Of function mutations in nexilin have been causally linked to the

Of function mutations in nexilin have been causally linked to the pathogenesis of familial dilated (DCM) and hypertrophic (HCM) cardiomyopathies [23,25]. Accordingly, inactivation of nexilin in zebrafish leads to the rupture of cardiac sarcomeres and heart failure, pointing to an essential role for nexilin in the maintenance of sarcomeric integrity [23]. Interestingly, the PI3K/AKT network has also been identified as a critical hub that controls Z-disc stability and contributes to the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy [26?8]. Peptide M Persistent activation of PI3K/AKT axis elaborated by chronic hyperinsulinemia or transgenic expression of constitutively active AKT results in excessive cardiac growth leading ultimately to heart failure [27,28]. In this study we provide evidence for a novel role for nexilin as a component of the insulin signalling network in skeletal muscle cells where it influences the assembly of IRS1/ PI3K complexes and activation of AKT leading to glucose uptake.respectively in serum-depleted medium for the final 20 minutes of starvation. Jasplakinolide (Jaspk) pretreatments were performed by diluting the drug to a final concentration of 2 mM in serumdepleted medium for the final 30 minutes of serum starvation. Insulin was added to serum-starved cells at the desired concentration and indicated length of time.Immunofluorescence microscopyL6 myotubes in chamber slides were fixed with 3.7 formaldehyde in PBS for 10 min and permeabilized with 0.2 Triton X-100 in PBS for 15 min. Cells were then rinsed three times with PBS and blocked with normal goat serum diluted 1:20 or with 5 BSA/PBS for 30 minutes. Cells were stained with primary antibodies or rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin for 30 min. Primary antibody detection was performed with FITCconjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG, Cy3-conjugated donkey antimouse or Cy5-conjugated donkey anti-rabbit. In controls, primary antibody was omitted. Samples were examined using a Zeiss Axiophot microscope (Zeiss Inc.).Glucose 22948146 uptakesiRNA-transfected L6 myotubes were serum-starved for 4 hrs and subsequently treated with or without insulin for 20 min. Cells were washed twice with HEPES-buffered saline solution (140 mM NaCl, 20 mM HEPES, 2.5 mM MgSO4, 1 mM CaCl2, 5 mM KCl, pH 7.4) and glucose uptake was assayed by adding HEPESbuffered saline solution containing 10 mM 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose and 0.5 mCi/mL 2-deoxy-D-[3H]) for 5 min. Glucose uptake was terminated by washing three times with ice-cold 0.9 NaCl (w/v). Cytochalasin B (10 mM) was included in one or two wells during glucose stimulation to determine non-specific uptake. Intracellular [3H]-Glucose was determined by lysing the cells with 0.1 N KOH, followed by liquid scintillation counting. Total cellular protein was determined by the Bradford method. For glucose uptake in 3T3L1 adipoyctes, cells were transduced with Ad-GFP or Ad-Nex adenoviruses and 72 hours post infection, cells were starved for 3 hrs and stimulated with 10 nmol/L insulin for 30 minutes at 37uC. Data are expressed as mean 6 SEM, assessed statistically by one-way ANOVA.Materials and Methods MaterialsParental L6 myoblast cells were a kind gift from Amira Klip (Toronto, Canada) [22]. Actin antibodies, Latrunculin B, dexamethasone and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine were MedChemExpress Calyculin A purchased from Sigma Aldrich. Jasplakinolide was purchased from Calbiochem. IRS1-preCT, IRS2, 4G10 and p85 antibodies were obtained from Upstate Millipore. AKT, S473pAKT and T308 pAKT antibodies were purch.Of function mutations in nexilin have been causally linked to the pathogenesis of familial dilated (DCM) and hypertrophic (HCM) cardiomyopathies [23,25]. Accordingly, inactivation of nexilin in zebrafish leads to the rupture of cardiac sarcomeres and heart failure, pointing to an essential role for nexilin in the maintenance of sarcomeric integrity [23]. Interestingly, the PI3K/AKT network has also been identified as a critical hub that controls Z-disc stability and contributes to the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy [26?8]. Persistent activation of PI3K/AKT axis elaborated by chronic hyperinsulinemia or transgenic expression of constitutively active AKT results in excessive cardiac growth leading ultimately to heart failure [27,28]. In this study we provide evidence for a novel role for nexilin as a component of the insulin signalling network in skeletal muscle cells where it influences the assembly of IRS1/ PI3K complexes and activation of AKT leading to glucose uptake.respectively in serum-depleted medium for the final 20 minutes of starvation. Jasplakinolide (Jaspk) pretreatments were performed by diluting the drug to a final concentration of 2 mM in serumdepleted medium for the final 30 minutes of serum starvation. Insulin was added to serum-starved cells at the desired concentration and indicated length of time.Immunofluorescence microscopyL6 myotubes in chamber slides were fixed with 3.7 formaldehyde in PBS for 10 min and permeabilized with 0.2 Triton X-100 in PBS for 15 min. Cells were then rinsed three times with PBS and blocked with normal goat serum diluted 1:20 or with 5 BSA/PBS for 30 minutes. Cells were stained with primary antibodies or rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin for 30 min. Primary antibody detection was performed with FITCconjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG, Cy3-conjugated donkey antimouse or Cy5-conjugated donkey anti-rabbit. In controls, primary antibody was omitted. Samples were examined using a Zeiss Axiophot microscope (Zeiss Inc.).Glucose 22948146 uptakesiRNA-transfected L6 myotubes were serum-starved for 4 hrs and subsequently treated with or without insulin for 20 min. Cells were washed twice with HEPES-buffered saline solution (140 mM NaCl, 20 mM HEPES, 2.5 mM MgSO4, 1 mM CaCl2, 5 mM KCl, pH 7.4) and glucose uptake was assayed by adding HEPESbuffered saline solution containing 10 mM 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose and 0.5 mCi/mL 2-deoxy-D-[3H]) for 5 min. Glucose uptake was terminated by washing three times with ice-cold 0.9 NaCl (w/v). Cytochalasin B (10 mM) was included in one or two wells during glucose stimulation to determine non-specific uptake. Intracellular [3H]-Glucose was determined by lysing the cells with 0.1 N KOH, followed by liquid scintillation counting. Total cellular protein was determined by the Bradford method. For glucose uptake in 3T3L1 adipoyctes, cells were transduced with Ad-GFP or Ad-Nex adenoviruses and 72 hours post infection, cells were starved for 3 hrs and stimulated with 10 nmol/L insulin for 30 minutes at 37uC. Data are expressed as mean 6 SEM, assessed statistically by one-way ANOVA.Materials and Methods MaterialsParental L6 myoblast cells were a kind gift from Amira Klip (Toronto, Canada) [22]. Actin antibodies, Latrunculin B, dexamethasone and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine were purchased from Sigma Aldrich. Jasplakinolide was purchased from Calbiochem. IRS1-preCT, IRS2, 4G10 and p85 antibodies were obtained from Upstate Millipore. AKT, S473pAKT and T308 pAKT antibodies were purch.

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