” often followed by a battery of PhD students. I think that is an abomination. If you GDC-0084 cost cleaned and prepared the data, which is one of the most important parts in the quantitative literature I work in, you should be a coauthor, as is the case in the natural sciences.” Another response from a researcher in Germany offered the following perspective:PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0157633 June 20,12 /Perceptions of Scholars in the Field of Economics on Co-Authorship Associations”Order of authorship might also be hierarchical, as is common in Germany: the most senior member of the team is usually the lead author even if they have not done anything for the paper at all.” Cases of honorary authorship have led administrators to divide the scores among the coauthors for promotion purposes. This is not without objections, as some researchers feel that it stifles genuine collaboration. The issue of who should be the first author can create friction at times, even to the point of it needing to be resolved in court [54]. In interviews with Nobel Laureates that inquired about their name order practices, Zuckerman [49] found that laureates exercise their noblesse oblige by giving more credit to less eminent co-workers as their eminence grows. Hart [20] indicated that authors mentioned various ways in which they listed their names in a co-authored paper, although a vast majority (46.9 ) indicated that they listed the names according to the `contribution’ of each author. Some of the other methods that can be used include alphabetical order with intent to indicate an equal contribution (15.3 ) or without intent to indicate an equal contribution (9.2 ). Hart [20] also mentioned cases of `helped’ first authorship, where authors of four articles indicated that the first author was in line for tenure and promotion; thus, the co-authors aided to further the individual’s cause by assigning him or her first authorship.Distribution of task as a mentor and as a colleagueResearch collaboration i.Nless my colleague clearly makes a larger contribution. In these cases, their name is placed first in the publication. That is the case in the paper you cited in your e-mail. The authors are put in the order of the number of hours they spent on it. Although The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICJME) also has specific criteria when dealing with authorship issues [53], honorary authorship (where the author becomes part of the author list without providing significant contribution), is still a major issue. As some respondents expressed: “I did not benefit much from joint works in the past, as I had to do almost all aspects of research and publication. Unlike the past, I now work with my PhD students, who do the research work, and I help to generate ideas, share models and techniques, improve writing, undertake editing, publishing and so on. Now I like to work with others who, in my view, are not ‘free riders’ but are prepared to spend time and to share analytical skills where I have weaknesses to raise the quality of my papers. Most of my publications are sole authored; my future joint works should be genuinely collaborative”. “Based on what I see in the literature, it seems that for junior academics, co-authorship with senior academics is a way to get published in higher ranking journals. Additionally, what is even more common is that you see senior academics publish in high-ranking journals mentioning in the footnote “excellent research assistance from” often followed by a battery of PhD students. I think that is an abomination. If you cleaned and prepared the data, which is one of the most important parts in the quantitative literature I work in, you should be a coauthor, as is the case in the natural sciences.” Another response from a researcher in Germany offered the following perspective:PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0157633 June 20,12 /Perceptions of Scholars in the Field of Economics on Co-Authorship Associations”Order of authorship might also be hierarchical, as is common in Germany: the most senior member of the team is usually the lead author even if they have not done anything for the paper at all.” Cases of honorary authorship have led administrators to divide the scores among the coauthors for promotion purposes. This is not without objections, as some researchers feel that it stifles genuine collaboration. The issue of who should be the first author can create friction at times, even to the point of it needing to be resolved in court [54]. In interviews with Nobel Laureates that inquired about their name order practices, Zuckerman [49] found that laureates exercise their noblesse oblige by giving more credit to less eminent co-workers as their eminence grows. Hart [20] indicated that authors mentioned various ways in which they listed their names in a co-authored paper, although a vast majority (46.9 ) indicated that they listed the names according to the `contribution’ of each author. Some of the other methods that can be used include alphabetical order with intent to indicate an equal contribution (15.3 ) or without intent to indicate an equal contribution (9.2 ). Hart [20] also mentioned cases of `helped’ first authorship, where authors of four articles indicated that the first author was in line for tenure and promotion; thus, the co-authors aided to further the individual’s cause by assigning him or her first authorship.Distribution of task as a mentor and as a colleagueResearch collaboration i.

Enclosures of the same males, two females chose to mate with

Enclosures of the same males, two females chose to mate with the same male in only one of 14 trials. One male sired young in two litters, but all other sires produced one litter each. Due to the 72 hour time period of the trials, females had time to access all males, regardless of whether another female had chosen the male. Female antechinus can determine the difference between scents from more and less genetically similar males and purchase ICG-001 prefer chemosensory cues from genetically dissimilar males [31], suggesting that the process of mate choice in this experiment was influenced by these cues (see review in [54]). Although important, Q-VD-OPh site genetic relatedness between mates may be only one aspect of a set of mate preference criteria used by females, particularly in the wild. Some males in this experiment were preferred by all females they encountered, regardless of the level of genetic relatedness. This occurred in both years, suggesting that it was not an anomaly and that certain traits possessed by some males that we were not able to identify in this study may override the importance of genetic relatedness. Following this experiment, 47 young were born to 11 mothers. This was fewer than expected and differs from wild populations in which all teats are generally occupied [55,56]. There are two likely reasons for this outcome. Firstly, animals used in this experiment were collected during severe drought conditions which significantly decreased weight, survival and litter sizes in the wild [33]. This probably also influenced fertility in the captive population used in this study, despite the availability of increased nutrition, because animals were collected less than one month prior to the breeding season and were in poor condition [33]. Secondly, most litters (8) were produced from matings in the most fertile period of receptivity, with the remaining three produced from matings late in the receptive period. No young were produced from females paired on days 4? of their receptive period. This concurs with the findings of Selwood and McCallum [13] who showed that matings that occurred more than 14 days, or less than 5 days, from the spontaneous ovulation resulted in low numbers of normal fertile embryos and few young. In antechinus and some other dasyurid marsupials oestrus is difficult to define [35].PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122381 April 29,12 /Mate Choice and Multiple Mating in AntechinusFemales may be receptive to mating at times when conception is unlikely (eg too early or late in respect to ovulation, or even during gestation) and the female may not be fertile [35]. Selwood and McCallum [13] demonstrated that for single inseminations, sperm survival time is finite. For single inseminations outside that period ie 0 to 4 days before ovulation and 14?0 days before ovulation, the percentage of normal embryos is 0 to 58 and the averages for these periods are 44.5 and 27 respectively [13]. Thus, some females in this study mated outside their period of optimum fertility which is likely to have influenced their reproductive successs. Additionally, previous studies have shown that antechinus can have a lower breeding success in captivity than in the wild (e.g. [57]). Male mate choice has received less attention than mate choice by females, but may also be important [58]. Mate choice by males may occur when there is a female-bias in the operational sex ratio [59], when females show secondary sexual characteristics such as colour or ornamenta.Enclosures of the same males, two females chose to mate with the same male in only one of 14 trials. One male sired young in two litters, but all other sires produced one litter each. Due to the 72 hour time period of the trials, females had time to access all males, regardless of whether another female had chosen the male. Female antechinus can determine the difference between scents from more and less genetically similar males and prefer chemosensory cues from genetically dissimilar males [31], suggesting that the process of mate choice in this experiment was influenced by these cues (see review in [54]). Although important, genetic relatedness between mates may be only one aspect of a set of mate preference criteria used by females, particularly in the wild. Some males in this experiment were preferred by all females they encountered, regardless of the level of genetic relatedness. This occurred in both years, suggesting that it was not an anomaly and that certain traits possessed by some males that we were not able to identify in this study may override the importance of genetic relatedness. Following this experiment, 47 young were born to 11 mothers. This was fewer than expected and differs from wild populations in which all teats are generally occupied [55,56]. There are two likely reasons for this outcome. Firstly, animals used in this experiment were collected during severe drought conditions which significantly decreased weight, survival and litter sizes in the wild [33]. This probably also influenced fertility in the captive population used in this study, despite the availability of increased nutrition, because animals were collected less than one month prior to the breeding season and were in poor condition [33]. Secondly, most litters (8) were produced from matings in the most fertile period of receptivity, with the remaining three produced from matings late in the receptive period. No young were produced from females paired on days 4? of their receptive period. This concurs with the findings of Selwood and McCallum [13] who showed that matings that occurred more than 14 days, or less than 5 days, from the spontaneous ovulation resulted in low numbers of normal fertile embryos and few young. In antechinus and some other dasyurid marsupials oestrus is difficult to define [35].PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122381 April 29,12 /Mate Choice and Multiple Mating in AntechinusFemales may be receptive to mating at times when conception is unlikely (eg too early or late in respect to ovulation, or even during gestation) and the female may not be fertile [35]. Selwood and McCallum [13] demonstrated that for single inseminations, sperm survival time is finite. For single inseminations outside that period ie 0 to 4 days before ovulation and 14?0 days before ovulation, the percentage of normal embryos is 0 to 58 and the averages for these periods are 44.5 and 27 respectively [13]. Thus, some females in this study mated outside their period of optimum fertility which is likely to have influenced their reproductive successs. Additionally, previous studies have shown that antechinus can have a lower breeding success in captivity than in the wild (e.g. [57]). Male mate choice has received less attention than mate choice by females, but may also be important [58]. Mate choice by males may occur when there is a female-bias in the operational sex ratio [59], when females show secondary sexual characteristics such as colour or ornamenta.

Information as a neural mechanism linking social status and stress-related inflammatory

Information as a neural mechanism linking social RG7800 chemical information status and stress-related inflammatory responses. To investigate this, 31 healthy, female participants were exposed to a social stressor while they underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. We focused on females in this study given that women have been shown to be more reactive than men to social stressors (Rohleder et al., 2001; Stroud et al., 2002) and are at greater risk for some inflammatory-related conditions, such as major depressive disorder (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2001) . Blood samples were taken before and after the scan, and plasma was assayed for two inflammatory markers commonly studied in the acute stress literature: interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a; Steptoe et al., 2007). Participants also completed a measure of subjective social status, and reported their affective responses to the social stressor. Consistent with prior research, we hypothesized that lower subjective social status would be associated with greater stressor-evoked increases in inflammation. We also hypothesized that lower subjective status would be related to greater neural activity in the amygdala and the DMPFC in response to negative social feedback, replicating prior research. Finally, we explored whether the relationship between social status and inflammatory responses was mediated by neural activity in the amygdala and/or DMPFC in response to negative social feedback. This is the first known study to examine the potential neurocognitive mechanisms linking social status and inflammatory responses to stress.Materials and methodsParticipantsParticipants were 31 healthy young-adult females (M age ?19 years; range ?18?2 years). The sample self-identified as 32 Asian/Asian American, 23 Hispanic/Latina, 22 Mixed/Other, 13 African American and 10 White (non-Hispanic/Latina). The socioeconomic background of participants was varied: 45.2 (n ?14) of participants’ mothers had completed high school education or less, whereas 32.3 (n ?10) of the sample had fathers who had completed high school education or less. All participants provided written informed consent, and procedures were approved by the UCLA Institutional Review Board. Participants were paid 135 for participating.ProcedureComplete details of the experimental procedure have been previously reported (Muscatell et al., 2015). In brief, prospective participants were excluded during phone screening if they endorsed a number of criteria known to influence levels of inflammation (e.g. acute infection, chronic illness, BMI over 30) or contraindications for the MRI environment (e.g. left-handedness, claustrophobia, metallic implants). Participants were also excluded if they endorsed any current or lifetime history of Axis-I psychiatric disorder, as confirmed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis 1 Disorders (First et al., 1995). Individuals who met all inclusion criteria completed a videorecorded `impressions interview’ in the laboratory, in which they responded to questions such as `What would you most like to change about yourself?’ and `What are you most proud of in your life so far?’ Participants were told that in the next session for the study, they would meet another participant, and theK. A. Muscatell et al.|experimenters would choose one person to form an impression of the other based on the video of the interview. AG-221 cost Meanwhile, the other person would be scanned while they saw the impression being for.Information as a neural mechanism linking social status and stress-related inflammatory responses. To investigate this, 31 healthy, female participants were exposed to a social stressor while they underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. We focused on females in this study given that women have been shown to be more reactive than men to social stressors (Rohleder et al., 2001; Stroud et al., 2002) and are at greater risk for some inflammatory-related conditions, such as major depressive disorder (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2001) . Blood samples were taken before and after the scan, and plasma was assayed for two inflammatory markers commonly studied in the acute stress literature: interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a; Steptoe et al., 2007). Participants also completed a measure of subjective social status, and reported their affective responses to the social stressor. Consistent with prior research, we hypothesized that lower subjective social status would be associated with greater stressor-evoked increases in inflammation. We also hypothesized that lower subjective status would be related to greater neural activity in the amygdala and the DMPFC in response to negative social feedback, replicating prior research. Finally, we explored whether the relationship between social status and inflammatory responses was mediated by neural activity in the amygdala and/or DMPFC in response to negative social feedback. This is the first known study to examine the potential neurocognitive mechanisms linking social status and inflammatory responses to stress.Materials and methodsParticipantsParticipants were 31 healthy young-adult females (M age ?19 years; range ?18?2 years). The sample self-identified as 32 Asian/Asian American, 23 Hispanic/Latina, 22 Mixed/Other, 13 African American and 10 White (non-Hispanic/Latina). The socioeconomic background of participants was varied: 45.2 (n ?14) of participants’ mothers had completed high school education or less, whereas 32.3 (n ?10) of the sample had fathers who had completed high school education or less. All participants provided written informed consent, and procedures were approved by the UCLA Institutional Review Board. Participants were paid 135 for participating.ProcedureComplete details of the experimental procedure have been previously reported (Muscatell et al., 2015). In brief, prospective participants were excluded during phone screening if they endorsed a number of criteria known to influence levels of inflammation (e.g. acute infection, chronic illness, BMI over 30) or contraindications for the MRI environment (e.g. left-handedness, claustrophobia, metallic implants). Participants were also excluded if they endorsed any current or lifetime history of Axis-I psychiatric disorder, as confirmed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis 1 Disorders (First et al., 1995). Individuals who met all inclusion criteria completed a videorecorded `impressions interview’ in the laboratory, in which they responded to questions such as `What would you most like to change about yourself?’ and `What are you most proud of in your life so far?’ Participants were told that in the next session for the study, they would meet another participant, and theK. A. Muscatell et al.|experimenters would choose one person to form an impression of the other based on the video of the interview. Meanwhile, the other person would be scanned while they saw the impression being for.

