C mechanisms between the core pathophysiology of PD and the depressive

C mechanisms between the core pathophysiology of PD and the depressive symptoms in PD patients. “The inflammatory hypothesis” is based on the notion that inflammatory mechanisms might be involved in the pathophysiology of PD [9] as well as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) [10]. PD patients show signs of peripheral and central inflammation, including elevated cytokines in serum [11] and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [12], as well as Oltipraz cost activated microglia [13]. Peripheral blood monocytes isolated from PD patients 1676428 produce larger amounts of several cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), than healthy controls – indicating that the elevated serum levels of cytokines are symptoms of immunological dysregulation, rather than just secondary to the dopaminergic cell INCB-039110 site degeneration [14]. Some of these signs are also demonstrable in depressed, non-PD patients. For example, several studies report elevated cytokinesNon-Motor Symptoms and Serum Cytokines in PDsuch 15481974 as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TNF-a as well as soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) in serum [15] of MDD patients compared with controls. Interestingly, Palhagen and colleagues ?reported a neurobiological distinction between patients with PD and MDD and patients with solely MDD, in that the latter group displayed higher levels of corticosterone and IL-6 in CSF [16]. In a recent review by Barnum Tansey, it was suggested that inflammation might contribute to the development of non-motor PD symptoms [17]. Only a few clinical studies have, however, investigated potential associations between such symptoms and peripheral cytokines. Menza et al. showed that TNF-a in serum is correlated with several non-motor symptoms, including cognition and depressive symptoms [18], and Scalzo et al showed that IL-6 correlated with scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in PD patients without dementia [11]. As studies on inflammatory markers and non-motor aspects of PD are scarce, we wanted to further explore this area. In this study we measured four pro-inflammatory substances in the blood of 86 PD-patients and 40 controls, evaluated for non-motor symptoms such as fatigue, depression, anxiety, and sleeping difficulties. We wanted to compare the groups for cytokine levels and symptoms severity, and finally investigate correlations between cytokines and non-motor symptoms. We report significant differences in IL-6 levels and severity of non-motor symptoms between PD patients and controls. Symptoms of fatigue, depression, and anxiety were associated with cytokines in serum.and 36 controls, and complete SCOPA-S scores from 84 patients and 39 controls.Blood Sampling and Biological AssaysIn the morning and immediately after the clinical evaluations, serum samples were drawn into 5 ml test tubes and analyzed immediately at the Department of Clinical Immunology at the Skane University Hospital in Lund. Chemiluminescent assays ?(Immulite 1000 Siemens) were used for all analyses. Inter-assay variation is consistently less than 10 and this assay is quality optimized for routine clinical serum cytokine analysis at Lund University Hospital. Monoclonal antibodies specific for the immunological biomarker tested were coated on a solid phase (polystyren beads). Serum samples were incubated with the solid phase antibody for 30 minutes, and thereafter a polyclonal antiantibody, labeled with alkaline phosphatase, was added and the samples were incubated for another 30 minutes. Unbound conjugate was washed.C mechanisms between the core pathophysiology of PD and the depressive symptoms in PD patients. “The inflammatory hypothesis” is based on the notion that inflammatory mechanisms might be involved in the pathophysiology of PD [9] as well as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) [10]. PD patients show signs of peripheral and central inflammation, including elevated cytokines in serum [11] and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [12], as well as activated microglia [13]. Peripheral blood monocytes isolated from PD patients 1676428 produce larger amounts of several cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), than healthy controls – indicating that the elevated serum levels of cytokines are symptoms of immunological dysregulation, rather than just secondary to the dopaminergic cell degeneration [14]. Some of these signs are also demonstrable in depressed, non-PD patients. For example, several studies report elevated cytokinesNon-Motor Symptoms and Serum Cytokines in PDsuch 15481974 as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TNF-a as well as soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) in serum [15] of MDD patients compared with controls. Interestingly, Palhagen and colleagues ?reported a neurobiological distinction between patients with PD and MDD and patients with solely MDD, in that the latter group displayed higher levels of corticosterone and IL-6 in CSF [16]. In a recent review by Barnum Tansey, it was suggested that inflammation might contribute to the development of non-motor PD symptoms [17]. Only a few clinical studies have, however, investigated potential associations between such symptoms and peripheral cytokines. Menza et al. showed that TNF-a in serum is correlated with several non-motor symptoms, including cognition and depressive symptoms [18], and Scalzo et al showed that IL-6 correlated with scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in PD patients without dementia [11]. As studies on inflammatory markers and non-motor aspects of PD are scarce, we wanted to further explore this area. In this study we measured four pro-inflammatory substances in the blood of 86 PD-patients and 40 controls, evaluated for non-motor symptoms such as fatigue, depression, anxiety, and sleeping difficulties. We wanted to compare the groups for cytokine levels and symptoms severity, and finally investigate correlations between cytokines and non-motor symptoms. We report significant differences in IL-6 levels and severity of non-motor symptoms between PD patients and controls. Symptoms of fatigue, depression, and anxiety were associated with cytokines in serum.and 36 controls, and complete SCOPA-S scores from 84 patients and 39 controls.Blood Sampling and Biological AssaysIn the morning and immediately after the clinical evaluations, serum samples were drawn into 5 ml test tubes and analyzed immediately at the Department of Clinical Immunology at the Skane University Hospital in Lund. Chemiluminescent assays ?(Immulite 1000 Siemens) were used for all analyses. Inter-assay variation is consistently less than 10 and this assay is quality optimized for routine clinical serum cytokine analysis at Lund University Hospital. Monoclonal antibodies specific for the immunological biomarker tested were coated on a solid phase (polystyren beads). Serum samples were incubated with the solid phase antibody for 30 minutes, and thereafter a polyclonal antiantibody, labeled with alkaline phosphatase, was added and the samples were incubated for another 30 minutes. Unbound conjugate was washed.

Leave a Reply