Development every other day.Magnetic resonance imagingAll MRI measurements were performed

Development every other day.Magnetic resonance AKT inhibitor 2 imagingAll MRI measurements were performed on a clinical wholebody 3T MRI scanner (InteraH, Philips, Netherlands) using a dedicated small animal solenoid coil (PFL-HH, Hamburg, Germany). Mice were anaesthetised as previously describedCXCR4 in HER2-Positive Esophageal Cancer[25,37]. The MRI was equipped with a standard gradient system with a max. amplitude of 40 mTm21 and a slew rate of 150 Tm21 s21. After a short survey, coronal T1 and T2 as well as sagittal T2 eighted sequences were used for tumor visualization. First, coronal T1 and T2 turbo spin echo sequences (TSE) were conducted. Imaging parameters for coronal sequences: T1 weighted TSE:repetition time (TR) = 1275 msec, echo time (TE) = 33 msec, flip angle = 90u, number of slices = 14, slice thickness = 1 mm, matrix = 4646480 px, FOV = 100 mm, number of excitations (NEX) = 3, reconstructed voxel = 0.21/0.21/ 1 mm3, echo train length (ETL) = 4; coronal T2 eighted TSE with fat saturation: TR = shortest; TE = 90 msec, flip angle = 90u, number of slices = 20, slice thickness = 1 mm, matrix = 4486448 px, FOV = 100 mm, number of excitations = 3 and reconstructed voxel = 0.22/0.22/1 mm3. Thereafter, a sagittal T2 TSE sequence using fat saturation was acquired according to the following parameters: TR = shortest; TE = 90 msec, flip angle = 90, number of slices = 22, slice thickness = 1 mm, matrix = 4486448 px, FOV = 100 mm, NEX = 3 and reconstructed voxel = 0.22/0.22/1 mm3. Examination time was ,17 min.cutpoint) was tested. The tumor samples were then classified as having either absent to low staining (CXCR4-negative) if 20 or fewer tumor cells expressed CXCR4, or moderate to strong staining (CXCR4-positive) if more than 20 of tumor cells expressed CXCR4. Immunohistochemical analysis and scoring were performed by two independent investigators (U.R.,S.G.). Statistical analysis was performed on a standard personal computer using SPSS for Windows (version 11.5.1; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Correlations were calculated with cross-tables and statistical significance was determined by Fisher’s test with a pvalue from two-sided tests of ,.05.Statistical data analysisStatistical data analysis of in vivo data was performed using PASW Statistics 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA) on a standard personal computer with a quadcore processor. For determination of significance concerning differences in tumor growth and receptor expression, the non-parametric Mann hitney-Wilcoxon-Test was used. Fisher’s-Exact-Test for Count-Data was used for determination of significance of metastases. For correlation of MRI tumor volume and tumor weight the Pearsoncoefficient and for correlation of HER2- and 1113-59-3 web CXCR4-expression the Spearman’s-rank-correlation-coefficient was used.Image analysis and volumetric measurementDICOM images were processed using the free available software OsirixH. The largest tumour diameter was measured in the sequences which best visualized the tumour. Measurements were performed separately by two researchers for each mouse before and after therapy. Furthermore, the tumour volume was obtained by manual circling of the tumour rim on each slice, followed by the automatic construction of a 3D tumour map.ResultsThe aim of this study was investigate a possible interaction of the HER2- and CXCR4-receptors and their expression levels under treatment with their respective inhibitors in order to determine an impact of CXCR4-expression in HER2-positive esophageal ca.Development every other day.Magnetic resonance imagingAll MRI measurements were performed on a clinical wholebody 3T MRI scanner (InteraH, Philips, Netherlands) using a dedicated small animal solenoid coil (PFL-HH, Hamburg, Germany). Mice were anaesthetised as previously describedCXCR4 in HER2-Positive Esophageal Cancer[25,37]. The MRI was equipped with a standard gradient system with a max. amplitude of 40 mTm21 and a slew rate of 150 Tm21 s21. After a short survey, coronal T1 and T2 as well as sagittal T2 eighted sequences were used for tumor visualization. First, coronal T1 and T2 turbo spin echo sequences (TSE) were conducted. Imaging parameters for coronal sequences: T1 weighted TSE:repetition time (TR) = 1275 msec, echo time (TE) = 33 msec, flip angle = 90u, number of slices = 14, slice thickness = 1 mm, matrix = 4646480 px, FOV = 100 mm, number of excitations (NEX) = 3, reconstructed voxel = 0.21/0.21/ 1 mm3, echo train length (ETL) = 4; coronal T2 eighted TSE with fat saturation: TR = shortest; TE = 90 msec, flip angle = 90u, number of slices = 20, slice thickness = 1 mm, matrix = 4486448 px, FOV = 100 mm, number of excitations = 3 and reconstructed voxel = 0.22/0.22/1 mm3. Thereafter, a sagittal T2 TSE sequence using fat saturation was acquired according to the following parameters: TR = shortest; TE = 90 msec, flip angle = 90, number of slices = 22, slice thickness = 1 mm, matrix = 4486448 px, FOV = 100 mm, NEX = 3 and reconstructed voxel = 0.22/0.22/1 mm3. Examination time was ,17 min.cutpoint) was tested. The tumor samples were then classified as having either absent to low staining (CXCR4-negative) if 20 or fewer tumor cells expressed CXCR4, or moderate to strong staining (CXCR4-positive) if more than 20 of tumor cells expressed CXCR4. Immunohistochemical analysis and scoring were performed by two independent investigators (U.R.,S.G.). Statistical analysis was performed on a standard personal computer using SPSS for Windows (version 11.5.1; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Correlations were calculated with cross-tables and statistical significance was determined by Fisher’s test with a pvalue from two-sided tests of ,.05.Statistical data analysisStatistical data analysis of in vivo data was performed using PASW Statistics 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA) on a standard personal computer with a quadcore processor. For determination of significance concerning differences in tumor growth and receptor expression, the non-parametric Mann hitney-Wilcoxon-Test was used. Fisher’s-Exact-Test for Count-Data was used for determination of significance of metastases. For correlation of MRI tumor volume and tumor weight the Pearsoncoefficient and for correlation of HER2- and CXCR4-expression the Spearman’s-rank-correlation-coefficient was used.Image analysis and volumetric measurementDICOM images were processed using the free available software OsirixH. The largest tumour diameter was measured in the sequences which best visualized the tumour. Measurements were performed separately by two researchers for each mouse before and after therapy. Furthermore, the tumour volume was obtained by manual circling of the tumour rim on each slice, followed by the automatic construction of a 3D tumour map.ResultsThe aim of this study was investigate a possible interaction of the HER2- and CXCR4-receptors and their expression levels under treatment with their respective inhibitors in order to determine an impact of CXCR4-expression in HER2-positive esophageal ca.

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