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. MG-132MedChemExpress MG-132 Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of Metformin (hydrochloride) chemical information negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this

His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core order Procyanidin B1 support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex Valsartan/sacubitril web workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.His flexibility in order to achieve certain caregiving ends. Yet this flexibility is shaped by structural conditions that also create significant challenges for caregivers. Generalized poverty, a significant decline in bridewealth practices, and women’s increased access to education, land, and cash income all serve to make marriage more easily dissolvable or even less desirable to begin with. This lessens the power and appeal of patrilineal fosterage patterns. These trends are economically and ideologically ambiguous as maternal kin increasingly have both the burden and the privilege of caring for their daughters’ children, while children have narrowed options for receiving support. According to the ‘official kin’, the rules of child fostering are rigid and fixed. In practice, however, fostering allows for a wide array of household configurations that are negotiated based on a range of competing ideologies. As Alber notes in her study of child fostering in Benin, the lived experiences of people are ‘more flexible and varied than the rules suggest’ (2004: 36). Caregivers who are trying to legitimate their right to care for a child emphasize the rigidity of the rules because it allows them strategically to point to the ways in which others are contravening the rules. Comaroff suggests that negotiations around power are ‘mediated by the properties of a specific set of rules’ (1978: 17).While his study examines the claims to power of Tswana chiefs, I argue that these same processes are replicated on a smaller scale in the negotiations over relatedness that occur in everyday life in Lesotho. Matrilocal caregivers are able to negotiate for the care of children while maintaining the dominant ideology of patrilineal care. In doing so, caregivers have been able to manipulate the tenets of ‘official kin’ in order to achieve a range of caregiving outcomes, many of which legitimate matrilocal care within the patrilineal system. While these shifting values have markedly changed the caregiving landscape, they have yet to be formally institutionalized precisely because of the focus on patrilineality. In this way, maternal kin are reinforcing the patriarchal structure of the Basotho family in order to privilege their role as caregivers.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAcknowledgmentsThis research was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Family Fellowship in Children and Families and the Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) at Brown University. The PSTC receives core support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R24HD041020). I would like to thank MCS staff and caregivers for all their help and support. I am grateful to my writing group at Brown (Adia Benton, Melissa Hackman, and Jennifer Stampe), and to Jessaca Leinaweaver and Mandy Terc for reading earlier versions of this article. Thank you to Justin Dyer for his careful copy-editing.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Female sex workers (FSWs) in China: social and behavioural studies and HIV prevention strategies Female sex work has a long-standing history in China as an integrated facet of social and economic life (Hershatter, 1997; Pan, 1997). Sex work became more visible in China starting in the late 1980s due to regular, government-ordered anti-prostitution crackdowns and growing epidemics of HI.

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major ML390MedChemExpress ML390 barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the L 663536 cost reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological HMR-1275MedChemExpress L868275 reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the Thonzonium (bromide)MedChemExpress Thonzonium (bromide) electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.

Ain characteristics of these learning theories and how they can inform

Ain GLPG0187 web Characteristics of these learning theories and how they can inform MARE design. The reasons we chose these three learning theories are as follows:1.Zhu et al These three learning theories provide different views of learning and enhance different characteristics of learning environments, which AR could provide. In addition, the learning activities suggested by these theories could be applied in MARE. Each learning theory can inform decisions for the learning environment, activities, and how to apply AR. Learning environments that encompass the physical, social, and psychological context of learning are of significant importance and require the attention of medical and other health sciences educators when they teach or design a course [44]. The medical learning environment could be in medical school, an academic health center, or a clinical environment. Different learning settings are supported by different types of learning environments.2.3.From the view of social practice, situated learning theory provides a holistic perspective on the interpretation of learning by exploring the situated characteristics of the learners, environment, and practice [39]. Experiential learning theory emphasizes the dynamic state between the learner and the environment [40]. This theory differs from situated learning theory by focusing more on the experiences of an individual learner to create knowledge. Transformative learning focuses on discovering evidence that education facilitates changes in the learner’s QAW039MedChemExpress QAW039 frames of reference or schema by which the learner identifies his or her life world [41].Table 5. Comparison of situated learning, experiential learning, and transformative learning.a Characteristics Learning assumption Learning perspective Definition Situated learning A dimension of social practice Experiential learning A holistic process of adapting to the world Transformative learning Critically aware of the personal paradigm Implicates transformation in meaning perspective that encompasses cognitive, conative, and affective components Learning is changing problematic frames of reference, which comprise habits of mind, points of views, and mind-setsConcerns the whole person acting in the world Combines experience, perception, cognition, and behavior Learning is participation in communities of Learning is the processing of transforpractice, which produces knowledgeable iden- mative experiences, which includes tities and the community itself concrete experience and abstract conceptualizationEnvironmental conditionsReal-life situation where the learning occurred Create learning environments for feel- Safe environment, authentic settings ing and thinking, reflecting, and actingLearning activities Sustained participation via observation, collab- Reflective observation and active exper- Critical reflection and dialectical disoration, and communication imentation course to validate beliefs, intentions, values, and feelings Implications for MAREb Thinking holistically about learning activities, Design virtual learning environment real practical tasks, real environments, and for feeling, thinking, watching, and MARE functions doing Understanding and using the social situation, especially the real-life environment Design activities to sustain participation with MARE (or ARc)aDesign the learning activities to reflect upon and change problematic frames of referenceUtilize Kolb’s spiral model from concrete experience or knowledge to action [40]The table cont.Ain characteristics of these learning theories and how they can inform MARE design. The reasons we chose these three learning theories are as follows:1.Zhu et al These three learning theories provide different views of learning and enhance different characteristics of learning environments, which AR could provide. In addition, the learning activities suggested by these theories could be applied in MARE. Each learning theory can inform decisions for the learning environment, activities, and how to apply AR. Learning environments that encompass the physical, social, and psychological context of learning are of significant importance and require the attention of medical and other health sciences educators when they teach or design a course [44]. The medical learning environment could be in medical school, an academic health center, or a clinical environment. Different learning settings are supported by different types of learning environments.2.3.From the view of social practice, situated learning theory provides a holistic perspective on the interpretation of learning by exploring the situated characteristics of the learners, environment, and practice [39]. Experiential learning theory emphasizes the dynamic state between the learner and the environment [40]. This theory differs from situated learning theory by focusing more on the experiences of an individual learner to create knowledge. Transformative learning focuses on discovering evidence that education facilitates changes in the learner’s frames of reference or schema by which the learner identifies his or her life world [41].Table 5. Comparison of situated learning, experiential learning, and transformative learning.a Characteristics Learning assumption Learning perspective Definition Situated learning A dimension of social practice Experiential learning A holistic process of adapting to the world Transformative learning Critically aware of the personal paradigm Implicates transformation in meaning perspective that encompasses cognitive, conative, and affective components Learning is changing problematic frames of reference, which comprise habits of mind, points of views, and mind-setsConcerns the whole person acting in the world Combines experience, perception, cognition, and behavior Learning is participation in communities of Learning is the processing of transforpractice, which produces knowledgeable iden- mative experiences, which includes tities and the community itself concrete experience and abstract conceptualizationEnvironmental conditionsReal-life situation where the learning occurred Create learning environments for feel- Safe environment, authentic settings ing and thinking, reflecting, and actingLearning activities Sustained participation via observation, collab- Reflective observation and active exper- Critical reflection and dialectical disoration, and communication imentation course to validate beliefs, intentions, values, and feelings Implications for MAREb Thinking holistically about learning activities, Design virtual learning environment real practical tasks, real environments, and for feeling, thinking, watching, and MARE functions doing Understanding and using the social situation, especially the real-life environment Design activities to sustain participation with MARE (or ARc)aDesign the learning activities to reflect upon and change problematic frames of referenceUtilize Kolb’s spiral model from concrete experience or knowledge to action [40]The table cont.

Nd population. Nevertheless, it is also well demonstrated that this particular

Nd population. Nevertheless, it is also well demonstrated that this particular patient group is more likely to terminate treatment prematurely and displays lower rates of treatment compliance than their native counterparts. This reluctance for service utilization might be partially because of the fact that people from non-Western ethnocultural backgrounds (e.g., Turkey) often have a different notion and comprehension of mental VER-52296 supplier health and illness as compared with those of the people from Western societies. Such mismatch often results in discrepancies between the needs and expectations of immigrant patients and clinicians, which attenuate the communication and effectiveness of treatment and lead to unexplained high dropout rates. To provide continued provision of culture-sensitive, high quality, evidence-based mental health care, the advancement of researches exploring such sociocultural differences between the patients’ and the clinicians’ notions of mental health must occur. In response to these problems, the current review aims to explore the interplay between culture and mental processes that associate with the etiology, maintenance, and management of depression among Turkish immigrant patients. This is to inform clinicians regarding culturespecific correlates of depression among Turkish patients to enable them to present interventions that fit the needs and expectations of this particular patient group. Keywords: Culture, psychotherapy immigration, mental health, depression,AN OVERVIEW ON MIGRATION AND MENTAL HEALTH IN EUROPEToday, the demographic profile of Europe’s population is considerably more heterogeneous than it has ever been before. The increased inflow of immigrants has been stated as a key force in this contemporary demographic diversity. Past and recent reports have demonstrated that throughout Western Europe, the number of foreign populations has been rising and is estimated to be 56 million international immigrants. In 2014, the number of people living in the EU-28 who were citizens of non-member countries was 19.6 million, while the number of people living in the EU-28 who had been born outside of the EU was 33.5 million (1). Turkish immigrants form one of the largest immigrant groups in Western Europe reaching a total population of nearly 4 million (2). The largest number of Turkish immigrant workers is found in Germany followed by France, the Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Denmark, Italy, and Norway (3). As is well known, adaptation to a new culture, namely acculturation, can present difficulties that immigrants have to cope with. The process of integration into new styles of interpersonal relationships, social rules, organization of community services, etc., may be stressful in its own right because immigrants may feel a threat to their sense of self-efficacy (4). Additionally, reconciling the norms and values of their new and old cultures may be buy BX795 difficult, particularly when these are conflicting (5,6,7). Together with the difficulties that are normally occur during immigration (i.e., loss and bereavement), such adverse psychological effects, known as acculturative stress, put immigrants at increased risk of poor mental health. Accordingly, several studies indicated that the immigration and its related acculturation stress are associated with a higher risk of mental disorders, such as anxiety and depression (8). This might be especially true for immigrants with a Turkish back.Nd population. Nevertheless, it is also well demonstrated that this particular patient group is more likely to terminate treatment prematurely and displays lower rates of treatment compliance than their native counterparts. This reluctance for service utilization might be partially because of the fact that people from non-Western ethnocultural backgrounds (e.g., Turkey) often have a different notion and comprehension of mental health and illness as compared with those of the people from Western societies. Such mismatch often results in discrepancies between the needs and expectations of immigrant patients and clinicians, which attenuate the communication and effectiveness of treatment and lead to unexplained high dropout rates. To provide continued provision of culture-sensitive, high quality, evidence-based mental health care, the advancement of researches exploring such sociocultural differences between the patients’ and the clinicians’ notions of mental health must occur. In response to these problems, the current review aims to explore the interplay between culture and mental processes that associate with the etiology, maintenance, and management of depression among Turkish immigrant patients. This is to inform clinicians regarding culturespecific correlates of depression among Turkish patients to enable them to present interventions that fit the needs and expectations of this particular patient group. Keywords: Culture, psychotherapy immigration, mental health, depression,AN OVERVIEW ON MIGRATION AND MENTAL HEALTH IN EUROPEToday, the demographic profile of Europe’s population is considerably more heterogeneous than it has ever been before. The increased inflow of immigrants has been stated as a key force in this contemporary demographic diversity. Past and recent reports have demonstrated that throughout Western Europe, the number of foreign populations has been rising and is estimated to be 56 million international immigrants. In 2014, the number of people living in the EU-28 who were citizens of non-member countries was 19.6 million, while the number of people living in the EU-28 who had been born outside of the EU was 33.5 million (1). Turkish immigrants form one of the largest immigrant groups in Western Europe reaching a total population of nearly 4 million (2). The largest number of Turkish immigrant workers is found in Germany followed by France, the Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Denmark, Italy, and Norway (3). As is well known, adaptation to a new culture, namely acculturation, can present difficulties that immigrants have to cope with. The process of integration into new styles of interpersonal relationships, social rules, organization of community services, etc., may be stressful in its own right because immigrants may feel a threat to their sense of self-efficacy (4). Additionally, reconciling the norms and values of their new and old cultures may be difficult, particularly when these are conflicting (5,6,7). Together with the difficulties that are normally occur during immigration (i.e., loss and bereavement), such adverse psychological effects, known as acculturative stress, put immigrants at increased risk of poor mental health. Accordingly, several studies indicated that the immigration and its related acculturation stress are associated with a higher risk of mental disorders, such as anxiety and depression (8). This might be especially true for immigrants with a Turkish back.

Cs (Fig 3A). This effect was not seen in resident macrophages

Cs (Fig 3A). This AM152 chemical information effect was not seen in resident get P144 Peptide macrophages (Fig 3B). PGE2 also markedly suppressed LPS-induced Tnfa and Il1b levels in both BMDCs and resident macrophages (Fig 3C?E), and this effect was dependentPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0158316 June 28,7 /EP4, Diabetes, Inflammation and AtherosclerosisFig 3. PGE2 inhibits LPS-induced cytokines through EP4 in myeloid cells. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and resident peritoneal macrophages from EP4M-/- mice and WT littermates were stimulated with 10 nmol/l PGE2 or vehicle for 2 h, and then for an additional 6 h in the presence or absence of 5 ng/ml LPS. Il6 mRNA (A-B), Tnfa mRNA (C-D), and Il1b mRNA (E) were measured by real-time PCR. TNF- (F-G) and IL-6 (H-I) release was quantified by ELISA. The results are presented as fold over WT cells incubated in the absence of LPS as mean ?SEM. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test (n = 9?1). * p<0.05; ** p<0.01; *** p<0.001. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0158316.gPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0158316 June 28,8 /EP4, Diabetes, Inflammation and Atherosclerosison EP4, consistent with previous studies by the Libby laboratory [17]. The suppressive effects of PGE2 on LPS-induced IL-6 and TNF- in BMDCs were confirmed at the protein level by ELISAs (Fig 3F and 3H), although the effect of PGE2 was more marked for TNF-. Similarly, EP4 suppressed LPS-mediated TNF- in resident peritoneal macrophages, while IL-6 release was unaffected (Fig 3G and 3I). Together, these results show that whereas PGE2 alone promotes production of several inflammatory mediators, it suppresses the action of LPS, consistent with previous studies [17, 37]. Both actions of PGE2 are critically dependent on EP4. We next investigated regulation of the four PGE2 receptors (Ptger1-4) in both BMDCs and resident peritoneal macrophages from EP4M-/- mice and WT littermate controls in response to PGE2 and LPS, to further evaluate the possibility of compensatory regulation of EP1, EP2 and EP3. Levels of Ptger4 and Ptger1 mRNA were modestly reduced by LPS stimulation in both BMDCs and resident peritoneal macrophages (Fig 4A?D). Likewise, Ptger2 mRNA was suppressed by LPS in BMDCs, but this effect was not consistent with that on macrophages (Fig 4E and 4F). Interestingly, EP4-deficiency resulted in a significant downregulation of Ptger2 mRNA in both BMDCs and resident macrophages stimulated with a combination of LPS and PGE2 (Fig 4E and 4F). These results suggest that the expression of EP2 is dependent on EP4 expression under certain conditions. Finally, Ptger3 mRNA levels were significantly increased in LPS-stimulated BMDCs and resident macrophages (Fig 4G and 4H). Together, these data demonstrate that the four PGE2 receptors exhibit different regulation in myeloid cells, and that the effect of EP4-deficiency in cells stimulated by PGE2 in the presence of LPS might be due in part to downregulation of EP2, but that in the absence of LPS, there is no major compensatory regulation of other PGE2 receptors by EP4-deficiency.Myeloid cell-targeted EP4-deficiency does not alter diabetes induction, plasma lipid levels or white blood cell countsHematopoietic EP4-deficiency has been shown to prevent lesions of atherosclerosis [40] or to have no impact on lesion size [41] in non-diabetic fat-fed Ldlr-/- mice. We reasoned that the mouse model of T1DM might be more susceptible to differences in myeloid cell EP4-deficiency because plasma PGE metab.Cs (Fig 3A). This effect was not seen in resident macrophages (Fig 3B). PGE2 also markedly suppressed LPS-induced Tnfa and Il1b levels in both BMDCs and resident macrophages (Fig 3C?E), and this effect was dependentPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0158316 June 28,7 /EP4, Diabetes, Inflammation and AtherosclerosisFig 3. PGE2 inhibits LPS-induced cytokines through EP4 in myeloid cells. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and resident peritoneal macrophages from EP4M-/- mice and WT littermates were stimulated with 10 nmol/l PGE2 or vehicle for 2 h, and then for an additional 6 h in the presence or absence of 5 ng/ml LPS. Il6 mRNA (A-B), Tnfa mRNA (C-D), and Il1b mRNA (E) were measured by real-time PCR. TNF- (F-G) and IL-6 (H-I) release was quantified by ELISA. The results are presented as fold over WT cells incubated in the absence of LPS as mean ?SEM. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test (n = 9?1). * p<0.05; ** p<0.01; *** p<0.001. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0158316.gPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0158316 June 28,8 /EP4, Diabetes, Inflammation and Atherosclerosison EP4, consistent with previous studies by the Libby laboratory [17]. The suppressive effects of PGE2 on LPS-induced IL-6 and TNF- in BMDCs were confirmed at the protein level by ELISAs (Fig 3F and 3H), although the effect of PGE2 was more marked for TNF-. Similarly, EP4 suppressed LPS-mediated TNF- in resident peritoneal macrophages, while IL-6 release was unaffected (Fig 3G and 3I). Together, these results show that whereas PGE2 alone promotes production of several inflammatory mediators, it suppresses the action of LPS, consistent with previous studies [17, 37]. Both actions of PGE2 are critically dependent on EP4. We next investigated regulation of the four PGE2 receptors (Ptger1-4) in both BMDCs and resident peritoneal macrophages from EP4M-/- mice and WT littermate controls in response to PGE2 and LPS, to further evaluate the possibility of compensatory regulation of EP1, EP2 and EP3. Levels of Ptger4 and Ptger1 mRNA were modestly reduced by LPS stimulation in both BMDCs and resident peritoneal macrophages (Fig 4A?D). Likewise, Ptger2 mRNA was suppressed by LPS in BMDCs, but this effect was not consistent with that on macrophages (Fig 4E and 4F). Interestingly, EP4-deficiency resulted in a significant downregulation of Ptger2 mRNA in both BMDCs and resident macrophages stimulated with a combination of LPS and PGE2 (Fig 4E and 4F). These results suggest that the expression of EP2 is dependent on EP4 expression under certain conditions. Finally, Ptger3 mRNA levels were significantly increased in LPS-stimulated BMDCs and resident macrophages (Fig 4G and 4H). Together, these data demonstrate that the four PGE2 receptors exhibit different regulation in myeloid cells, and that the effect of EP4-deficiency in cells stimulated by PGE2 in the presence of LPS might be due in part to downregulation of EP2, but that in the absence of LPS, there is no major compensatory regulation of other PGE2 receptors by EP4-deficiency.Myeloid cell-targeted EP4-deficiency does not alter diabetes induction, plasma lipid levels or white blood cell countsHematopoietic EP4-deficiency has been shown to prevent lesions of atherosclerosis [40] or to have no impact on lesion size [41] in non-diabetic fat-fed Ldlr-/- mice. We reasoned that the mouse model of T1DM might be more susceptible to differences in myeloid cell EP4-deficiency because plasma PGE metab.

Articipants provided consent and subsequently transcribed; otherwise, notes recorded during the

Articipants provided consent and subsequently transcribed; otherwise, notes recorded during the interviews were used for the analysis.Ethics statementStudy procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill and the Guangdong Provincial Dermatology Hospital. Participants provided written informed consent to participate in the study.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123255 May 12,4 /African Migrant Patients’ Trust in Chinese PhysiciansTheoryPatient-physician trust includes both interpersonal trust–trust in an individual physician– and impersonal trust–trust in physicians in general [1,2]. These types of trust are inter-related. Impersonal or institutional trust enables a patient to trust a new physician, and trust relations built through interpersonal interactions with physicians help to sustain impersonal trust in physicians in general and the institutions they represent [1,35?7]. We focused on interpersonal patient-physician trust because the importance of this type of trust for patient care outcomes has been demonstrated [4?]. Drawing from Hall et al. [19] and Russell [37], we define trust as the optimistic acceptance of a vulnerable situation in which the truster believes the trustee will care for the truster’s interests and has the competency to do so. Given the inter-related nature of interpersonal, impersonal, and institutional trust in the health care system, we sought to identify not only factors at the patient-physician level that may influence African patients’ trust in Chinese physicians, but also structural and socio-cultural factors. As Wuthnow argues, “trust does not depend only on judgments one person makes about another, but also on assumptions that emerge from the context in which relationships take place, on expectations derived from previous relationships, and on criteria for making judgments that are deemed legitimate by the actors involved” [38]. We used a modified version of the social ecological model [39,40] as a framework for organizing the themes that emerged from the interviews (Fig 1). The social ecological model has been widely used in the field of PinometostatMedChemExpress EPZ-5676 public health to analyze factors affecting health PX-478 site behavior and health promotion interventions. This model recognizes that behavior is affected by not only individual factors but also multiple spheres of influence in an individual’s social environment. InFig 1. Social ecological framework for African migrant patients’ trust of Chinese physicians. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123255.gPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123255 May 12,5 /African Migrant Patients’ Trust in Chinese Physiciansthe modified social ecological model we used for this analysis, we included the following levels: interpersonal, social network, health system, and socio-cultural.AnalysisTwo researchers reviewed the transcripts and inductively developed a preliminary list of codes representing the main themes. These codes were categorized into one of four levels of a modified social ecological framework. Using the initial code structure, three individuals independently coded transcripts and cross-checked coding until a consensus was reached about the code structure. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti version 7 (Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany).ResultsAmong the 40 African migrant participants, 29 were traders, 9 were students, one was a restaurant worker, and one was a housewife (supporting information, S1 Table. Dem.Articipants provided consent and subsequently transcribed; otherwise, notes recorded during the interviews were used for the analysis.Ethics statementStudy procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill and the Guangdong Provincial Dermatology Hospital. Participants provided written informed consent to participate in the study.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123255 May 12,4 /African Migrant Patients’ Trust in Chinese PhysiciansTheoryPatient-physician trust includes both interpersonal trust–trust in an individual physician– and impersonal trust–trust in physicians in general [1,2]. These types of trust are inter-related. Impersonal or institutional trust enables a patient to trust a new physician, and trust relations built through interpersonal interactions with physicians help to sustain impersonal trust in physicians in general and the institutions they represent [1,35?7]. We focused on interpersonal patient-physician trust because the importance of this type of trust for patient care outcomes has been demonstrated [4?]. Drawing from Hall et al. [19] and Russell [37], we define trust as the optimistic acceptance of a vulnerable situation in which the truster believes the trustee will care for the truster’s interests and has the competency to do so. Given the inter-related nature of interpersonal, impersonal, and institutional trust in the health care system, we sought to identify not only factors at the patient-physician level that may influence African patients’ trust in Chinese physicians, but also structural and socio-cultural factors. As Wuthnow argues, “trust does not depend only on judgments one person makes about another, but also on assumptions that emerge from the context in which relationships take place, on expectations derived from previous relationships, and on criteria for making judgments that are deemed legitimate by the actors involved” [38]. We used a modified version of the social ecological model [39,40] as a framework for organizing the themes that emerged from the interviews (Fig 1). The social ecological model has been widely used in the field of public health to analyze factors affecting health behavior and health promotion interventions. This model recognizes that behavior is affected by not only individual factors but also multiple spheres of influence in an individual’s social environment. InFig 1. Social ecological framework for African migrant patients’ trust of Chinese physicians. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123255.gPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123255 May 12,5 /African Migrant Patients’ Trust in Chinese Physiciansthe modified social ecological model we used for this analysis, we included the following levels: interpersonal, social network, health system, and socio-cultural.AnalysisTwo researchers reviewed the transcripts and inductively developed a preliminary list of codes representing the main themes. These codes were categorized into one of four levels of a modified social ecological framework. Using the initial code structure, three individuals independently coded transcripts and cross-checked coding until a consensus was reached about the code structure. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti version 7 (Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany).ResultsAmong the 40 African migrant participants, 29 were traders, 9 were students, one was a restaurant worker, and one was a housewife (supporting information, S1 Table. Dem.

Ho are active in the community nearly every day they are

Ho are active in the community nearly every day they are active on Twitter. Once we had selected the communities of interest, we collected a more detailed tweet history for each participating user, as described in ?.rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org R. Soc. open sci. 3:…………………………………………4.2. Analysing the endurance of the communitiesWe analysed how well our communities endured over time. We examined a 28-day LM22A-4 solubility period starting on 22 September 2014 (which we will call the `autumn period’) and a 28-day period starting on 2 February 2015 (which we will call the `spring period’), and compared how many users in each community were active (mentioned or were mentioned by other users) within the community. Would the same users still be tweeting each other in the spring, or would the communities have dissolved over time? Figure 7 shows a log og plot of the results. We see that the communities persisted well from autumn to spring. In three of them, communities 14 (human resources), 17 (friends chatting) and 18 (friends chatting), all the original users were still active in the community. These are three out of the four smallest communities. The other 15 communities lost RRx-001 site between 6.5 (for community 16, nursing) and 39.3 (for community 7, Islam) of their users, with an average loss of 18.6 . We can see differences in the communities produced by the three algorithms here: the six produced by k-clique-communities lost an average of 3.8 of their users, compared to 16.4 for the Louvain method and 26.3 for weighted Louvain. Let us say user loss factor to mean the number of users active in the 28-day autumn period divided by the number active in the later 28-day spring period. When the user loss factor is 1, then the community has retained all its users; the higher the value, the more users the community has lost. We looked to see whether the conductance, sentiment or size of communities is related to their endurance. In figure 8, one can see that conductance is a predictor of what proportion of users will stop participating in the community, with correlation coefficient 0.42. When conductance is lower (so that the community is more densely connected internally and better separated from the rest of the network) then fewer users stopped participating on average. Similarly, the community sentiment is a predictor of community endurance, as shown in figure 9: the more positive the initial sentiment (measured in the autumn period), the fewer users stopped participating on average. For (SS) (as shown in figure 9) the correlation coefficient is -0.60; for (MC) it is -0.48 and for (L) it is -0.58. On the other hand, community size was not correlated to user loss factor; the correlation coefficient was 0.07. We noted in ?.2 that the correlations between the three sentiment measures (MC), (SS) and (L) at the individual tweet level were only moderate. The following shows the correlations between the community sentiments produced by the three measures, in the autumn and spring periods:Table 1. Selected summary statistics for the 18 communities we selected, in size order. The community marked as not connected had eight nodes separated from the rest…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Ho are active in the community nearly every day they are active on Twitter. Once we had selected the communities of interest, we collected a more detailed tweet history for each participating user, as described in ?.rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org R. Soc. open sci. 3:…………………………………………4.2. Analysing the endurance of the communitiesWe analysed how well our communities endured over time. We examined a 28-day period starting on 22 September 2014 (which we will call the `autumn period’) and a 28-day period starting on 2 February 2015 (which we will call the `spring period’), and compared how many users in each community were active (mentioned or were mentioned by other users) within the community. Would the same users still be tweeting each other in the spring, or would the communities have dissolved over time? Figure 7 shows a log og plot of the results. We see that the communities persisted well from autumn to spring. In three of them, communities 14 (human resources), 17 (friends chatting) and 18 (friends chatting), all the original users were still active in the community. These are three out of the four smallest communities. The other 15 communities lost between 6.5 (for community 16, nursing) and 39.3 (for community 7, Islam) of their users, with an average loss of 18.6 . We can see differences in the communities produced by the three algorithms here: the six produced by k-clique-communities lost an average of 3.8 of their users, compared to 16.4 for the Louvain method and 26.3 for weighted Louvain. Let us say user loss factor to mean the number of users active in the 28-day autumn period divided by the number active in the later 28-day spring period. When the user loss factor is 1, then the community has retained all its users; the higher the value, the more users the community has lost. We looked to see whether the conductance, sentiment or size of communities is related to their endurance. In figure 8, one can see that conductance is a predictor of what proportion of users will stop participating in the community, with correlation coefficient 0.42. When conductance is lower (so that the community is more densely connected internally and better separated from the rest of the network) then fewer users stopped participating on average. Similarly, the community sentiment is a predictor of community endurance, as shown in figure 9: the more positive the initial sentiment (measured in the autumn period), the fewer users stopped participating on average. For (SS) (as shown in figure 9) the correlation coefficient is -0.60; for (MC) it is -0.48 and for (L) it is -0.58. On the other hand, community size was not correlated to user loss factor; the correlation coefficient was 0.07. We noted in ?.2 that the correlations between the three sentiment measures (MC), (SS) and (L) at the individual tweet level were only moderate. The following shows the correlations between the community sentiments produced by the three measures, in the autumn and spring periods:Table 1. Selected summary statistics for the 18 communities we selected, in size order. The community marked as not connected had eight nodes separated from the rest…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

A six-min incubation with Gentle Cell Dissociation Reagent followed by complete

A six-min incubation with Gentle Cell Dissociation Reagent followed by complete physical dispersions by repeated pipetting. Large cells (>70 m) were then collected by passing the suspension Stattic chemical information successively through a series of nylon cell strainers (70 m and 40 m, Fisher Scientific) to generate three cell size PD-148515MedChemExpress Avasimibe fractions (>70 m, 40?0 m, and <40 m). The captured cells on the strainer were recovered by inverting the strainer and rinsing with culture medium. Similarly, middle size cells (40?0 m) were obtained from the <70-m fraction by collection on a 40-m cell strainer after removal of <70-m cells. The three size fractions were used in all subsequent analyses. Portions of the size-fractioned cells were fixed in 4 (vol/vol) paraformaldehyde/PBS solution for 15 min and resuspended (5.0 ?102 and 1.0 ?105 cells/100 L PBS). The suspensions were loaded into a Shandon single cytofunnel and centrifuged for 5 min at 1,000 ?g in a Shandon CytoSpin 4 cytocentrifuge (Thermo Scientific). Derivation Primary Human PHTu and PHTd. Placental tissue samples were collected by the Obstetrical Specimen Procurement Unit at Magee-Womens Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The work was performed under an exempt protocol approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Pittsburgh. Under the protocol, patients provided written consent for the use of deidentified discarded tissues for research upon admittance to the hospital. Primary villous PHTs were derived and cultured according to published procedures (12, 49, 50) from three term human placentas (one female and two males). Multiple primary cultures were established from each placenta at a density of 3.5 ?105 cells/cm2 in DMEM supplemented with 10 (vol/vol) FBS and antibiotics under a 5 (vol/vol) CO2/air atmosphere at 37 . Triplicate cultures from each placenta were harvested at 9 h (PHTu) before syncytium formation and subsequently at 48 h (PHTd) when syncytium formation had occurred. The sieving technique used for the hESC-derived cells was thus unnecessary for the term placental STB. Total RNA was extracted from each sample (3 ?3 at 9 h and 48 h, respectively) to provide a total of 18 samples for RNA-seq analysis. Additional methods are described in SI Appendix, SI Materials and Methods. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank L. C. Schulz for her critical reading of the manuscript and her helpful comments; N. J. Bivens for RNA-seq; W. Spollen, C. Bottoms, and S. Givan for their sequence data analysis; Y. Tian for immunoassays; A. Jurkevich for technical assistance; M. Schauflinger, D. Grant, and T. A. White for sharing equipment; and D. F. Reith for his editorial assistance and administrative support. This study was supported by NIH Grant R01HD077108 (to T.E. and D.J.S.) and Grant R01HD067759 (to R.M.R.).7. Loke YW, King A (1995) Human Implantation: Cell Biology and Immunology (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge). 8. Miller RK, et al. (2005) Human placental explants in culture: Approaches and assessments. Placenta 26(6):439?48. 9. Sim CM, Sibley CP, Jones CJ, Turner MA, Greenwood SL (2001) The functional regeneration of syncytiotrophoblast in cultured explants of term placenta. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 280(4):R1116 1122. 10. Wice B, Menton D, Geuze H, Schwartz AL (1990) Modulators of cyclic AMP metabolism induce syncytiotrophoblast formation in vitro. Exp Cell Res 186(2):306?16. 11. Orendi K, Gauster M, Moser G, Meiri H, Huppertz B (2010) The choriocarcinoma cell line BeW.A six-min incubation with Gentle Cell Dissociation Reagent followed by complete physical dispersions by repeated pipetting. Large cells (>70 m) were then collected by passing the suspension successively through a series of nylon cell strainers (70 m and 40 m, Fisher Scientific) to generate three cell size fractions (>70 m, 40?0 m, and <40 m). The captured cells on the strainer were recovered by inverting the strainer and rinsing with culture medium. Similarly, middle size cells (40?0 m) were obtained from the <70-m fraction by collection on a 40-m cell strainer after removal of <70-m cells. The three size fractions were used in all subsequent analyses. Portions of the size-fractioned cells were fixed in 4 (vol/vol) paraformaldehyde/PBS solution for 15 min and resuspended (5.0 ?102 and 1.0 ?105 cells/100 L PBS). The suspensions were loaded into a Shandon single cytofunnel and centrifuged for 5 min at 1,000 ?g in a Shandon CytoSpin 4 cytocentrifuge (Thermo Scientific). Derivation Primary Human PHTu and PHTd. Placental tissue samples were collected by the Obstetrical Specimen Procurement Unit at Magee-Womens Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The work was performed under an exempt protocol approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Pittsburgh. Under the protocol, patients provided written consent for the use of deidentified discarded tissues for research upon admittance to the hospital. Primary villous PHTs were derived and cultured according to published procedures (12, 49, 50) from three term human placentas (one female and two males). Multiple primary cultures were established from each placenta at a density of 3.5 ?105 cells/cm2 in DMEM supplemented with 10 (vol/vol) FBS and antibiotics under a 5 (vol/vol) CO2/air atmosphere at 37 . Triplicate cultures from each placenta were harvested at 9 h (PHTu) before syncytium formation and subsequently at 48 h (PHTd) when syncytium formation had occurred. The sieving technique used for the hESC-derived cells was thus unnecessary for the term placental STB. Total RNA was extracted from each sample (3 ?3 at 9 h and 48 h, respectively) to provide a total of 18 samples for RNA-seq analysis. Additional methods are described in SI Appendix, SI Materials and Methods. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank L. C. Schulz for her critical reading of the manuscript and her helpful comments; N. J. Bivens for RNA-seq; W. Spollen, C. Bottoms, and S. Givan for their sequence data analysis; Y. Tian for immunoassays; A. Jurkevich for technical assistance; M. Schauflinger, D. Grant, and T. A. White for sharing equipment; and D. F. Reith for his editorial assistance and administrative support. This study was supported by NIH Grant R01HD077108 (to T.E. and D.J.S.) and Grant R01HD067759 (to R.M.R.).7. Loke YW, King A (1995) Human Implantation: Cell Biology and Immunology (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge). 8. Miller RK, et al. (2005) Human placental explants in culture: Approaches and assessments. Placenta 26(6):439?48. 9. Sim CM, Sibley CP, Jones CJ, Turner MA, Greenwood SL (2001) The functional regeneration of syncytiotrophoblast in cultured explants of term placenta. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 280(4):R1116 1122. 10. Wice B, Menton D, Geuze H, Schwartz AL (1990) Modulators of cyclic AMP metabolism induce syncytiotrophoblast formation in vitro. Exp Cell Res 186(2):306?16. 11. Orendi K, Gauster M, Moser G, Meiri H, Huppertz B (2010) The choriocarcinoma cell line BeW.

Bbean and the African Union invariably partition populations under nation states.

Bbean and the African Union invariably partition populations under nation states. In this context, the nation state is the primary geographical entity considered for funding, planning and allocation of resources for development. Despite the importance of accurate statistics to quantify the state of a country and progress towards favourable socio-economic outcomes, regular and reliable measurement is difficult and costly particularly in low income countries. With this in mind, in this section we compare the positions of countries within the different networks discussed previously to the values of several socioeconomic indicators. Fig 7 shows the Spearman rank correlation between the network degrees of the six networks (in and out degree, and weighted in and out degree) and various socio-economic indicators: GDP, Life expectancy, Corruption Perception Index (CPI), Internet penetration rate, Happiness index, Gini index, Economic Complexity Index (ECI), Literacy, Poverty, CO2 emissions, Fixed phone line penetration, Mobile phone users, and the Human Development Index. These indicators and their significance for the international development agenda are described in detail in the data section (see Table 1). For each of the six networks, we compute the network degree, defined as the sum of the neighbours for both incoming and RG7666 web outgoing connections where directed. This reflects how well connected a country is in a particular network. We also take into purchase Nutlin-3a chiral account the amount of connectivity by computing the weighted incoming and outgoing degrees on each network, defined as the sum of the normalised flows from all neighbours and reflecting the volume of incoming and outgoing flows. In addition to these standard single-layer network metrics, we define and compute the global degree of a country, which takes into account connectivity across all networks.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,11 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingFig 6. Comparative analysis of Postal Network to other networks in terms of Jaccard overlap, percent shared edges, edge weight correlation and in and out degree correlation. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976.gPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,12 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingFig 7. Spearman rank correlations between global flow network degrees and socioeconomic indicators. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976.gAll degrees of single networks and the global degree appear vertically in Fig 7 and all indicators appear horizontally. In general, weighted outgoing degrees on the single networks perform best for the postal, trade, ip and flight networks. An exception from the physical flow networks is the migration network, where the incoming migration degree is more correlated with the various indicators.The best-performing degree, in terms of consistently high performance across indicators is the global degree (for 7 out of indicators). This suggests that looking at how well connected a country is in the global multiplex can be more indicative of its socioeconomic profile as a whole than looking at single networks. A detailed correlation matrix including correlation coefficients is supplied in S1 Fig. The GDP per capita and life expectancy are most closely correlated with the global degree, closely followed by the postal, trade and ip weighed degrees. This shows a relationship between national wealt.Bbean and the African Union invariably partition populations under nation states. In this context, the nation state is the primary geographical entity considered for funding, planning and allocation of resources for development. Despite the importance of accurate statistics to quantify the state of a country and progress towards favourable socio-economic outcomes, regular and reliable measurement is difficult and costly particularly in low income countries. With this in mind, in this section we compare the positions of countries within the different networks discussed previously to the values of several socioeconomic indicators. Fig 7 shows the Spearman rank correlation between the network degrees of the six networks (in and out degree, and weighted in and out degree) and various socio-economic indicators: GDP, Life expectancy, Corruption Perception Index (CPI), Internet penetration rate, Happiness index, Gini index, Economic Complexity Index (ECI), Literacy, Poverty, CO2 emissions, Fixed phone line penetration, Mobile phone users, and the Human Development Index. These indicators and their significance for the international development agenda are described in detail in the data section (see Table 1). For each of the six networks, we compute the network degree, defined as the sum of the neighbours for both incoming and outgoing connections where directed. This reflects how well connected a country is in a particular network. We also take into account the amount of connectivity by computing the weighted incoming and outgoing degrees on each network, defined as the sum of the normalised flows from all neighbours and reflecting the volume of incoming and outgoing flows. In addition to these standard single-layer network metrics, we define and compute the global degree of a country, which takes into account connectivity across all networks.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,11 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingFig 6. Comparative analysis of Postal Network to other networks in terms of Jaccard overlap, percent shared edges, edge weight correlation and in and out degree correlation. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976.gPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,12 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingFig 7. Spearman rank correlations between global flow network degrees and socioeconomic indicators. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976.gAll degrees of single networks and the global degree appear vertically in Fig 7 and all indicators appear horizontally. In general, weighted outgoing degrees on the single networks perform best for the postal, trade, ip and flight networks. An exception from the physical flow networks is the migration network, where the incoming migration degree is more correlated with the various indicators.The best-performing degree, in terms of consistently high performance across indicators is the global degree (for 7 out of indicators). This suggests that looking at how well connected a country is in the global multiplex can be more indicative of its socioeconomic profile as a whole than looking at single networks. A detailed correlation matrix including correlation coefficients is supplied in S1 Fig. The GDP per capita and life expectancy are most closely correlated with the global degree, closely followed by the postal, trade and ip weighed degrees. This shows a relationship between national wealt.

Neglect score !2 at 7 and/or 11y33y45y50yMean difference (95 CI

Neglect score !2 at 7 and/or purchase Basmisanil 11y33y45y50yMean difference (95 CI) in BMI (kg/m2) 0.08 (-0.13,0.30) 0.17 (-0.01,0.35) 0.18 (-0.51,0.88) -0.33 (-0.66,0.01) -0.12 (-0.40,0.16) 1.15 (-0.03,2.33) 0.00 (-0.40,0.40) 0.03 (-0.31,0.38) 0.69 (-0.60,1.99) 0.09 (-0.29,0.47) 0.09 (-0.24,0.42) 0.93 (-0.47,2.32) 0.40 (-0.14,0.93) 0.18 (-0.27,0.63) 0.13 (-1.64,1.89) 0.36 (0.09,0.63) 0.58 (0.05,1.12) 0.23 (-0.23,0.69) -0.13 (-2.01,1.74) 0.55 (0.20,0.90) 0.97 (0.32,1.62) 0.41 (-0.14,0.97) 0.10 (-2.19,2.39) 0.69 (0.29,1.08)-0.08 (-0.18,0.02) 0.90 (0.21,3.74) 1.29 (0.46,3.66)-0.11 (-0.26,0.03)0.01 (-0.17,0.19)0.54 (0.35,0.73)OR (95 CI) obesity 0.35 (0.05,2.54) 0.76 (0.23,2.45) 5.44 (0.70,42.21) 0.33 (0.05,2.41) 1.02 (0.37,2.86) 4.11 (0.54,31.61) 1.86 (1.16,2.98) 0.45 (0.11,1.86) 1.02 (0.44,2.38) 3.54 (0.46,27.25) 2.34 (1.61,3.40) Females Mean difference (95 CI) in BMI (kg/m2) -0.16(-0.42,0.09) -0.15(-0.34,0.04) -0.14(-0.54,0.25) -0.29(-0.66,0.07) -0.17(-0.44,0.10) -0.36(-0.93,0.20) -0.02(-0.42,0.38) -0.07(-0.37,0.24) -0.27(-0.89,0.35) 0.11(-0.31,0.53) -0.01(-0.32,0.30) 0.27(-0.36,0.91) 0.16(-0.44,0.77) -0.20 (-0.65,0.25) -0.42 (-1.35,0.52) 0.78 (0.43,1.14) 0.99(0.31,1.66) 0.41(-0.09,0.92) 0.33(-0.67,1.32) 1.18(0.41,1.95) 0.61(0.06,1.16) 1.09(-0.06,2.24) 1.28 (0.84,1.94) 1.21 (0.84,1.74) 1.04 (0.24,4.52) 1.31 (1.00,1.71) 1.15 (0.91,1.45) 1.48 (0.59,3.67) 1.50 (1.13,1.99) 1.36 (1.06,1.74) 1.44 (0.53,3.89)0.64 (0.34,1.21)1.17 (0.70,1.95)1.17 (0.95,1.45)1.22 (1.02,1.45)1.35 (1.14,1.61)0.04 (-0.08,0.16)0.03 (-0.15,0.21)0.29 (0.07,0.51)0.65 (0.43,0.88) OR (95 CI) obesity1.15 (0.69,1.61)1.40 (0.91,1.89)0.67 (0.21,2.15) 1.35 (0.71,2.58) 0 0.99 (0.66,1.49)0.31 (0.04,2.24) 1.37 (0.64,2.92) 0 1.41 (0.87,2.28)0 0.75 (0.27,2.09) 0.88 (0.12,6.47) 2.08 (1.21,3.55)0.51 (0.16,1.62) 0.79 (0.40,1.58) 0.83 (0.20,3.42) 2.34 (1.68,3.27)1.07 (0.72,1.61) 0.93 (0.67,1.27) 0.92 (0.48,1.78) 1.48 (1.21,1.81)1.48 (1.14,1.91) 1.15 (0.94,1.42) 1.15 (0.77,1.72) 1.39 (1.16,1.66)1.73 (1.28,2.32) 1.44 (1.15,1.80) 1.75 (1.13,2.71) 1.54 (1.28,1.86)No females in these Actinomycin D supplier groups were obese.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119985.t!2 at 7y and/or 11y (Table 1). Mean BMI increased throughout adulthood from 23.1 to 28.1kg/m2 in males and 22.1 to 26.8kg/m2 in females, ages 23 to 50y. Prevalence of obesity was <2.5 in childhood, but was much greater, at 25 in mid-adulthood, 45 to 50y (Table 1). Simple analyses of BMI at each age 7 to 50y showed a higher mean BMI in adulthood or OR for obesity in both sexes for neglect at 7/11y, physical and psychological abuse and, in females only, sexual abuse (Table 2). Pre-adolescent BMI, i.e. at 7 and 11y, was not elevated in association with abuse or neglect. Fig. 1 illustrates this pattern for physical abuse: e.g. for females, from no excess risk in childhood to an OR of 1.73 (1.28,2.32) at 50y. Thus for some maltreatments, simple analyses suggest a pattern from little difference to higher BMI with increasing age from child to mid-adulthood as seen in sensitivity analysis using !95th BMI percentile for obesity (S1 Table).PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119985 March 26,6 /Child Maltreatment and BMI TrajectoriesFig 1. Difference in mean BMI (kg/m2) and OR for obesity (95 CIs) from 7 to 50y by physical abuse in males and females. Footnotes: participant report in adulthood (45y) that they had been physically abused by a parent during their childhood before 16y, i.e. punched, kicked or hit or beaten with an object, or needed medical treatment. doi:10.1371/journal.Neglect score !2 at 7 and/or 11y33y45y50yMean difference (95 CI) in BMI (kg/m2) 0.08 (-0.13,0.30) 0.17 (-0.01,0.35) 0.18 (-0.51,0.88) -0.33 (-0.66,0.01) -0.12 (-0.40,0.16) 1.15 (-0.03,2.33) 0.00 (-0.40,0.40) 0.03 (-0.31,0.38) 0.69 (-0.60,1.99) 0.09 (-0.29,0.47) 0.09 (-0.24,0.42) 0.93 (-0.47,2.32) 0.40 (-0.14,0.93) 0.18 (-0.27,0.63) 0.13 (-1.64,1.89) 0.36 (0.09,0.63) 0.58 (0.05,1.12) 0.23 (-0.23,0.69) -0.13 (-2.01,1.74) 0.55 (0.20,0.90) 0.97 (0.32,1.62) 0.41 (-0.14,0.97) 0.10 (-2.19,2.39) 0.69 (0.29,1.08)-0.08 (-0.18,0.02) 0.90 (0.21,3.74) 1.29 (0.46,3.66)-0.11 (-0.26,0.03)0.01 (-0.17,0.19)0.54 (0.35,0.73)OR (95 CI) obesity 0.35 (0.05,2.54) 0.76 (0.23,2.45) 5.44 (0.70,42.21) 0.33 (0.05,2.41) 1.02 (0.37,2.86) 4.11 (0.54,31.61) 1.86 (1.16,2.98) 0.45 (0.11,1.86) 1.02 (0.44,2.38) 3.54 (0.46,27.25) 2.34 (1.61,3.40) Females Mean difference (95 CI) in BMI (kg/m2) -0.16(-0.42,0.09) -0.15(-0.34,0.04) -0.14(-0.54,0.25) -0.29(-0.66,0.07) -0.17(-0.44,0.10) -0.36(-0.93,0.20) -0.02(-0.42,0.38) -0.07(-0.37,0.24) -0.27(-0.89,0.35) 0.11(-0.31,0.53) -0.01(-0.32,0.30) 0.27(-0.36,0.91) 0.16(-0.44,0.77) -0.20 (-0.65,0.25) -0.42 (-1.35,0.52) 0.78 (0.43,1.14) 0.99(0.31,1.66) 0.41(-0.09,0.92) 0.33(-0.67,1.32) 1.18(0.41,1.95) 0.61(0.06,1.16) 1.09(-0.06,2.24) 1.28 (0.84,1.94) 1.21 (0.84,1.74) 1.04 (0.24,4.52) 1.31 (1.00,1.71) 1.15 (0.91,1.45) 1.48 (0.59,3.67) 1.50 (1.13,1.99) 1.36 (1.06,1.74) 1.44 (0.53,3.89)0.64 (0.34,1.21)1.17 (0.70,1.95)1.17 (0.95,1.45)1.22 (1.02,1.45)1.35 (1.14,1.61)0.04 (-0.08,0.16)0.03 (-0.15,0.21)0.29 (0.07,0.51)0.65 (0.43,0.88) OR (95 CI) obesity1.15 (0.69,1.61)1.40 (0.91,1.89)0.67 (0.21,2.15) 1.35 (0.71,2.58) 0 0.99 (0.66,1.49)0.31 (0.04,2.24) 1.37 (0.64,2.92) 0 1.41 (0.87,2.28)0 0.75 (0.27,2.09) 0.88 (0.12,6.47) 2.08 (1.21,3.55)0.51 (0.16,1.62) 0.79 (0.40,1.58) 0.83 (0.20,3.42) 2.34 (1.68,3.27)1.07 (0.72,1.61) 0.93 (0.67,1.27) 0.92 (0.48,1.78) 1.48 (1.21,1.81)1.48 (1.14,1.91) 1.15 (0.94,1.42) 1.15 (0.77,1.72) 1.39 (1.16,1.66)1.73 (1.28,2.32) 1.44 (1.15,1.80) 1.75 (1.13,2.71) 1.54 (1.28,1.86)No females in these groups were obese.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119985.t!2 at 7y and/or 11y (Table 1). Mean BMI increased throughout adulthood from 23.1 to 28.1kg/m2 in males and 22.1 to 26.8kg/m2 in females, ages 23 to 50y. Prevalence of obesity was <2.5 in childhood, but was much greater, at 25 in mid-adulthood, 45 to 50y (Table 1). Simple analyses of BMI at each age 7 to 50y showed a higher mean BMI in adulthood or OR for obesity in both sexes for neglect at 7/11y, physical and psychological abuse and, in females only, sexual abuse (Table 2). Pre-adolescent BMI, i.e. at 7 and 11y, was not elevated in association with abuse or neglect. Fig. 1 illustrates this pattern for physical abuse: e.g. for females, from no excess risk in childhood to an OR of 1.73 (1.28,2.32) at 50y. Thus for some maltreatments, simple analyses suggest a pattern from little difference to higher BMI with increasing age from child to mid-adulthood as seen in sensitivity analysis using !95th BMI percentile for obesity (S1 Table).PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119985 March 26,6 /Child Maltreatment and BMI TrajectoriesFig 1. Difference in mean BMI (kg/m2) and OR for obesity (95 CIs) from 7 to 50y by physical abuse in males and females. Footnotes: participant report in adulthood (45y) that they had been physically abused by a parent during their childhood before 16y, i.e. punched, kicked or hit or beaten with an object, or needed medical treatment. doi:10.1371/journal.

.23, P = 0.001) and (t(177) = – 3.20, P = 0.002), respectively. All the participants reacted faster

.23, P = 0.001) and (t(177) = – 3.20, P = 0.002), respectively. All the participants reacted faster to ordinary than to LY2510924 dose extraordinary roles for both acceptances and rejections (F(1, 163) = 5.49, P = 0.020). Globally, accepting roles took longer than rejecting them (F(1, 163) = 4.37, P = 0.038). The mixed-model ANOVA showed absolutely no effect of SPQ scores on the reaction times (F(1, 163) = 0.024, P = 0.876). There was an ordinariness ?AG-490 web favorability ?SPQ interaction (F(1, 163) = 4.12, P = 0.044), but post hoc analyses using independent samples t-tests revealed no difference between the participants with high- and those with low-SPQ scores for any combinations. DISCUSSION The drive to perform extraordinary social roles was quantified in healthy subjects to see whether it predicts schizophrenia-like symptoms, particularly subclinical disorganization. As expected, the greater the number of extraordinary roles participants were willing to engage in, the higher their schizotypy scores as measured by the SPQ (Figures 1b and d). The multiple regression revealed that the percentages of acceptances of the roles that differ the most from ordinary favorable roles, that is, the extraordinary unfavorable roles, were the ones that best predicted the clinical scores. This supports the idea that the drive for performing roles that are the most difficult to reconcile with those that most people have to perform in everyday life may engender the subclinical disorganization symptoms measured by the SPQnpj Schizophrenia (2016) 16035 Extraordinary unfavorable roles 9.34E – 09 0.00003 7.43E – 07 8.63E – 08 0.039 0.0003 0.00003 0.00006 0.078 0.040 0.097 0.055 0.061 – 0.016 0.024 0.036 Total SPQ Interpersonal Delusion-like ideation Disorganization Total PDI PDI distress PDI preoccupation PDI conviction 0.145 0.113 0.123 0.127 0.060 0.056 0.098 0.100 0.044 0.117 0.088 0.079 0.502 0.531 0.274 0.265 0.401 0.287 0.368 0.370 0.209 0.324 0.402 0.386 7.17E – 09 0.00005 1.45E – 07 1.16E – 07 0.019 0.00002 3.16E – 06 7.86E -06 0.251 0.165 0.256 0.212 0.145 0.166 0.245 0.246 0.0004 0.022 0.0003 0.003 0.106 0.063 0.006 0.006 0.324 0.256 0.259 0.308 0.138 0.243 0.289 0.274 4.26E – 06 0.0003 0.0003 0.00001 0.124 0.006 0.001 0.002 0.284 0.584 0.178 0.450 0.497 0.858 0.786 0.Abbreviations: PDI, Peters et al. Delusion Inventory; SDS, social desirability scale; SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire. N = 195 for the SPQ and its three factors and N = 128 for the PDI and its three subscales. Values in bold are statistically significant P values (Po 0.05).P r P r P r P r P r P r P r P rPearson’s correlation coefficients between the percentages of acceptance for each social role and the SPQ and PDI scores when controlling for age, education, and SDSExtraordinary favorable rolesOrdinary unfavorable rolesPublished in partnership with the Schizophrenia International Research SocietyTable 2.Clinical scoresOrdinary rolesExtraordinary rolesFavorable rolesUnfavorable rolesOrdinary favorable roles0.194 0.174 0.127 0.186 0.069 0.128 0.160 0.0.007 0.016 0.079 0.016 0.442 0.155 0.074 0.0.359 0.248 0.344 0.320 0.196 0.291 0.382 0.3.06E – 07 0.001 9.35E – 07 5.74E – 06 0.028 0.001 0.00001 0.0.399 0.297 0.347 0.374 0.184 0.314 0.364 0.Extraordinary roles and schizotypy AL Fernandez-Cruz et alFigure 1. (a ) Percentages of roles accepted in each category combination according to SPQ scores. Each small circle represents a participant (n = 203). Its `x’ coordinate is his/her SPQ score and the `y..23, P = 0.001) and (t(177) = – 3.20, P = 0.002), respectively. All the participants reacted faster to ordinary than to extraordinary roles for both acceptances and rejections (F(1, 163) = 5.49, P = 0.020). Globally, accepting roles took longer than rejecting them (F(1, 163) = 4.37, P = 0.038). The mixed-model ANOVA showed absolutely no effect of SPQ scores on the reaction times (F(1, 163) = 0.024, P = 0.876). There was an ordinariness ?favorability ?SPQ interaction (F(1, 163) = 4.12, P = 0.044), but post hoc analyses using independent samples t-tests revealed no difference between the participants with high- and those with low-SPQ scores for any combinations. DISCUSSION The drive to perform extraordinary social roles was quantified in healthy subjects to see whether it predicts schizophrenia-like symptoms, particularly subclinical disorganization. As expected, the greater the number of extraordinary roles participants were willing to engage in, the higher their schizotypy scores as measured by the SPQ (Figures 1b and d). The multiple regression revealed that the percentages of acceptances of the roles that differ the most from ordinary favorable roles, that is, the extraordinary unfavorable roles, were the ones that best predicted the clinical scores. This supports the idea that the drive for performing roles that are the most difficult to reconcile with those that most people have to perform in everyday life may engender the subclinical disorganization symptoms measured by the SPQnpj Schizophrenia (2016) 16035 Extraordinary unfavorable roles 9.34E – 09 0.00003 7.43E – 07 8.63E – 08 0.039 0.0003 0.00003 0.00006 0.078 0.040 0.097 0.055 0.061 – 0.016 0.024 0.036 Total SPQ Interpersonal Delusion-like ideation Disorganization Total PDI PDI distress PDI preoccupation PDI conviction 0.145 0.113 0.123 0.127 0.060 0.056 0.098 0.100 0.044 0.117 0.088 0.079 0.502 0.531 0.274 0.265 0.401 0.287 0.368 0.370 0.209 0.324 0.402 0.386 7.17E – 09 0.00005 1.45E – 07 1.16E – 07 0.019 0.00002 3.16E – 06 7.86E -06 0.251 0.165 0.256 0.212 0.145 0.166 0.245 0.246 0.0004 0.022 0.0003 0.003 0.106 0.063 0.006 0.006 0.324 0.256 0.259 0.308 0.138 0.243 0.289 0.274 4.26E – 06 0.0003 0.0003 0.00001 0.124 0.006 0.001 0.002 0.284 0.584 0.178 0.450 0.497 0.858 0.786 0.Abbreviations: PDI, Peters et al. Delusion Inventory; SDS, social desirability scale; SPQ, schizotypal personality questionnaire. N = 195 for the SPQ and its three factors and N = 128 for the PDI and its three subscales. Values in bold are statistically significant P values (Po 0.05).P r P r P r P r P r P r P r P rPearson’s correlation coefficients between the percentages of acceptance for each social role and the SPQ and PDI scores when controlling for age, education, and SDSExtraordinary favorable rolesOrdinary unfavorable rolesPublished in partnership with the Schizophrenia International Research SocietyTable 2.Clinical scoresOrdinary rolesExtraordinary rolesFavorable rolesUnfavorable rolesOrdinary favorable roles0.194 0.174 0.127 0.186 0.069 0.128 0.160 0.0.007 0.016 0.079 0.016 0.442 0.155 0.074 0.0.359 0.248 0.344 0.320 0.196 0.291 0.382 0.3.06E – 07 0.001 9.35E – 07 5.74E – 06 0.028 0.001 0.00001 0.0.399 0.297 0.347 0.374 0.184 0.314 0.364 0.Extraordinary roles and schizotypy AL Fernandez-Cruz et alFigure 1. (a ) Percentages of roles accepted in each category combination according to SPQ scores. Each small circle represents a participant (n = 203). Its `x’ coordinate is his/her SPQ score and the `y.

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting

D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant get PD0325901 P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (PM01183 structure Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.D ETS-1 blockade have beneficial additive effects on renal injury, suggesting that concomitant blockade of RAS and ETS-1 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsWe are grateful for the support of Core Facilities at the O’Brien Kidney Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Sources of Funding A Merit Review Award (E.A. Jaimes), a Research Grant (1 IP1 BX001595; P.W. Sanders and E.A. Jaimes) from the Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases George M. O’Brien Kidney and Urological Research Centers Program Grant P30-DK-079337, and a Byrne Fund Grant (E.A. Jaimes) from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center funded these studies.
Adolescence is the developmental period most strongly associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use (Colder et al., 2002). Adolescent alcohol use is of concern because it is often associated with a variety of negative consequences including increased alcohol use later in life (Hawkins et al., 1997), decreased academic performance (Balsa et al., 2011), and illicit drug use (Hill et al., 2000). Understanding the factors that influence adolescent drinking is important for developing empirically supported etiological models and effective interventions. During adolescence, an increasing amount of time is spent outside of the home and in the context of peers (Spear, 2000), and peers are believed to play a central role in the initiation and escalation of adolescent alcohol use (Barnes et al., 2007). Adolescents are often motivated to align their behaviors and opinions with those of their peers in part because they have a strong desire to maintain close peer relationships and to be accepted by their peers groups (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Thus, perceived peer norms (e.g., perceptions of the behaviors peers engage in as well as perceptions of behaviors peers approve of) are viewed as an important mechanism through which peers influence a variety of behaviors, including alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this study, we propose that the influence of perceived norms on adolescent early alcohol use is not uniform and test whether the strength of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use depends on the type of social norm (descriptive or injunctive), an adolescent’s social goals, and grade. Social Norms According to the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, individuals adjust their behavior to match that of a relevant referent group because norms dictate what behaviors are socially acceptable (Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004). In this regard, social norms have been conceptualized as informal rules and standards that groups adopt to guide and constrain behavior (Cialdini and Trost, 1998). The evidence suggests that two types of perceived social norms are particularly relevant for understanding adolescent drinking behaviors, descriptive norms (perceptions of peer drinking) and injunctive norms (perceptions of the acceptability of peer drinking) (Borsari and Carey, 2001). Descriptive and injunctive norms have been associated with a variety of drinking behaviors in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Collins and Spelman, 2013 Larimer et al., 2004; Read et al., 2002; Teunissen et al.

T the funeral … they said that I should take the child.

T the funeral … they said that I should take the child. And I said, how will I take the child yet I’m sick? And the thieves have taken all my animals. And at least there, he will have milk to eat, and I refused to take him … this child is yours not mine. And after I buried the mother, three days passed … they came and brought this baby saying their mother said this child is supposed to be here …Yet I said I don’t need him. And they left him. He was very sick. He was very sick. He nearly died … ‘M’e Masello highlights the complexity of fostering AIDS orphans. She felt that she did not have the resources or physical capabilities to care for Lebo and his siblings, yet there was no one else willing to care for them. The Lasalocid (sodium)MedChemExpress Sodium lasalocid children were left with her after lengthy discussions between the two families and their chiefs. However, this does not indicate any lack of love or affection for the children on her part. She was particularly close with Lebo. She often emphasized how happy she was to be living with the children, and how much they helped her. Nevertheless, although she was deemed most capable of caring for Lebo and his siblings, this did not mean that they were ensured adequate care. Although, initially, ‘M’e Masello was physically and mentally able to provide for the children, for the last year of her life she was unable to give them the care they needed. This was especially true for Lebo, whose HIV regimen was particularly complex owing to numerous misdiagnoses. As a result of his grandmother’s sickness, his adherence to his antiretroviral treatment declined. I learned recently that ‘M’e Masello had died. Now the struggle to find a caregiver for the children has begun again.BQ-123 biological activity Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptConclusionA history of dependence on migrant labour, changing marriage practices, and HIV/ AIDS have altered kin-based fostering networks among Basotho families. More children are in need of care, yet there are fewer caregivers to provide it. In rural communities, whereJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageinstitutionalized care is unavailable and external support is limited, kin-based care is the only option. In order to cope with these pressures, families are organizing themselves by focusing their resources matrilocally. Yet they are making sense of this model of care within the patrilineal system of child fostering. This is most evident in the ways family members negotiate for the care of children. In particular, primarily elderly female caregivers attempt to demonstrate their right to the children, often focusing on the presence or absence of bridewealth as key to their negotiation strategies. Simultaneously, there is an overriding emphasis on the quality of care that potential caregivers can provide (Ksoll 2007). The day-to-day role of women in this system has not drastically changed: women still do the majority of the care work. In fact, women are being called upon to care for an increased number of children — including those with greater health problems — yet with diminishing resources. What has changed, however, is the role a woman’s natal family plays in supporting her. In a context where marriage is a risk factor for contracting HIV (Smith 2007), but where having children still holds significant social value (Booth 2004), an easily dissolvable marriage may be seen as advantageous by mothers and maternal grandmothers, who can manipulate t.T the funeral … they said that I should take the child. And I said, how will I take the child yet I’m sick? And the thieves have taken all my animals. And at least there, he will have milk to eat, and I refused to take him … this child is yours not mine. And after I buried the mother, three days passed … they came and brought this baby saying their mother said this child is supposed to be here …Yet I said I don’t need him. And they left him. He was very sick. He was very sick. He nearly died … ‘M’e Masello highlights the complexity of fostering AIDS orphans. She felt that she did not have the resources or physical capabilities to care for Lebo and his siblings, yet there was no one else willing to care for them. The children were left with her after lengthy discussions between the two families and their chiefs. However, this does not indicate any lack of love or affection for the children on her part. She was particularly close with Lebo. She often emphasized how happy she was to be living with the children, and how much they helped her. Nevertheless, although she was deemed most capable of caring for Lebo and his siblings, this did not mean that they were ensured adequate care. Although, initially, ‘M’e Masello was physically and mentally able to provide for the children, for the last year of her life she was unable to give them the care they needed. This was especially true for Lebo, whose HIV regimen was particularly complex owing to numerous misdiagnoses. As a result of his grandmother’s sickness, his adherence to his antiretroviral treatment declined. I learned recently that ‘M’e Masello had died. Now the struggle to find a caregiver for the children has begun again.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptConclusionA history of dependence on migrant labour, changing marriage practices, and HIV/ AIDS have altered kin-based fostering networks among Basotho families. More children are in need of care, yet there are fewer caregivers to provide it. In rural communities, whereJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageinstitutionalized care is unavailable and external support is limited, kin-based care is the only option. In order to cope with these pressures, families are organizing themselves by focusing their resources matrilocally. Yet they are making sense of this model of care within the patrilineal system of child fostering. This is most evident in the ways family members negotiate for the care of children. In particular, primarily elderly female caregivers attempt to demonstrate their right to the children, often focusing on the presence or absence of bridewealth as key to their negotiation strategies. Simultaneously, there is an overriding emphasis on the quality of care that potential caregivers can provide (Ksoll 2007). The day-to-day role of women in this system has not drastically changed: women still do the majority of the care work. In fact, women are being called upon to care for an increased number of children — including those with greater health problems — yet with diminishing resources. What has changed, however, is the role a woman’s natal family plays in supporting her. In a context where marriage is a risk factor for contracting HIV (Smith 2007), but where having children still holds significant social value (Booth 2004), an easily dissolvable marriage may be seen as advantageous by mothers and maternal grandmothers, who can manipulate t.

Sub-human monstrosities that bear an uncanny likeness to Tonks’ portraits and

Sub-human monstrosities that bear an uncanny likeness to Tonks’ portraits and the case photographs of the same men housed in the HMPL-012 chemical information Gillies Archives at Queen Mary’s Hospital in Sidcup. Tonks regarded his surgical studies as “rather dreadful subjects for the public view” (n.p.) and complained of “all the more tedious visitors” to the hospital for whom the drawings were one of the “sights” (Hone, 128). In recent years, though, the portraits have found a wider audience. They have been exhibited at the Venice Biennale, Tate Britain, the Science Museum in London, the Hunterian Museum at the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the Wellcome Collection, University College London, and the National Army Museum in Chelsea. In June 2007 the full series was made digitally available on the website of the Gillies Archives,4 and Pat TGR-1202 chemical information Barker has spoken of them as a source of inspiration for her new novel Toby’s Room.5 The photographs of Gillies’ patients have entered the public domain alongside the drawings. A selection of complete case files from the Gillies Archives can be viewed online as part of the Wellcome-funded Sci-Art collaboration, Project Fa de, and case photographs have featured in several recent exhibitions including Faces of Battle at the National Army Museum and War and Medicine at the Wellcome.6 Even more than the drawings, the photographs question the limits and propriety of spectatorship. At least with the pastels, one is aware — almost physically — of Tonks’ attentiveness, the qualityM E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R EFIGURE 1 Photograph of Henry Tonks in his room at The Queen’s Hospital, Sidcup, 1917.P H OTO G R AP H I E SFIGURE 2 Horace Nicholls, Repairing War’s Ravages: Renovating facial injuries. Captain Derwent Wood painting the plate. Imperial War Museum, Q.30.457. ?IWM.M E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R Eof the artist’s touch and the duration of his gaze. His authority, as an artist and surgeon, licenses our own interest. The photographs appear unmediated by any aesthetic concerns: physically and psychologically naked. When I teach this material (usually to history of art students), I tend not to use the most harrowing images of facial injury and reconstructive surgery. Apart from my own discomfort, I worry how my students will respond: with pity? With disgust? Fascination? Should I name the patient, or protect his anonymity? Would he, or his relatives, want the photograph to be shown in a non-medical context? Is there a happy ending — a redemptive “after surgery” to counterbalance the “before”? These questions might give me pause for thought, but they generally remain unspoken. Here, though, I have chosen one image precisely because it confronts the interested, curious or appalled viewer with the problematic nature of spectatorship and empathy. In an interview with Marq Smith, W.J.T. Mitchell speculated that “the most interesting new questions for visual studies . . . will be located at the frontiers of visuality, the places where seeing approaches a limit” (36). I would suggest that medical images are one such frontier: an ethical borderland in which legal definitions of privacy, personhood and human rights compete with the contemporary politics of witnessing, memory and memorialisation; a space of fantasy where fascination and aversion are found in equal measure. The photograph in question (Figure 3) is a pre-operative record of one of Gillies’ patients, who was also draw.Sub-human monstrosities that bear an uncanny likeness to Tonks’ portraits and the case photographs of the same men housed in the Gillies Archives at Queen Mary’s Hospital in Sidcup. Tonks regarded his surgical studies as “rather dreadful subjects for the public view” (n.p.) and complained of “all the more tedious visitors” to the hospital for whom the drawings were one of the “sights” (Hone, 128). In recent years, though, the portraits have found a wider audience. They have been exhibited at the Venice Biennale, Tate Britain, the Science Museum in London, the Hunterian Museum at the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the Wellcome Collection, University College London, and the National Army Museum in Chelsea. In June 2007 the full series was made digitally available on the website of the Gillies Archives,4 and Pat Barker has spoken of them as a source of inspiration for her new novel Toby’s Room.5 The photographs of Gillies’ patients have entered the public domain alongside the drawings. A selection of complete case files from the Gillies Archives can be viewed online as part of the Wellcome-funded Sci-Art collaboration, Project Fa de, and case photographs have featured in several recent exhibitions including Faces of Battle at the National Army Museum and War and Medicine at the Wellcome.6 Even more than the drawings, the photographs question the limits and propriety of spectatorship. At least with the pastels, one is aware — almost physically — of Tonks’ attentiveness, the qualityM E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R EFIGURE 1 Photograph of Henry Tonks in his room at The Queen’s Hospital, Sidcup, 1917.P H OTO G R AP H I E SFIGURE 2 Horace Nicholls, Repairing War’s Ravages: Renovating facial injuries. Captain Derwent Wood painting the plate. Imperial War Museum, Q.30.457. ?IWM.M E D I C A L A R C H I V E S A N D D I G I TA L C U L T U R Eof the artist’s touch and the duration of his gaze. His authority, as an artist and surgeon, licenses our own interest. The photographs appear unmediated by any aesthetic concerns: physically and psychologically naked. When I teach this material (usually to history of art students), I tend not to use the most harrowing images of facial injury and reconstructive surgery. Apart from my own discomfort, I worry how my students will respond: with pity? With disgust? Fascination? Should I name the patient, or protect his anonymity? Would he, or his relatives, want the photograph to be shown in a non-medical context? Is there a happy ending — a redemptive “after surgery” to counterbalance the “before”? These questions might give me pause for thought, but they generally remain unspoken. Here, though, I have chosen one image precisely because it confronts the interested, curious or appalled viewer with the problematic nature of spectatorship and empathy. In an interview with Marq Smith, W.J.T. Mitchell speculated that “the most interesting new questions for visual studies . . . will be located at the frontiers of visuality, the places where seeing approaches a limit” (36). I would suggest that medical images are one such frontier: an ethical borderland in which legal definitions of privacy, personhood and human rights compete with the contemporary politics of witnessing, memory and memorialisation; a space of fantasy where fascination and aversion are found in equal measure. The photograph in question (Figure 3) is a pre-operative record of one of Gillies’ patients, who was also draw.

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on

N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative Velpatasvir supplier studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to L 663536 molecular weight inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.N sub-Saharan AfricaYesSomewhatNo?For mixed-methods studies, is there sufficient emphasis on the qualitative component? Are the study context and objectives clearly described?Study setting adequately described? Rationale for conducting the study stated and justified? Is there evidence of researcher reflexivity????Researcher’s role, potential bias and influence on respondents examined in formulation of questions, data collection and data analysis? Is the recruitment strategy appropriate to the study aims? Researcher explained how study informants were selected? Discussion around recruitment, i.e. why some people chose not to take part? Is the method of data collection clearly described and appropriate for the research question? Data collection method explicitly stated? Saturation of data discussed? Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?????Analytic process described in sufficient detail? If thematic analysis is used, is it clear how themes/categories were derived? Are contradictory data taken into account? Are conclusions supported by sufficient evidence??????Did the data provide sufficient depth, detail and richness? The researcher discussed credibility of their findings (triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)?*Screening question, captured in inclusion criteria.on how informants’ responses or subsequent data analysis may have been influenced by the role of the research team. These observations are not unique to our literature review. As pointed out by Glenton et al. (2013) in a Cochrane qualitative literature review, qualitative articles published in journals tend to provide relatively `thin’ data and are less likely to include a variety of data gathering methods. Glenton and others also reported lack of researcher reflexivity as a common finding when qualitative studies are being appraised. Longitudinal, ethnographic research may be better suited to qualitative studies that examine health interventions (Pawson et al. 2005, Glenton et al. 2013, Dawson et al. 2014), but such research is more time and resource demanding and often too extensive to be published in widely circulated health research journals. Thus, all the studies meeting the original inclusion criteria were included in the subsequent analysis regardless of the quality score assigned. Although some studies were deemed to be of lower methodological quality, the insights from stakeholders they presented nevertheless contributed to the richness of data and were informative for data synthesis. This is one of the approaches commonly adopted in qualitative reviews, especially when there are a limited number of studies available (Pawson et al. 2005, Hannes 2011).Data abstractionFollowing Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis approach was used to compile the data. In following this approach, it is important to note the objective of this review ?to inform the study of task shifting for work being developed in Kenya. Given this aim, we were interested in `key concepts’ (Campbell et al. 2003) that might illuminate the characteristics of effective task-shifting programmes while highlighting the major barriers to implementation. Of course, we also needed to remain true to the texts we examined, all of the noted facets of implementation and the character of the reformed systems studied. In this way, although our aims were pragmatic and directed towards the needs of our future project, we were also aiming to provide as much `thick description’ as possible.

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides

(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been Cycloheximide chemical information widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its XR9576 clinical trials insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.(and the BDFE) of tBu3PhOH.40 The EPR equilibration method provides a high degree of precision and the values are, in general, internally consistent.122 The values obtained agree very well with those from other methods, such as from E?and pKa measurements. For example, the adjusted Pedulli values for BDFE(PhOH) and BDFE(2,6-tBu2PhOH) in C6H6, = 83.8 and 78.3 kcal mol-1 (Table 4), agree very closely with our conversion of Bordwell’s BDFEs in DMSO (from E?and pKa values)116 to C6H6 using the Abraham method, 83.7 and 78.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. 5.2.3 Tyrosine–Redox reactions of the amino acid tyrosine are involved in biological energy transduction, charge transport, oxidative stress, and enzymatic catalysis.123 The 1H+/1e- oxidized form, the tyrosyl radical, has been implicated in a variety of enzymatic systems, including ribonucleotide reductases,109 photosystem II,106 galactose oxidase,124 prostaglandin-H-synthase125 and perhaps cytochrome c oxidase.126 Furthermore, tyrosineNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageoxidation products are thought to play deleterious roles in various disease states, including atherosclerosis and aging.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptThe proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine (TyrOH) and related compounds has been widely reported.128?29130131 In aqueous solutions, the Pourbaix diagram shows a clear 59 mV per pH dependence for the oxidation of tyrosine below pH 10, indicative of a 1e-/ 1H+ redox couple. As for phenol, above pKa(tyrosine) the redox potential does not depend on pH because this is the proton-independent TyrO?TyrO- redox couple. Other, more detailed, discussions of aspects of proton-coupled redox chemistry of tyrosine can be found in other contributions to this issue. As an aside, we encourage biochemical studies of PCET to use a nomenclature that explicitly shows the proton, such as `TyrOH’ for tyrosine, to avoid ambiguity. For instance, the commonly used “Y? for tyrosyl radicals could refer either to neutral radical TyrO?or to the typically high-energy radical cation TyrOH?. 5.2.4 -Tocopherol and Related Phenols—Tocopherol (a main component of Vitamin E) is thought to be a key chain breaking antioxidant in biological systems. Since its discovery in 1922,132 vitamin E has received considerable attention from chemists, biologists, and clinicians, among others.110 Due to its insolubility in water, several small water soluble analogs such as Trolox C ((?-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2carboxylic acid) and HPMC (6-hydroxy-2,2-5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) have been developed (Scheme 8; see references 133 and 134). As shown in Table 4, these three phenols show similar thermochemistry in the same solvent. This is in good agreement with their solution kinetic behavior and indicates that the analogs lacking the greasy phytyl tails are good models for the redox chemistry of tocopherol. The BDFEs of these phenols are much lower than those of other phenols, by more than 10 kcal mol-1 vs. unsubstituted phenol and by 2 kcal mol-1 vs. tBu3PhOH in the same solvent. This relatively weak bond is the origin of the good biological reducing power of vitamin E. The weak bond is a result of the electron-donating substituents, which also reduces the acidity of these phenols. The combination of a weak O bond, low acidity, and a high outer-sphere redox.

N scan or take a photo of the object in their

N scan or take a photo of the object in their workplace, task, or virtual case, and the real object will be integrated in MARE. GP behavior can be tracked and their skill within the knowledge level tested. For example, KS1 involves obtaining microbiological cultures or other relevant tests before starting treatment as necessary. A patient who has bacterial pneumonia or viral pneumonia will be shown to a GP treating in MARE. The GP will either select laboratory tests and interpret results or not. We will know whether the GP achieves KS1 or not. The KC of GPs can also be evaluated in MARE. GPs can write instant messages, comment, and annotate that they understand the rational use of antibiotics. GPs can also categorize, tag, or highlight the information that they think is correct. For example, KC2 is recognizing trade and generic names, and the class of prescribed antimicrobials. GPs can categorize the class of prescribed antimicrobials when using MARE to scan trade or generic names.Competence LevelThe competence level expected of GPs regarding rational use of antibiotics is described in Table 2. Emotions and values not only affect the application of knowledge but are also a foundation for building GP competence according to physicians’ professional competence definitions [34]. When we use MARE to BEZ235 web evaluate GPs’ competence levels, the cases could be conducted in mixed real environments (eg, the real person and the symptom described coexist on the GP’s mobile phone in his or her workplace). The procedure for forecasting, executing, or replying can be uploaded to evaluate the GP’s CC and CS. For example, CC4 is constructing a prescription for an antimicrobial with its pharmacokinetics and knowing how this affects the choice of dosage regimen. The case condition will change when different antimicrobials are used with their pharmacokinetics. The result for the forecasting of antibiotics by the GP and the dosage regimen will be evaluated.Application of Mobile Augmented Reality Education to a Health Care ChallengeIn recent years, one of the global health threats has been the spread of antibiotic resistance. Encouraging rational antibiotic use is of paramount concern to authorities worldwide in order to minimize the development of resistance [50]. Multifaceted national and international strategies have been recommended [51]. Education is an important strategy for the rational use of antibiotics. We used the MARE framework to design GP training for the rational use of antibiotics. Implementing the MARE framework involves several steps: (1) defining the educational outcomes (based on the outcome layer), (2) defining the GP’s personal paradigm, (3) characterizing the learning environment, and (4) designing the learning activities.Performance LevelThe performance level expected of GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics is shown in Table 3. To aid GPs in assessing their workplace performance using the MARE framework, we should build a network for physicians in which they can share their work experiences; then the GPs can review, question, and validate their work performances with each other. Further, the GPs can negotiate, debate, and comment on real cases, and their performance in LLY-507 web skills, such as PC and PS, can be tracked and estimated. For example, PS2 is mastering when to use a delayed antimicrobial prescription and how to negotiate this with the patient. One way is to evaluate the GP’s response with the patient case shared on MARE with othe.N scan or take a photo of the object in their workplace, task, or virtual case, and the real object will be integrated in MARE. GP behavior can be tracked and their skill within the knowledge level tested. For example, KS1 involves obtaining microbiological cultures or other relevant tests before starting treatment as necessary. A patient who has bacterial pneumonia or viral pneumonia will be shown to a GP treating in MARE. The GP will either select laboratory tests and interpret results or not. We will know whether the GP achieves KS1 or not. The KC of GPs can also be evaluated in MARE. GPs can write instant messages, comment, and annotate that they understand the rational use of antibiotics. GPs can also categorize, tag, or highlight the information that they think is correct. For example, KC2 is recognizing trade and generic names, and the class of prescribed antimicrobials. GPs can categorize the class of prescribed antimicrobials when using MARE to scan trade or generic names.Competence LevelThe competence level expected of GPs regarding rational use of antibiotics is described in Table 2. Emotions and values not only affect the application of knowledge but are also a foundation for building GP competence according to physicians’ professional competence definitions [34]. When we use MARE to evaluate GPs’ competence levels, the cases could be conducted in mixed real environments (eg, the real person and the symptom described coexist on the GP’s mobile phone in his or her workplace). The procedure for forecasting, executing, or replying can be uploaded to evaluate the GP’s CC and CS. For example, CC4 is constructing a prescription for an antimicrobial with its pharmacokinetics and knowing how this affects the choice of dosage regimen. The case condition will change when different antimicrobials are used with their pharmacokinetics. The result for the forecasting of antibiotics by the GP and the dosage regimen will be evaluated.Application of Mobile Augmented Reality Education to a Health Care ChallengeIn recent years, one of the global health threats has been the spread of antibiotic resistance. Encouraging rational antibiotic use is of paramount concern to authorities worldwide in order to minimize the development of resistance [50]. Multifaceted national and international strategies have been recommended [51]. Education is an important strategy for the rational use of antibiotics. We used the MARE framework to design GP training for the rational use of antibiotics. Implementing the MARE framework involves several steps: (1) defining the educational outcomes (based on the outcome layer), (2) defining the GP’s personal paradigm, (3) characterizing the learning environment, and (4) designing the learning activities.Performance LevelThe performance level expected of GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics is shown in Table 3. To aid GPs in assessing their workplace performance using the MARE framework, we should build a network for physicians in which they can share their work experiences; then the GPs can review, question, and validate their work performances with each other. Further, the GPs can negotiate, debate, and comment on real cases, and their performance in skills, such as PC and PS, can be tracked and estimated. For example, PS2 is mastering when to use a delayed antimicrobial prescription and how to negotiate this with the patient. One way is to evaluate the GP’s response with the patient case shared on MARE with othe.

43.6?0.9 68.8?4.9 24.7?5.2 61.2?7.1 6.9?1.0 24.8?5.3 0.16?.Flanking SNPs of SNPs OAR2_88062818.1 35257.1 s26286.1 AR3_165050963.1 s59995.1 AR5_53435489.1 OAR6_6402059.1?OAR

43.6?0.9 68.8?4.9 24.7?5.2 61.2?7.1 6.9?1.0 24.8?5.3 0.16?.Flanking SNPs of SNPs OAR2_88062818.1 35257.1 s26286.1 AR3_165050963.1 s59995.1 AR5_53435489.1 OAR6_6402059.1?OAR6_55087517_X.1 OAR6_57796972.1 AR6_58069886.1 OAR6_70844973.1 AR6_81183719.1 OAR6_127397796.1 33220.1 OAR10_29159858.1 AR10_29381795.1 s39429.1 AR13_55448085.1 OAR13_74074760.1 AR13_80614774_X.1 s59907.1 AR16_27501072.1 s25636.1 73670.1 OAR24_8063846.1 18520.1 OAR25_25923466.1 AR25_48288071_X.1 OAR26_222715_X.1 54858.Number 97 68 48 860 7 180 58 7 104 97 13 34 44 353Raw P-value 0.034 0.029 0.007 0.000 0.049 0.016 0.026 0.044 0.006 0.025 0.043 0.039 0.042 0.008 0.q-value 0.574 0.545 0.213 0.000 0.604 0.389 0.52 0.598 0.192 0.524 0.598 0.591 0.598 0.249 0.Guti rez-Gil et al.8 83.1?5.3 Mb 153.4?54.5 Mb ?39.3?9.5 Mb ?69.9?0.5 Mb ??48.9?2.0 Mb ??????Fariello et al.7 81.2?7.3 Mb 151.4?56.9 Mb 47.3?9.3 Mb 35.9?8.3 Mb ?67.9?0.3 Mb ?29.4?9.7 Mb 43.3?1.2 ??????10 13 16 17 24 25Table 2. Putative selective sweeps identified in the hapFLK-based analysis. Those sweeps consistently found with BayeScan are shown in bold. In the two columns at the right part of the table, we show evidence of positional concordance with previously reported selective sweeps7,8. CHR = chromosome. (Table 2, Fig. 4), positional coincidences were identified on Oar3 (150?54 Mb), Oar6 (4.3?9.9 Mb), and Oar13 (68.8?4.9 Mb). Next, we will examine more thoroughly a set of physiological and positional candidate genes whose patterns of variation could have been potentially modified by selection. Selective sweep on Oar3. The Oar3 (150?54 Mb) region co-localizes with a pleiotropic bovine quantitative trait locus (QTL) for birth weight, calving ease direct, marbling and ribeye 4-Hydroxytamoxifen web muscle area20 as well as with a second bovine QTL for fat yield21. There are several genes that may explain the existence of a selective sweep in this genomic region. The high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2, 153.7 Mb) gene is particularly relevant becauseScientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/Figure 4. A detailed view of the putative selective sweeps on Oar3, Oar6 and Oar13 detected with the HapFLK statistic and confirmed with BayeScan. The red and blue lines indicate the thresholds of significance set at 0.05 before (nominal P-value) and after (q-value) correction for multiple testing, respectively. Genomic coordinates and statistical significance (-log10 Decumbin site P-values) are plotted in the x- and y-axis, respectively. The approximate location of the candidate genes discussed in the current work is indicated (in Mb).polymorphism at this transcriptional regulator has been associated with height in humans and body size in horses and dogs20. Moreover, the inactivation of HMGA2 in mouse leads to the pygmy phenotype, characterized by a substantial decrease in body size and adiposity and defective spermatogenesis22,23. Another gene of interest is the WNT Inhibitory Factor 1 (WIF1, 154.5 Mb) locus, that encodes a molecule inhibiting extracellular WNT signaling, and that has been identified as positively selected in domestic cattle24. Interestingly, the WNT effector pathway is essential for the initiation of embryonic mammary organogenesis and the maintenance of stem cells, and it may also regulate post-natal ductal and alveolar development25. Finally, it is worth to mention the methionine sulfoxide reductase B3 (MSRB3, 154.2 Mb) and the LEM domain containing 3 (LEMD3, 154.4 Mb) loci, that are involved in cell grow.43.6?0.9 68.8?4.9 24.7?5.2 61.2?7.1 6.9?1.0 24.8?5.3 0.16?.Flanking SNPs of SNPs OAR2_88062818.1 35257.1 s26286.1 AR3_165050963.1 s59995.1 AR5_53435489.1 OAR6_6402059.1?OAR6_55087517_X.1 OAR6_57796972.1 AR6_58069886.1 OAR6_70844973.1 AR6_81183719.1 OAR6_127397796.1 33220.1 OAR10_29159858.1 AR10_29381795.1 s39429.1 AR13_55448085.1 OAR13_74074760.1 AR13_80614774_X.1 s59907.1 AR16_27501072.1 s25636.1 73670.1 OAR24_8063846.1 18520.1 OAR25_25923466.1 AR25_48288071_X.1 OAR26_222715_X.1 54858.Number 97 68 48 860 7 180 58 7 104 97 13 34 44 353Raw P-value 0.034 0.029 0.007 0.000 0.049 0.016 0.026 0.044 0.006 0.025 0.043 0.039 0.042 0.008 0.q-value 0.574 0.545 0.213 0.000 0.604 0.389 0.52 0.598 0.192 0.524 0.598 0.591 0.598 0.249 0.Guti rez-Gil et al.8 83.1?5.3 Mb 153.4?54.5 Mb ?39.3?9.5 Mb ?69.9?0.5 Mb ??48.9?2.0 Mb ??????Fariello et al.7 81.2?7.3 Mb 151.4?56.9 Mb 47.3?9.3 Mb 35.9?8.3 Mb ?67.9?0.3 Mb ?29.4?9.7 Mb 43.3?1.2 ??????10 13 16 17 24 25Table 2. Putative selective sweeps identified in the hapFLK-based analysis. Those sweeps consistently found with BayeScan are shown in bold. In the two columns at the right part of the table, we show evidence of positional concordance with previously reported selective sweeps7,8. CHR = chromosome. (Table 2, Fig. 4), positional coincidences were identified on Oar3 (150?54 Mb), Oar6 (4.3?9.9 Mb), and Oar13 (68.8?4.9 Mb). Next, we will examine more thoroughly a set of physiological and positional candidate genes whose patterns of variation could have been potentially modified by selection. Selective sweep on Oar3. The Oar3 (150?54 Mb) region co-localizes with a pleiotropic bovine quantitative trait locus (QTL) for birth weight, calving ease direct, marbling and ribeye muscle area20 as well as with a second bovine QTL for fat yield21. There are several genes that may explain the existence of a selective sweep in this genomic region. The high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2, 153.7 Mb) gene is particularly relevant becauseScientific RepoRts | 6:27296 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/Figure 4. A detailed view of the putative selective sweeps on Oar3, Oar6 and Oar13 detected with the HapFLK statistic and confirmed with BayeScan. The red and blue lines indicate the thresholds of significance set at 0.05 before (nominal P-value) and after (q-value) correction for multiple testing, respectively. Genomic coordinates and statistical significance (-log10 P-values) are plotted in the x- and y-axis, respectively. The approximate location of the candidate genes discussed in the current work is indicated (in Mb).polymorphism at this transcriptional regulator has been associated with height in humans and body size in horses and dogs20. Moreover, the inactivation of HMGA2 in mouse leads to the pygmy phenotype, characterized by a substantial decrease in body size and adiposity and defective spermatogenesis22,23. Another gene of interest is the WNT Inhibitory Factor 1 (WIF1, 154.5 Mb) locus, that encodes a molecule inhibiting extracellular WNT signaling, and that has been identified as positively selected in domestic cattle24. Interestingly, the WNT effector pathway is essential for the initiation of embryonic mammary organogenesis and the maintenance of stem cells, and it may also regulate post-natal ductal and alveolar development25. Finally, it is worth to mention the methionine sulfoxide reductase B3 (MSRB3, 154.2 Mb) and the LEM domain containing 3 (LEMD3, 154.4 Mb) loci, that are involved in cell grow.

T, or have not been until very recently (for a reassessment

T, or have not been until very recently (for a reassessment, see Lanchester). Jordanova mentions the “huge impact of photography in making widely available a disturbing literalism”: literalism being one of the attributes most often associated with “dangerous” images (101). Game designers are equally invested in the production of reality effects through computer graphics and sound. In the case explored here, the use of medical records as source material was intended to enhance the game’s realism, and hence its potential to frighten (or “unsettle” to use the term preferred by contemporary critics). But there is another SB 203580 msds reason to begin an article on medical archives and digital culture with a discussion of artists and anatomists. One of the achievements of The Quick and the Dead was to dislodge the idea of historical context as something singular (as in “it must be seen in context”) and to suggest, instead, the multiplicity of contexts and audiences. “For each image”, Jordanova reminds us, “there are innumerable contexts, since they are constantly being transplanted and transformed, re-viewed by each generation” (112).Photographies Vol. 5, No. 2, September 2012, pp. 179?02 ISSN 1754-0763 print/ISSN 1754-0771 online ?2012 Taylor Francis http://www.tandfonline.com http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17540763.2012.P H OTO G R AP H I E SRather dreadful subjects for the public viewOver the last few years my research has focused on medical images from the First World War. Some of the most intriguing examples are those in which art and medicine converge, as in Henry Tonks’ delicate pastel portraits of British servicemen with severe facial injuries and the equally exquisite — and unsettling — prosthetic masks made by the sculptor Francis Derwent Wood for some of these patients to conceal their disfigurement when surgical reconstruction was impossible (Figures 1 and 2; Biernoff “Flesh Poems” and “Rhetoric”). In both of these examples, art could be said to ameliorate the horrors of war, and to humanise men who had suffered what were considered at the time to be the most dehumanising of injuries. They are, to use Jordanova’s expression, examples of the happy marriage of art and medical science: collaborations defined by mutual regard and a common goal. In both cases, however, the sources that have survived contain assumptions about how, where and by whom the injured body may be seen — assumptions that have changed over time. This article considers the afterlives of some of these sources. When we encounter medical images in a museum or art gallery, or on a website like Morbid Anatomy, what kind of cultural and imaginative work do they perform?1 Are there ethical considerations raised by their redeployment or appropriation within the contexts of art and entertainment, education and academic research? I started thinking about these questions when I discovered that case photographs from First World War medical archives had been used in BioShock, a computer game designed by Ken RWJ 64809MedChemExpress RWJ 64809 Levine and released in August 2007. It won the BAFTA for Best Game that year, among a constellation of other awards, and is ranked in the top five Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 games to date.2 Over 4 million copies of the game have been sold, BioShock II was released in February 2010, and Universal Studios has plans for a film.3 Without giving the plot away, this is a spectacularly gory game, and some of the most memorable encounters are with genetic mutants known as splicers. It is these.T, or have not been until very recently (for a reassessment, see Lanchester). Jordanova mentions the “huge impact of photography in making widely available a disturbing literalism”: literalism being one of the attributes most often associated with “dangerous” images (101). Game designers are equally invested in the production of reality effects through computer graphics and sound. In the case explored here, the use of me